Microscopic analysis of an opacified OFT CRYL® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens
ABSTRACT A 51-year-old patient underwent posterior vitrectomy with perfluoropropane gas injection, phacoemulsification, and implantation of an Oft Cryl ® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) because of traumatic retinal detachment and cataract in the right eye. On the first postoperative day, gas was filling the anterior chamber because of patient's non-compliance in terms of head positioning, and was reabsorbed within one week. Eight months later, the patient returned complaining of a significant decrease in vision. IOL opacification was noticed by slit-lamp examination. The lens was explanted to undergo gross a...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A unique case of isolated sebaceous adenoma of the bulbar conjunctiva
ABSTRACT Our patient was a 34 year-old male who presented with a painless conjunctival mass that had developed 3 months before his first visit. On performing slit-lamp biomicroscopy, a lobulated pink-yellowish solid mobile mass was observed on the nasal bulbar conjunctival surface of his left eye. The tumor was excised, and histopathologic examination of the tumor revealed a sebaceous adenoma. Systemic examination was normal. No recurrence was observed during the 24-month follow-up period. Sebaceous adenoma of the bulbar conjunctiva is an extremely rare benign tumor, which may be observed to be isolated in the absence of m...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of posterior ocular changes using enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
Conclusion: In the group with severe OSAS, thinning in some posterior ocular tissues was observed. Although patients with severe OSAS may experience clinical recovery, we recommend that they would be followed up in terms of ocular ischemic injury.RESUMO Objetivo: Avalia ção de espessuras das fibras nervosas da mácula, coroide e da retina de acordo com os índices de apnéia e hipopnéia (AHI) em indivíduos com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (OSAS), sem componentes sistêmicos. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, controlado. As espessuras centrais maculares, d...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Short-term effects of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (OZURDEX®) on choroidal thickness in patients with naive branch retinal vein occlusion
Conclusions: SFCT in treatment-naive BRVO eyes was significantly greater than that in contralateral eyes and healthy eyes and decreased significantly after intravitreal dexamethasone implantation.RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a espessura da cor óide (SFCT) usando imagens de tomografia de coerência óptica com profundidade aprimorada (EDI-OCT) no tratamento de pacientes com oclusão primária de ramo da veia central da retina (BRVO) antes e após o implante de dexametasona intravítrea (Ozurdex®). Métodos: Trinta e nove pacientes com B RVO unilater...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Development of the Portuguese version of a standardized reading test: the Radner-Coimbra Charts
Conclusions: The 27 short Portuguese sentences were highly comparable in terms of syntactical structure, number, position and length of words, lex ical difficulty, and reading length. This reading test can overcome the limitations of the current tests for homogeneity and comparability, reducing subjectivity in the evaluation of the functional outcomes of medical and surgical ophthalmologic treatments.RESUMO Objetivo: Desenvolver 27 frases-optotipo para a vers ão em português das tabelas de leitura de Radner. Métodos: Trinta e quatro frases em português foram elaboradas de acordo com o conceito das...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Medical therapy versus trabeculectomy in patients with open-angle glaucoma
ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare therapeutic outcomes between trabeculectomy and medical therapy in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Methods: In the present retrospective comparative study, the medical charts of 284 patients (eyes) newly diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma who had received conventional medications (n=188) or undergone fornix-based trabeculectomy (n=96) at a teaching eye hospital were reviewed. Results: At a mean follow-up of 6.6 years, post-treatment changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field (VF), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and number of required drugs were significantly more fa...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of choroidal and retinal thickness measurements in adult hemodialysis patients using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography
ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the effect of hemodialysis on retinal and choroidal thicknesses using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: In this prospective interventional study, 25 hemodialysis patients (17 male, 8 female) were enrolled. All participants underwent high-speed, high-resolution SD-OCT ( λ =840 mm; 26.000 A-scans/s; 5 µm resolution) before and after hemodialysis. Choroidal thickness was measured perpendicularly from the outer edge of the retinal pigment epithelium to the choroid-sclera boundary at the fovea and at five additional points: 500 µm and 1000 µm nas...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Assessment of the Abbreviated National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ 9) in blepharoptosis and dermatochalasis
