Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis: mechanisms, clinical relevance and treatment options
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system characterized by focal or diffuse inflammation, demyelination, axonal loss and neurodegeneration. Brain atrophy can be seen in the earliest stages of MS, progresses faster compared to healthy adults, and is a reliable predictor of future physical and  cognitive disability. In addition, it is widely accepted to be a valid, sensitive and reproducible measure of neurodegeneration in MS. Reducing the rate of brain atrophy has only recently been incorporated as a critical endpoint into the clinical trials of new or em...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - August 10, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The clinical significance of atypical indirect immunofluorescence patterns on primate cerebellum in paraneoplastic antibody screening
ConclusionsAn atypical indirect immunofluorescence pattern on primate cerebellum in the screening for paraneoplastic antibodies has only very minor relevance with respect to paraneoplastic neurological syndromes or any other neurological disease, recommending clinicians to interpret the results of positive screening assays for such antibodies with care. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - July 25, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A new M23-based ELISA assay for anti-aquaporin 4 autoantibodies: diagnostic accuracy and clinical correlation
AbstractPurposeAlthough many assays have been developed to detect anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, most of these assays require sophisticated techniques and are thus only available at specialized laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of a new commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA RSR, AQP4 Ab Version 2) to detect anti-AQP4 antibodies performed on a fully automated system (SkyLAB 752).MethodsSerum samples from 64 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) (including NMO, longitudinally extensive myelitis-LETM, optical neuritis and myel...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - June 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio in ulcerative colitis as non-invasive biomarkers of disease activity and severity
AbstractBackgroundApart from endoscopic interventions, readily attainable cost-effective biomarkers for ulcerative colitis (UC) assessment are required. For this purpose, we evaluated differential leucocytic ratio, mainly neutrophil –lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) as simple available indicators of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis.MethodsStudy conducted on 80 UC patients who were classified into two groups of 40 each according to Mayo score and colonoscopic findings. Group 1 (active UC) and group 2 (inactive UC). Another 40 group-matched healthy participants were enrolle...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - May 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti- β2-glycoprotein I and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies exert similar pro-thrombotic effects in peripheral blood monocytes and endothelial cells
ConclusionsOur data support the significant and independent role of aPS/PT in the pathogenesis of the thrombotic events in APS patients, possibly adding new light to the therapeutic management of cases characterized by the sole presence of aPS/PT IgG antibodies. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - April 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Association of HLA-B27 and Behcet ’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThere is a significant correlation between HLA-B27 and Behcet ’s Disease, but it was weak. Environmental and genetic factors might determine which the “HLA-B27” alleles manifest Behcet’s disease progression. Future researches is required to perform about what factors can do to positively and separately influence Behcet’s disease. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - March 19, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective effect of TSLP and IL-33 cytokines in ulcerative colitis
ConclusionsIn this study, we showed decreased mRNA expression levels of TSLP and IL-33 in UC patients and also a negative correlation between expression of TSLP and IL-33 and severity of UC disease. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - March 14, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Regulatory B and T lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis: friends or foes?
AbstractCurrent clinical experience with immunomodulatory agents and monoclonal antibodies in principle has established the benefit of depleting lymphocytic populations in relapsing –remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). B and T cells may exert multiple pro-inflammatory actions, but also possess regulatory functions making their role in RRMS pathogenesis much more complex. There is no clear correlation of Tregs and Bregs with clinical features of the disease. Herein, we discus s the emerging data on regulatory T and B cell subset distributions in MS and their roles in the pathophysiology of MS and its murine model, ex...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - November 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Performance analysis of automated evaluation of antinuclear antibody indirect immunofluorescent tests in a routine setting
ConclusionsThe ANA IIF results reported by the EPa software are in very good agreement with the results reported by the observer with respect to being negative/positive, pattern recognition and titer, making automated ANA IIF evaluation an objective and time-efficient tool for routine testing. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - September 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Remission of aggressive autoimmune disease (dermatomyositis) with removal of infective jaw pathology and ozone therapy: review and case report
ConclusionDental focus of occult infection may be a prime cause/trigger of autoimmune disorders and inflammatory disorders, requiring surgical intervention to remove. Ozone therapy, little known in conventional medicine, has been shown in the literature and in this case to be a powerful and safe immune modulator and anti-infective agent. This case has significant relevance across the entire spectrum of both medical and dental practice. It also emphasizes the need for individualized assessment and treatment rather than symptomatic pharmacological approaches treating a “disease” rather than the patient. Subclinic...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - June 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-phospholipid IgG antibodies detected by line immunoassay differentiate patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome and other autoimmune diseases
ConclusionsaD1/aD4 –5 (ELISA) and aPG IgG (LIA) differentiate APS from SARD patients. PG appears to interact with β2GPI of APS patients and exposes D1 thereof for disease-specific aPL binding in LIA. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - May 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Rhabdomyolysis secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus
