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B cell aplasia and hypogammaglobulinemia associated with levetiracetam
We report a 45-year-old female who developed hypogammaglobulinemia and B cell aplasia during LEV treatment. The Naranjo probability score for an adverse drug reaction was 6. After LEV discontinuation, the number of B cells gradually increased and reached normal levels within two months. This case suggests that monitoring of immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subsets analysis is important in patients treated with LEV, especially in cases of prolonged infections.  SIMILAR CASES PUBLISHED: 1   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - January 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: AHEAD OF PRINT Source Type: research

The Saudi Diabetic Kidney Disease study (Saudi-DKD): clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters
CONCLUSION: Diabetic nephropathy is associated with insulin resistance, changes in liver enzymes and uric acid in addition to abnormalities in the red blood cell count and red blood cell shape that warrant frequent monitoring among patients with diabetic kidney disease. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional study design and exclusion of patients with some risk factors.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - January 3, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: AHEAD OF PRINT Source Type: research

Association between body mass index and dental caries among special care female children in Makkah City
CONCLUSION:This study demonstrated a significant association between caries frequency and overweight/obesity in special care school children.  LIMITATIONS:Since the data was cross-sectional, causal relationships cannot be established and the observed association could be due to other unexplored factors. Because of cultural and ethical consideration, including segregation of gender in Saudi Arabia, only female children were included in the present study, which limited the findings.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 31, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: AHEAD OF PRINT Source Type: research

The association between body mass index and frequency of emergency department visits and hospitalization for asthma exacerbation in a pediatric population
CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of an association between BMI and frequency of ED visits and hospitalization for asthma exacerbation among children.  LIMITATIONS: This study included patients as young as 2 years, while asthma is only well-defined in children>5 years. Asthma triggers that can cause exacerbation despite body weight were not included. We included only frequency of ED visits and hospitalization, which may be inadequate to measure asthma severity.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Admission of term infants to the neonatal intensive care unit in a Saudi tertiary teaching hospital: cumulative incidence and risk factors
CONCLUSION: A growing number of term infants are admitted unexpectedly to the NICU. The risk factors and pattern of admission of term infants to the NICU should receive more attention in quality improvement and management agendas. LIMITATIONS: This was a single-center study with limited access to information about unbooked mothers and details of the hospital stay of the admitted neonates.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Q192R polymorphism in the PON1 gene and familial hypercholesterolemia in a Saudi population
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the Q192R polymorphism in the PON1 gene is associated with FH in the Saudi population. Our results confirmed that the R allele, QR, and dominant model genotypes were associated with FH. LIMITATION: Only a single variant (Q192R) was analyzed, and the medical and family histories of the patients were not known.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of oral agents in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis compared to interferon-based therapy in Saudi Arabia
CONCLUSION: None of the DMDs were found to be cost-effective in the treatment of RRMS at a WTP threshold of $100000 in this analysis. The DMDs would only be cost-effective at a WTP above $300000.  LIMITATIONS: The current analysis did not reflect the Saudi population preference in valuation of health states and did not consider the societal perspective in terms of cost.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Influence of body mass index on severity of dental caries: cross-sectional study in healthy adults
CONCLUSION: Dental caries was not associated with BMI but age significantly influenced the DMFT index and gender was associated with more missing teeth. Further longitudinal studies with larger cohorts from several geographic regions are warranted. LIMITATION:Convenience sampling and recruitment from a single dental center may have some impact on the generalization of data.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Prognostic factors for epilepsy following first febrile seizure in Saudi children
CONCLUSION: The rate of epilepsy following first febrile seizure in Saudi children is within the range of values reported in different populations. Although most childhood febrile seizures are self-limiting, careful observation is needed, particularly for children who exhibit factors associated with epilepsy.  LIMITATIONS:Conducted at a single center in Saudi Arabia, which may limit generalizability.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Retrospective review of pediatric status epilepticus in 116 Saudi patients: predictors of outcome
CONCLUSION: Pediatric status epilepticus is highly associated with neurological morbidity. The main pre.dictor of outcome is underlying symptomatic etiology of SE and to a lesser degree the presence of a history of epilepsy. Duration does not seem to play a major role.  LIMITATIONS:The main limitation is the retrospective chart review nature of the study with possible bias.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Prevalence and predictors of myocardial ischemia by preoperative myocardial perfusion single photon emission computedtomography in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery