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the Abbreviated National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ 9), which is shorter than those previously published, as a tool for assessing vision-related quality of life in patients with ptosis and dermatochalasis. Methods: This is a cohort study of 46 patients who underwent blepharoptosis and/or upper eyelid blepharoplasty surgery by a single surgeon (CN) in 2013 in a public, academic, ambulatory care referral center. Patients included 29 who underwent blepharoplasty, 11 who underwent ptosis surgery, and 6 who underwent combined surgery. The NEI-VFQ 9 was administered pre- an...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Group 3), and the remaining 10 rats were administered intraperitoneal streptozocin to induce diabetes mellitus (Group 4). Total oxidant st...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Phacoemulsification in posterior polar cataract
Conclusions: Complications in posterior polar ca taract surgeries can be overcome by being careful throughout the surgery and using proper techniques. Viscodissection may be better for avoiding posterior capsular rupture than hydrodissection.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados e complica ções da cirurgia de facoemulsificação em olhos com catarata polar posterior e comparar as técnicas de viscodissecção e hidrodissecção. Métodos: Os prontuários de 29 pacientes consecutivos (16 homens, 13 mulheres) com posterior cataratas polares (44 olhos), que ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Choroidal thickness variation in highly myopic eyes during the water drinking test
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate variations in choroidal thickness (CT) during the water drinking test (WDT) in emmetropic eyes (EE) and highly myopic eyes (ME) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Clinical trial performed at a tertiary care hospital comprising 30 randomly selected eyes. The WDT and SD-OCT macular scans were performed 10 and 45 min after water ingestion in 15 myopic and 15 EE of 15 healthy patients in each group. Primary study outcomes were average macular CT measured by SD-OCT and intraocular pressure (IOP) during the WDT. Results: The mean spherical equivalent refraction was...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Dynamic changes in optic disc morphology, choroidal thickness, anterior chamber parameters, and intraocular pressure during Valsalva maneuver
ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effects of the Valsalva maneuver (VM) on optic disc morphology, choroidal thickness, and anterior chamber parameters. Methods: This prospective observational study included 60 eyes of 60 healthy subjects. The anterior chamber parameters, including central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), pupil diameter (PD), axial length (AL), subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc parameters, and intraocular pressure (IOP), were measured at rest and during VM. Results: VM did not have any significant...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Microgravity-induced ocular changes in astronauts: a sight odyssey
(Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia)
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - September 9, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Update and review of Urrets-Zavalia syndrome
ABSTRACT For more than half a century, Urrets-Zavalia syndrome (fixed dilated pupil) has been described as a postoperative complication of ophthalmic surgery. Since first reported as a complication of penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus in patients receiving atropine, the characteristic features of Urrets-Zavalia syndrome have been expanded. In previous literature, a total of 110 cases resulted in a fixed and dilated pupil. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in the immediate postoperative period, phakia, and air or gas in the anterior chamber appear to be the most important risk factors for Urrets-Zavalia syndrome f...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Silent polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in a patient with angioid streaks
We report this rare coexistence and review literature on this topic. RESUMO N ós apresentamos um relato de vasculopatia polipoidal de coroide (PCV) em paciente com estrias angióides. Vasculopatia polipoidal de coroide detectada em exame oftalmológico de rotina e confirmado por angiofluoresceinografia, angiografia com indocianina verde e tomografia de coerência óptica. Ap ós 2 anos de seguimento a vasculopatia polipoidal de coroide permaneceu quiescente, sem qualquer complicação. Nós relatamos esta coexistência rara e apresentamos revisão da literatu...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of choroidal osteoma with secondary neovascular membranes: report of two cases
We report enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) features based on clinical and imaging data from two newly diagnosed cases of choroidal osteoma presenting with recent visual loss secondary to choroidal neovascular membranes. The features described in the two cases, compression of the choriocapillaris and disorganization of the medium and large vessel layers, are consistent with those of previous reports. We noticed a sponge-like pattern previously reported, but it was subtle. Both lesions had multiple intralesional layers and a typical intrinsic transparency with visibility of the sclerochoroidal ju...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Keratoacanthoma of the conjunctiva in a young patient
We report a case of a 24-year-old man with a rapidly growing conjunctival mass. The tumor was excised with a safety margin to exclude squamous cell carcinoma and was histopathologically diagnosed as a keratoacanthoma. There has been no recurrence over 2 years of follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, he is the youngest patient to be diagnosed with conjunctival keratoacanthoma who had no known risk factors such as skin disorders, trauma, surgery, or infection. In similar cases, we recommend complete early surgical excision and careful follow-up to exclude malignancy. RESUMO Ceratoacantoma raramente ocorre na conjuntiva. N...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

DRESS syndrome in ophthalmic patients