We present a case report of a patient with an SLE exacerbation as well as concurrent rhabdomyolysis with massively elevated CPK (304,700  U/L). Though a rarely reported effect of SLE, rhabdomyolysis can be severe and potentially lethal secondary or concurrent to an acute SLE episode. This case report demonstrates the association between SLE and rhabdomyolysis, which is not well described in the current literature. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - April 6, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Isolated acute lupus pneumonitis as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus in an 8-year-old girl
AbstractSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease which has broad pleuropulmonary manifestations. One of the rare and mortal complications is acute lupus pneumonitis, which is reported very rarely, especially in childhood. Herein, we report an 8-year-old girl with isolated acute lupus pneumonitis as the initial presentation that required a lung biopsy for diagnosis. Although she had improvement with the administration of steroids, steroid treatment was reduced due to the drug ’s side effects resulting in the addition of azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil to the treatment regimen. After t...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - March 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of a new fluoroenzyme immunoassay for the detection of TSH receptor autoantibodies in Graves ’ disease
ConclusionsThe diagnostic performance of ELiA™-TSH-R assay is comparable to that of some current TRAb assays. It may be adopted into clinical practice for the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, to screen for transient hyperthyroidism, and to monitor disease activity and treatment effects. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - February 12, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in primary antiphospholipid syndrome
(Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - February 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of vitamin D deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus incidence and aggravation
AbstractVitamin D is one of the main groups of sterols; playing an important role in phospho-calcic metabolism. The conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to pre- vitamin D3 in the skin, through solar ultraviolet B radiation, is the main source of vitamin D. Since lupus patients are usually photosensitive, the risk of developing vitamin D deficiency in is high in this population. Although evidences showed the connotation between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and vitamin D through which SLE can lead to lower vitamin D levels, it is also important to consider the possibility that vitamin D deficiency may have a causative ro...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - December 26, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Next-generation anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in autoimmune disease treatment
AbstractThe clinical success of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated B cell depletion therapy has contributed to the understanding of B cells as major players in several autoimmune diseases. The first therapeutic anti-CD20 mAb, rituximab, is a murine –human chimera to which many patients develop antibodies and/or experience infusion-related reactions. A second generation of anti-CD20 mAbs has been designed to be more effective, better tolerated, and of lower immunogenicity. These include the humanized versions: ocrelizumab, obinutuzumab, and v eltuzumab, and the fully human, ofatumumab. We conducted a literat...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - November 16, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 haplotypes frequency and diagnostic utility in celiac disease patients of Gaza strip, Palestine
ConclusionsAbsence of HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 genotyping in the workup of patients may result in CD misdiagnosis, particularly in a setting with poor histopathological diagnostic capacity. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - November 15, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Personalized medicine in rheumatology: the paradigm of serum autoantibodies
AbstractThe sequencing of the human genome is now well recognized as the starting point of personalized medicine. Nonetheless, everyone is unique and can develop different phenotypes of the same disease, despite identical genotypes, as well illustrated by discordant monozygotic twins. To recognize these differences, one of the easiest and most familiar examples of biomarkers capable of identifying and predicting the outcome of patients is represented by serum autoantibodies. In this review, we will describe the concept of personalized medicine and discuss the predictive, prognostic and preventive role of antinuclear antibo...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - July 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chemiluminescent immunoassay technology: what does it change in autoantibody detection?
AbstractDiagnostic technology is rapidly evolving, and over the last decade, substantial progress has been made even for the identification of antibodies, increasingly approaching this type of diagnostic to that of automated clinical chemistry laboratory. In this review, we describe the analytical and diagnostic characteristics of chemiluminescence technology in its strength and in its applicability for a more rapid and accurate diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. The wide dynamic range, greater than that of immunoenzymatic methods, the high sensitivity and specificity of the results expressed in quantitative form, the high ...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - June 24, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Definition of the upper reference limit for thyroglobulin antibodies according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry guidelines: comparison of eleven different automated methods
ConclusionsDespite the efforts for harmonization, TgAb methods cannot be used interchangeably. Therefore, additional effort is required to improve analytical performance taking into consideration approved protocols and guidelines. Moreover, TgAb URL should be used with caution in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients since the presence and/or the degree of TgAb interference in Tg measurement has not yet been well defined. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - June 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Induction of IL-10 cytokine and the suppression of T cell proliferation by specific peptides from red cell band 3 and in vivo effects of these peptides on autoimmune hemolytic anemia in NZB mice
AbstractPurposeThe anion channel protein band 3 is the main target of the pathogenic red blood cells (RBC) autoantibodies in New Zealand black (NZB) mice. CD4 T cells from NZB mice with autoimmune hemolytic anemia respond to band 3. Previously, we have shown that IL-10 and peptides containing a dominant T cell epitope from red cell band 3 modulate autoimmune hemolytic anemia in NZB mice. Because of the immunoregulatory role of IL-10 in autoimmune diseases, we aim to identify individual band 3 peptides that induce high IL-10 production and simultaneously suppress CD4 T cell proliferation and to investigate the effect intran...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - April 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A case of sarcoidosis with isolated hepatosplenic onset and development of inflammatory bowel disease during recovery stage
AbstractSarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by an immune-mediated disorder, which leads to the development of non-caseating granulomas in the involved organs. More than 90% of patients with sarcoidosis present lungs and lymphatic system involvement at onset, while less than 10% has an isolated extrapulmonary localization. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with isolated hepato-splenic onset (multiple splenic lesions at imaging and cholestasis), and subsequent pulmonary involvement. The liver biopsy showed the presence of non-caseating granulomas, suggesting sarcoidosis. Despite the complete recove...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - April 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Induction of IL-10 cytokine and the suppression of T cell proliferation by specific peptides from red cell band 3 and in vivo effects of these peptides on autoimmune hemolytic anemia in NZB mice
AbstractPurposeThe anion channel protein band 3 is the main target of the pathogenic red blood cells (RBC) autoantibodies in New Zealand black (NZB) mice. CD4 T cells from NZB mice with autoimmune hemolytic anemia respond to band 3. Previously, we have shown that IL-10 and peptides containing a dominant T cell epitope from red cell band 3 modulate autoimmune hemolytic anemia in NZB mice. Because of the immunoregulatory role of IL-10 in autoimmune diseases, we aim to identify individual band 3 peptides that induce high IL-10 production and simultaneously suppress CD4 T cell proliferation and to investigate the effect intran...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - April 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A case of sarcoidosis with isolated hepatosplenic onset and development of inflammatory bowel disease during recovery stage
AbstractSarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by an immune-mediated disorder, which leads to the development of non-caseating granulomas in the involved organs. More than 90% of patients with sarcoidosis present lungs and lymphatic system involvement at onset, while less than 10% has an isolated extrapulmonary localization. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with isolated hepato-splenic onset (multiple splenic lesions at imaging and cholestasis), and subsequent pulmonary involvement. The liver biopsy showed the presence of non-caseating granulomas, suggesting sarcoidosis. Despite the complete recove...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - April 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exploring the plasmatic platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies
ConclusionsPAF-AH plasmatic activity is particularly up-regulated in LAC+ and in a β2GPI IgG+ patients, possibly representing an alternative prognostic biomarker for the therapeutic management of APS patients. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - March 25, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The universe of ANA testing: a case for point-of-care ANA testing
AbstractTesting for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupus to a test for any autoimmune condition has driven the increase in ANA requests. Changes in ANA referral patterns include early or subclinical autoimmune disease detection in patients with low pre-test probability and use of negative ANA results to rule out underlying autoimmune disease. A positive result can lead to further diagnostic considerations. Currently, ANA tests are performed in centralized laborato...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - March 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Analysis of DFS70 pattern and impact on ANA screening using a novel HEp-2 ELITE/DFS70 knockout substrate
AbstractIndirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using human epithelial cell (HEp-2) substrate is a widely used and the recommended method for screening of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Dense fine speckled (DFS70) pattern on HEp-2 has been widely reported in various healthy and disease groups. Interpretation of DFS70 pattern can be challenging on a conventional HEp-2 substrate due to its similarity to some of the disease associated patterns. The high prevalence of DFS70 autoantibodies in normal population, lack of association with a particular disease group and a general negative association with systemic and ANA associated autoi...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - March 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Structure and activation of the TSH receptor transmembrane domain
ConclusionsInsight into the mechanism of activation of the TSHR by both TSH and TSHR autoantibodies is likely to be useful in the development of new treatments for Graves ’ disease. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - December 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Detection of autoantibodies to DSF70/LEDGFp75 in Mexican Hispanics using multiple complementary assay platforms
ConclusionsThe low frequency of anti-DFS70/LEDGFp75 antibodies in Mexican patients with rheumatic diseases, but relatively higher frequency in HI, is consistent with previous observations with non-Hispanic populations, suggesting that geographic differences or ethnicity do not influence the frequency of these autoantibodies. Our results also highlight the importance of confirmatory assays for the accurate detection of these autoantibodies. Future studies with larger cohorts of healthy Hispanics/Latinos are needed to confirm if their anti-DFS70/LEDGFp75 antibody frequencies are significantly higher than in non-Hispanics. (S...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - November 24, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Development and evaluation of a standardized ELISA for the determination of autoantibodies against cN-1A (Mup44, NT5C1A) in sporadic inclusion body myositis
ConclusionsAnti-cN-1A autoantibodies were detected by ELISA with moderate sensitivity, but high specificity for sIBM and may therefore help diagnose this infrequent and difficult-to-diagnose myopathy. The novel anti-cN-1A IgG ELISA can improve and accelerate the diagnosis of sIBM using sera where muscle biopsy is delayed or unfeasible. (Source: Autoimmunity Highlights)
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - November 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-rods/rings autoantibody seropositivity does not affect response to telaprevir treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection
AbstractPurposeAutoantibodies to intracellular ‘rods and rings’ structures (anti-rods/rings or anti-RR) are strongly associated with hepatitis C (HCV) patients treated with interferon-α/ribavirin (IFN/RBV) and are linked with non-responsiveness to IFN/RBV or relapse, especially in Italian patients. This is the first study to determine wheth er there is any correlation of anti-RR with non-responsiveness to IFN/RBV treatment in patients also treated with telaprevir (TPV), one of several new therapies for chronic HCV recently implemented.MethodsFrom 2013 to 2014, 52 HCV-infected patients were treated with IF...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - November 14, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research