CONCLUSIONS: Because of the low positive predictive value of myocardial perfusion SPECT, utilization of the technique in the workup of cardiac patients undergoing noncardiac surgery has been inappropriate. Myocardial perfusion SPECT should be restricted to only clearly defined appropriate use criteria.  LIMITATIONS: Relatively small number of patients and retrospective design.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Recurrence of malignant melanoma presenting as black-colored pyopneumothorax: a rare entity
We report a 63-year-old patient with black-colored pus (pyopneumothorax) resulting from an infected pleural effusion associated with metastatic malignant melanoma of the skin. The patient was also positive for Pseudomonas, so the color was unexpected. Although rare, malignant melanoma can present as a black pleural effusion due to the presence of melanocytes in the pleural fluid. Black pleural fluid should raise the suspicion of malignant melanoma.  SIMILAR CASES PUBLISHED:Nine cases of black pleural effusion due to different causes have been reported.1,2 Three cases of black pleural effusion due to metastat...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research

Reply
  Dear Dr. Shaker: We thank Dr Shakers comments on our article " Osteoporosis among male Saudi Arabs: A pilot study. Annals Saudi Med 2006; 26(6):450-54.1 The (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 22, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Stress in Children with Acute Hepatitis A
This study aims to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status of these patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, case-control study, over 2.5 years in patients under hospitalized and ambulatory care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The levels of a whole-blood antioxidant, reduced glutathione; and plasma antioxidants,β-carotene, retinol, ascorbic acid,α-tocopherol; and the biomarker of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, were evaluated in 50 pediatric patients (age range, 5-16 years; 29 males and 21 females) with acute hepatitis A and in 50 healthy children as control subjects (age range, 5-16 years; 25 males and 25...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a major global health problem leading to morbidity, mortality and stigma. Prior to this study there was no information on the prevalence and knowledge of STIs in Faisalabad, Pakistan. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, cross-sectional study in patients attending STI clinics from July 2006 to September 2009. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After obtaining consent, patients completed structured questionnaires used for behavioral surveys. Blood and urethral swabs were collected and tested for syphilis, gonococcus, genital herpes, chlamydia and chancroid...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Erratum
  BaHammam AS, Almestehi W, Albatli A, AlShaya S. Distribution of chronotypes in a large sample of young adult Saudis. Ann Saudi Med. 2011 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Atrial Fibrillation in Saudi Patients
PMID: 21623067DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81536 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Improper Aortic Sinus- Connected Coronary Artery: Ascertaining the Course is Essential (Comment on Ann Saudi Med 2010;1:81-3)
PMID: 21623066DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81535 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Comment on: Outcome of a Newborn Hearing Screening Program in a Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia: The First Five Years Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31: 24-8
PMID: 21623065DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81534 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Comment on: Early Cholestasis in Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31: 80-2
PMID: 21623063DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81532 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Survival of Living-related Kidney Graft Recipients in the Era of Modern Immunosuppressive Treatment
CONCLUSION: Long-term survival after living-related kidney transplantation has improved in the era of modern immunosuppressive treatment. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 279-283PMID: 21623058 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81546 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Clinical and Autonomic Functions: A Study of Childhood Anxiety Disorders
CONCLUSIONS: The study is probably the first of its kind to look into the issue in detail using a detailed battery of the autonomic function tests, and the results are of help in better understanding the condition. The result of the present experiment supports differences in autonomic activity and reactivity between individuals with anxiety disorder and non-anxious control subjects. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 250-257PMID: 21623053 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81533 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Reply
  We appreciate with interests raised by Dr. Jayadevan Sreedharan.  The department of primary care shares medical care with the diabetic centre at the endocrinology (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Incidental Parathyroidectomy During Thyroid Resection: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcome
CONCLUSION: The incidence of incidental removal of parathyroid tissue during thyroidectomy is 16.4%. Total thyroidectomy, extrathyroidal extension of the tumor, and thyroiditis were found to be the risk factors. Hypocalcemia was significantly higher among patients who had inadvertent parathyroidectomy. Ann Saudi Med 2011 ; 31 (3): 274-278PMID: 21623057 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81545 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Comment on: Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in a Saudi Community Ann Saudi Med 2011;31(1):19-23
DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81530PMID: 21623064 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Brucella Arthritis in 24 Children
CONCLUSION: Childhood brucellosis is a challenging disease in Iran that has serious complications like arthritis. Therefore all physicians who work in endemic areas should be familiar with this disease and consider the possibility of brucellosis in all children who present with arthritis and arthralgia. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31 (3): 270-273PMID: 21623056 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81 543 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Recurrent Abdominal Pain in a 16-Year-Old Girl
Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 314 PMID: 21623062 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81539 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Pattern of Presentation in Type 1 Diabetic Patients at the Diabetes Center of a University Hospital
CONCLUSION: The pattern of presentation of type 1 diabetes has changed as the incidence of DKA has decreased; unlike in previous studies, DKA was not the most common presenting symptom in this study. Chronic complications of diabetes, such as retinopathy, neuropathy, coronary heart disease, and nephropathy are mostly rare but still present. These complications might be prevented by achieving better awareness of the need for glycemic control. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 243-249PMID: 21623052 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81529 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Mass of the Chest Wall as the Sole Manifestation of Brucellosis in a 7-Year-Old Boy
We report the case of a child who presented with a subcutaneous mass on the left side of the chest wall of one month's duration. The mass was painful and increasing in size over time. He had a history of weight loss and a decrease in appetite, but no history of fever or trauma. He had ingested raw camel milk, but had no history of contact with animals. He was diagnosed by the standard tube agglutination titer and tissue culture for brucellosis, treated with surgery and three months of antibrucella antibiotics. The report includes a brief review of the current pediatric literature to familiarize pediatricians with this unco...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Paget Disease of the Bone: Does it Exist in Saudi Arabia?
We present four cases of Saudi patients with Paget disease with variable presentations. The first case, a 63-year-old woman with a history of papillary thyroid cancer, presented with bone, shoulder and chest wall pain and foci of uptake in the ribs and skull that were thought to be metastases, indicating the possibility of diagnostic difficulty in a patient with history of malignancy. Bone biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Paget disease. The second case was a 47-year-old asymptomatic woman with an elevated alkaline phosphatase of 427 U/L, a common presentation but at an unusual age. Plain x-rays and bone scan confirmed the...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Factors Affecting the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy and its Complications: A Single-center Experience in Saudi Arabia
CONCLUSION: Diabetic nephropathy tends to be progressive among Saudis, with GFR deteriorating at a rate of 3.3 mL/year and with a doubling of serum creatinine level in 40.3% of patients in 9.9 years. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 236-242PMID: 21623051 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.81528 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Effect of Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy on Ovarian Volume and Androgen Hormones in Patients with Untreated Primary Hypothyroidism
CONCLUSION: Severe longstanding hypothyroidism leads to increased ovarian volume and/or cyst formation. A decrease in ovarian volume, resolution of ovarian cysts and reversal of the polycystic ovary syndrome-like appearance, together with improvement in serum hormone levels, occurred after euthyroidism was achieved. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 145-151PMID: 21403408 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.77500 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Chronic Spontaneous Cervicothoracic Epidural Hematoma in an 8-month-old Infant
We present the case to highlight the significance of recognizing this chronic spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma and discuss the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 301-304PMID: 21242640 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.75586 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Betel Nut Chewing as a Risk Factor for Hepatitis C Infection in Taiwan-a Community-Based Study
  To the Editor: We completed a comprehensive health survey and structural questionnaires among the adults living in the eastern area of Taichung (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Erratum
  The order of authors in the article below should have appeared as: Mohammad Alsharani, Marzouqah Alanazi, Majid Alsalamah  Alanazi M, Alashahrani M, Alsalamah M. Black (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Reply
  Thank you for the comments. My response is as follows:  The comments on relapse usually occurring in two to three weeks after the infection (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

MRI Demonstration of Subtotal Agenesis of the Cerebellum with Closed-Lip Schizencephaly
Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 207-208PMID: 21422661 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.78212 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Unusual Anatomic Location of a Primary Intracranial Yolk Sac Tumor
A nongerminomatous germ cell tumor occurring in the brain parenchyma is extremely rare. A 2-year-old boy presented with symptoms of abnormal movements in the hand and mouth. MRI scanning revealed a lesion occupying the left temporoparietal region. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern, and Schiller-Duval bodies were evident at the center of the tumor. Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were positive for alpha-fetoprotein and vimentin, but negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein. Th...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Cyst in the Liver and Cough with Copious Purulent Sputum