ABSTRACT Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction associated with skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and multiple organ injury. A number of pharmacological agents are known to cause DRESS syndrome such as allopurinol, anticonvulsants, vancomycin, trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, and pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine. Here, we describe two patients who developed DRESS syndrome during ocular treatment. The first case was being treated for late postoperative endophthalmitis with topical antibiotics, intravenous cephalothin, meropenem, and intravitreal in...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Combined branch retinal vein and artery occlusion in toxoplasmosis
ABSTRACT A 22-year-old man complained of low visual acuity and pain in his left eye for five days. His ophthalmological examination revealed 2+ anterior chamber reaction and a white, poorly defined retinal lesion at the proximal portion of the inferotemporal vascular arcade. There were retinal hemorrhages in the inferotemporal region extending to the retinal periphery. In addition, venous dilation, increased tortuosity, and ischemic retinal whitening along the inferotemporal vascular arcade were also observed. A proper systemic work-up was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis. He was treated w...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and ocular surface findings: case reports and review of the literature
ABSTRACT Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare dermatosis with about 300 cases reported to date. The authors describe two siblings with RTS and inflammatory conjunctival disease featuring fornix shortening and symblepharon as well as palpebral disease with sparse eyelashes. These cases demonstrate RTS ocular surface findings different to those usually described. RESUMO A s índrome de Rothmund-Thomson (SRT) é uma dermatose rara com cerca de 300 casos reportados. Os autores descrevem dois irmãos com síndrome de Rothmund-Thomson e doença inflamatória conjuntival com encurtamento d...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The effects of riboflavin and ultraviolet light on keratocytes cultured in vitro
Conclusion: Keratocytes can be successfully cultured in vitro and characterized by immunofluorescence using lumican. MTT colorimetric assays, and Hoechst 33342, and propidium iodide staining demonstrated a higher rate of cell death in cells cultured without collagen, indicating collagen protects keratocytes from the cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet light. RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da aplica ção da luz ultravioleta e riboflavina sobre ceratócitos da córnea humana in vitro. Métodos: Os ceratócitos foram obtidos a partir das rimas corneoesclerais remanescentes da trepana&ccedi...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of anterior segment parameters in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome using Scheimpflug imaging
Conclusions: The patients with PXS had thinner corneas, worse visual acuity, and longer axial length compared with those in the healthy controls. RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os par âmetros do segmento anterior em pacientes com síndrome de pseudoexfoliação (PXS) utilizando imagens de Scheimpflug. Métodos: Quarenta e três pacientes com PXS e 43 indivíduos saudáveis foram incluídos neste estudo transversal. Todos os participantes foram submetidos ao exame oftalmológico detalhado. Parâmetros do segmento anterior foram medidos por sistema de Scheimpflug. Res...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comparative study on optical performance and visual outcomes between two diffractive multifocal lenses: AMO Tecnis ® ZMB00 and AcrySof ® IQ ReSTOR ® Multifocal IOL SN6AD1
Conclusion: Both lenses promoted better quality of vision for both long and short distances and exhibited a similar behavior for intermediate vision. The SN6AD1 and ZMB00 groups showed better results for CS under photopic conditions at low and high spatial frequencies, respectively. RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar o desempenho óptico e resultado visual entre duas lentes multifocais difrativas: AMO Tecnis® ZMB00 e AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1. Métodos: O estudo prospectivo, comparativo não randomizado incluiu avaliação de 74 olhos em 37 pacientes com indicação de facectomia ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bacteriological profile in conjunctival, lacrimal sac, and nasal specimens and conjunctival normalization time following external, endoscopic, and transcanalicular multidiode laser dacryocystorhinostomy
Conclusions: Similar rates of preoperative and 1-week postoperative conjunctival culture positivity were observed in all the groups; a significantly lower bacterial growth rate was observed in postoperative conjunctival cultures. CNS was the most commonly isolated organism. Bacterial growth rates in the lacrimal sac samples were significantly higher in the EN-DCR group. Bacterial growth rates obtained preoperatively from the conjunctival and lacrimal sac culture samples were not correlated with DCR success. RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a flora conjuntival, do saco lacrimal e nasal com o tempo de normaliza ção ap...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Implantation of foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens in aphakic vitrectomized eyes without capsular support
Conclusions: Postoperative outcomes were comparable between TSF, IF, and ISF for PCIOL in vitrectomized eyes without capsular support. RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados de tr ês diferentes técnicas cirúrgicas para implantação da lente intraocular de câmara posterior (PCIOL) dobrável em olhos vitrectomizados sem apoio capsular. Métodos: Um total de 60 olhos de 60 pacientes afácicos vitrectomizados, sem apoio capsular foram inscritos. Todos os pacientes foram sub metidos ao implante de PCIOL dobrável de três peças na câmara posterior,...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of intravitreal anti-VEGF on choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema using spectral domain OCT
Conclusions: Over a 6-month period, the use of intravitreal anti-VEGF was associated with significant thinning of the choroid in patients with DME. The clinical significance of a thinner choroid in DME is currently unknown; however, it may contribute to long-term adverse effects on choroidal and retinal function, representing an area requiring future investigation. RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar a espessura de coroide pr é-tratamento e após 6 meses da injeção intravítrea de anti-fator de crescimento vascular endotelial (anti-VEGF) em pacientes com edema macular diabético (EMD), utilizan...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Factors affecting visual acuity after accelerated crosslinking in patients with progressive keratoconus
Conclusions: Accelerated CXL is an effective treatment for the prevention or even reversal of keratoconus progression. The preoperative K values and apexes of the anterior and posterior cornea were found to affect visual acuity at 6 months after accelerated CXL. Both AKb steepening and AKf flattening appear to be important factors in the stabilization of keratometric values and improvement of visual outcomes. RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo é relatar os resultados do sexto mês após o tratamento de crosslinking acelerado (CXL) em pacientes com ceratocone progressivo e determinar os fatores que afet...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Six-month outcomes of corneal crosslinking with dextran-free isotonic riboflavin solution
Conclusions: CXL with dextran-free isotonic riboflavin solution appears to be a safe treatment alternative for keratoconus and yields sustained short-term improvements in visual acuity, keratometric readings, and corneal thickness. However, long-term results are needed to confirm these outcomes. RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar os resultados cl ínicos e topográficos curto prazo após crosslinking (CXL) de córnea com solução isotônica de riboflavina sem dextrano, em pacientes com ceratocone. Método: Estudamos 26 olhos de 26 pacientes com ceratocone, nesta série retrospec...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Choroidal changes in pre-eclampsia during pregnancy and the postpartum period: comparison with healthy pregnancy
Conclusions: The results suggest that SFCT is significantly decreased in pre-eclamptic pregnant women than in healthy pregnant women, despite no statistically significant difference in SFCT existing between the groups during the postpartum period. RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar espessura subfoveal coroidal (SFCT) em pacientes com pr é-eclâmpsia usando imagens de tomografia de coerência óptica de profundidade otimizada (EDI-OCT). Método: Uma amostra de 73 mulheres grávidas foi estudado ao longo de 28 semanas de gestação. A amostra foi dividida em dois grupos: um com mulhere...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of macular hole volume on postoperative central macular thickness
Conclusions: Greater MHV was found to be weakly associated with lower postoperative CMT scores. RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a rela ção entre o volume do buraco macular (MHV) e a espessura macular central pós-operatória (CMT) por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (SD-OCT). Método: Trinta e três olhos de 30 pacientes com buracos maculares idiopáticos de espessura total grandes, com ou sem traç ão vitreorretiniana, que foram submetidos a intervenção cirúrgica foram incluídos neste estudo transve...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The fever of pain: ocular chronic pain, light at the end of the tunnel
(Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia)
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - July 26, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Acquired restrictive strabismus in infancy associated with neurofibromatosis type 2
ABSTRACT Herpes zoster (HZ) corresponds to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Among adults, the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve is one of the most common sites of involvement. Vasculopathy caused by HZ is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, affecting structures such as the brain, which can lead to stroke. In this review, we analyzed the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the vascular involvement of VZV, focusing on the peculiarities of its association with ocular HZ. A review of the available literature indicated that ocular involvement of HZ was a risk factor for vasculopat...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of a simulation tool in ophthalmology: application in teaching funduscopy
ABSTRACT Herpes zoster (HZ) corresponds to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Among adults, the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve is one of the most common sites of involvement. Vasculopathy caused by HZ is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, affecting structures such as the brain, which can lead to stroke. In this review, we analyzed the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the vascular involvement of VZV, focusing on the peculiarities of its association with ocular HZ. A review of the available literature indicated that ocular involvement of HZ was a risk factor for vasculopat...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Comment on: "measurement and clinical implications of choroidal thickness in patients with inflammatory bowel disease"