Ann Saudi Med 2011 ; 31 (2): 206PMID: 21403405 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.77504 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Prevalence of Gilbert Syndrome in Parents of Neonates with Pathologic Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia
CONCLUSION: This study showed that GS cannot cause severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia by itself, but it may have a summative effect on rising bilirubin when combined with other factors, for example, G6PD. Our results showed that in GS, males are affected about twice as much as the females. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 140-144PMID: 21403409 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.77498 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Distribution of Chronotypes in a Large Sample of Young Adult Saudis
CONCLUSION: Most Saudi college students had no preference for morningness or eveningness and were classified as " intermediate-types. " Morningness appears to be slightly more common in Saudis, especially males, than in individuals of some Western societies. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 183-186PMID: 21422657 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.78207 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Characteristics of Human Ewing/PNET Sarcoma Models
Ewing/PNET (peripheral neuroepithelioma) tumors are rare aggressive bone sarcomas occurring in young people. Rare-disease clinical trials can require global collaborations and many years. In vivo models that as accurately as possible reflect the clinical disease are helpful in selecting therapeutics with the most promise of positive clinical impact. Human Ewing/PNET sarcoma cell lines developed over the past 45 years are described. Several of these have undergone genetic analysis and have been confirmed to be those of Ewing/PNET sarcoma. The A673 Ewing sarcoma line has proven to be particularly useful in understanding the ...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Incidence of Various Clinico-Morphological Variants of Cutaneous Tuberculosis and HIV Concurrence: A Study from the Indian Subcontinent
CONCLUSIONS:Cutaneous tuberculosis rates were slightly higher in our study than in other studies from India. HIV co-infection rates were similar to those in other studies. Many atypical morphological forms and presentations were observed in HIV co-infected patients. Due to the varied clinical presentations, physician awareness and a high index of suspicion are necessary to diagnose cutaneous forms of tuberculosis. Ann Saudi Med 2011 ; 31 (2): 1 34-1 39PMID: 21403410 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.77495 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Complications
Percutaneous vertebroplasty, among various other options, has become a mainstay in the management of osteoporotic and malignant vertebral fractures. The purpose of this article is to describe complications arising from the procedure, which can be classified as mild, which may include a temporary increase in pain and transient hypotension; moderate, including infection and extravasation of cement into the foraminal, epidural or dural space; and severe such as cement leakage in the paravertebral veins, leading to pulmonary embolism, cardiac perforation, cerebral embolism or even death. Vertebroplasty is not a procedure witho...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Re-Infection of Typhoid Fever and Typhoid Vaccine (Comment on " An Imported Enteric Fever Caused by a Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella Typhi " )
PMID: 21403404DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.77505 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Frequency of HLA-DRB1 Alleles in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in Zahedan, Southeast Iran
CONCLUSION: The data suggest that the DRB1*10 allele is a risk factor and DRB1*03 is protective for RA in this population. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 171-173PMID: 21422655 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.78205 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Reply
  With great honor I have read the valuable comments entitled“NK cell: an unforgettable lymphocyte " on the case report“Delayed Presentation of (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Among Smokers Attending Primary Healthcare Clinics in Saudi Arabia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Saudi Arabia is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD among smokers more than 40 years of age attending primary healthcare clinics in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional collection of demographic data and other items related to diagnosis of COPD in patients visiting primary healthcare clinics. METHODS: Eligible subjects were current or ex-smokers and aged 40 years or above. Spirometry was performed according to American Thoracic Society criteria. ...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Urine Iodine Excretion in Patients with Euthyroid Noduler Disease
CONCLUSION: In this study, iodine deficiency was associated with an increase in thyroid nodule volumes. Smoking rates were higher in iodine deficient groups. It is thought that smoking impairs iodine intake or absorption consistent with a previous report. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 167-170PMID: 21422654 DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.78204 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

NK Cell: An Unforgettable Lymphocyte (Comment on " Delayed Presentation of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency due to Prolonged maternal T Cell Engraftment " )
PMID: 21422659DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.78209 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - November 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research