ABSTRACT Herpes zoster (HZ) corresponds to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Among adults, the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve is one of the most common sites of involvement. Vasculopathy caused by HZ is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, affecting structures such as the brain, which can lead to stroke. In this review, we analyzed the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the vascular involvement of VZV, focusing on the peculiarities of its association with ocular HZ. A review of the available literature indicated that ocular involvement of HZ was a risk factor for vasculopat...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and varicella zoster virus vasculopathy
ABSTRACT Herpes zoster (HZ) corresponds to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Among adults, the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve is one of the most common sites of involvement. Vasculopathy caused by HZ is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, affecting structures such as the brain, which can lead to stroke. In this review, we analyzed the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the vascular involvement of VZV, focusing on the peculiarities of its association with ocular HZ. A review of the available literature indicated that ocular involvement of HZ was a risk factor for vasculopat...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Panophthalmitis with orbital cellulitis following glaucoma drainage implant surgery in a pediatric patient
ABSTRACT Here we report a case of childhood glaucoma refractory to angle and trabeculectomy surgery. The patient was treated with an Ahmed™ drainage implant that was subsequently complicated by rapid-onset panophthalmitis and orbital cellulitis. Intravenous and intravitreal antibiotic therapy was initiated and the drainage tube was removed. The infectious process resolved within 3 weeks; however, phthisis bulbi developed subsequently.RESUMO Relato de um caso de uma criança portadora de glaucoma congênito primário, refratário a cirurgias angulares e trabeculectomias prévias, submetido...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration
We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for a...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris: a case report
We present a case of a 26-year-old woman who noted a spontaneous change in the iris color in both eyes in the last 2 months. The ophthalmological findings were atrophy of the iris stroma and pigmentation of the trabecular meshwork, without affecting the pigmented epithelium of the iris. Her intraocular pressure was normal and the visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes.RESUMO A despigmentação aguda bilateral da íris (DABI) é uma nova entidade clínica caracterizada pela despigmentação bilateral, simétrica e simultânea da íris, com atrofia focal ou difusa do s...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Assessment of surgical outcomes of limbal transplantation using simple limbal epithelial transplantation technique in patients with total unilateral limbal deficiency
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the novel simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) technique, which reduces the risk of iatrogenic limbal stem cell deficiency in the donor eye. Four patients with total unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency received a limbal graft, measuring 4 mm × 2 mm, from the contralateral healthy eye in a single surgical procedure. The graft was divided into 10-20 pieces and distributed on the corneal surface. At 6-month follow-up, a completely avascular corneal epithelial surface was obtained in two patients, and there was improvement in visual acuity in one patient. Th...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Dexamethasone 0.7 mg implants in the management of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema
ABSTRACT Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) is a common complication following cataract surgery. Although majority of patients with PCME remain asymptomatic, it remains an important cause of vision loss after cataract surgery. The pathogenesis of PCME remains unclear, but most authors agree that inflammation plays a major role in its development. There is no standard algorithm for treatment procedures for PCME. A biodegradable 0.7 mg dexamethasone intravitreal implant can be used to deliver medication into the posterior segment of eyes. This drug acts on all inflammatory mediators and has been approved for the treat...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Isolated posterior scleritis associated with tuberculosis
ABSTRACT Ocular tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be rare, although its incidence has varied widely over time and in different populations. Latent TB is diagnosed when a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis but does not have active TB. During the last decade, interferon-gamma release assay tests have been developed that allow identification of patients with latent TB infection with better specificity than the tuberculin skin test and can differentiate between infection and prior vaccination. Although rare, tuberculous scleritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of posterior scleritis. Here w...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Lacrimal gland primary acinar cell culture: the role of insulin
Conclusions: The present method simplifies the isolation and culture of LGACs. The data confirmed the relevance of adding insulin to maintain LGACs in culture.RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi estabelecer um protocolo de cultura primária para o isolamento de células acinares da glândula lacrimal (CAGL) e avaliar a relevância de insulina no meio de cultura. Métodos: CAGL foram isoladas e cultivadas a partir das glândulas lacrimais de ratos Wistar machos. Os parâmetros analisados foram: o número de células, viabilidade e secreção da peroxidase a...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Cognitive performance of primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma patients
ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess cognitive performance differences among primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients, and healthy control (C) subjects. Methods: A total of 60 participants (20 POAG, 20 NTG, and 20 C subjects) were included in this study. A detailed ophthalmologic examination was performed on all participants. A spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system was used to measure the ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses. To assess the cognitive performance of all participants, detailed neurological examina...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Treatment success of laser therapy for retinopathy of prematurity in referred and non-referred patients
ABSTRACT Purpose: Comparison of laser therapy (LT) outcomes in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) followed up in our clinic and referred from other centers. Methods: Medical records of 1,856 ROP patients were retrospectively evaluated, and a total of 128 patients who underwent LT were included in the study. The study population was divided into the following two groups: patients who were followed up and treated in our clinic (group 1, N=45) and patients who were referred to our clinic from other centers (group 2, N=83). Data regarding birth weight, sex, gestational age, postnatal treatment time, disease localiz...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The effects of delivery type and gender on intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness in newborns
ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in newborns during the first 12 h of life. Methods: Forty-three newborns born by vaginal delivery (VD) and 30 newborns born by cesarean section (CS) were evaluated. IOP and CCT were measured using Tono-Pen and handheld pachymeter, respectively, at both the 5th minute after delivery and at the 12th h of life. Results: The mean IOP for the VD group was significantly higher than that of the CS group at both the 5th minute and 12th h (p =0.042 and p =0.018, respectively). In both groups, the IOP decreased by the 12th h, but the decrease...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Intraocular straylight before and after low myopic photorefractive keratectomy with and without mitomycin C
Conclusion: PRK for low myopia decreases ocular straylight, and MMC application further reduces straylight in the early postoperative period. However, ocular straylight values do not significantly differ at four months after surgery compared with those at baseline.RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a dispersão de luz intraocular antes e depois da ceratectomia fotorrefrativa (PRK) para baixa miopia com e sem a aplicação tópica de mitomicina C. Métodos: Pacientes submetidos à PRK para baixa miopia foram selecionados para o estudo. PRK sem MMC foi realizado em 21 olhos (12 pacientes) e PRK com ...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Initial experience with ocriplasmin in the treatment of vitreomacular traction
This study aimed to report the clinical and structural outcomes of intravitreal ocriplasmin in the treatment of vitreomacular interface disorders in two tertiary centers in Brazil. A retrospective study was performed by reviewing medical records and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings of seven patients who were treated with a single ocriplasmin injection. A total of 57.14% of patients achieved resolution of vitreomacular traction as evidenced by SD-OCT. Regarding our functional results, 87.71% maintained or improved visual acuity after follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first st...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Descriptive analysis of the type and design of contact lenses fitted according to keratoconus severity and morphology
Conclusion: Monocurve RGPCL were most frequently fitted in patients with mild to moderate keratoconus and oval cones morphology, while bicurve lenses were more frequently fitted in patients with severe and advanced keratoconus. This was probably because bicurve lenses are more appropriate for round cones due to increased corneal asphericity.RESUMO Objetivo: O ceratocone é uma ectasia corneana bilateral e assimétrica que leva a afinamento corneano inferior e protrusão da córnea, não existe consenso sobre qual é o melhor caminho para adaptar lentes de contato em pacientes com ceratoc...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell complex, and choroidal thicknesses in migraine
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the thicknesses of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell complex (GCL), and choroid layer using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for investigating the effects of vascular changes on the eye and optic nerve in patients who have migraine with aura. Methods: Forty-five patients who had migraine with aura (migraine group) and 45 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled in the study. Age, gender, duration after migraine diagnosis, intraocular pressure, and axial length measurements were recorded in each case. RNFL, GCL, and choroid layer thi...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Short-term visual performance of soft multifocal contact lenses for presbyopia
Conclusions: Further development of multifocal lenses is required before significant advantages of multifocal lenses over single vision lens are observed in patients with presbyopia.RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a acuidade visual, sensibilidade ao contraste, estereopsia e desempenho visual subjetivo de présbitas usando lentes de contato Acuvue Oasys para presbiopia (AOP), Air Optix Aqua Multifocal (AOMF) e Air Optix Aqua Single Vision (AOSV). Método: Foi realizado estudo mascarado simples, cruzado. Vinte pacientes com presbiopia baixa (adição ≤+1,25 D) e 22 com presbiopia média/alta (adi&c...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia - May 25, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research