Translation, validation, and cultural adaptation of the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index and the Chronic Sinusitis Survey into Arabic
This study was conducted between September 2015 and October 2016. We followed the international comprehensive guidelines for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of QoL instruments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Test-retest reliability, discriminant validity, and responsiveness ability of both the RSDI and CSS Arabic versions.  SAMPLE SIZE:124.  RESULTS: The sample comprised 75 patients diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis and 49 healthy control subjects. The Arabic version of both instruments showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: RSDI=0.97, CSS=.88) and the ability to differentiate be...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Translation, validation, and cultural adaptation of the Rhinosinusitis DisabilityIndex and the Chronic Sinusitis Survey into Arabic
This study was conducted between September 2015 and October 2016. We followed the international comprehensive guidelines for translation and cross-cultural adaptation of QoL instruments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Test-retest reliability, discriminant validity, and responsiveness ability of both the RSDI and CSS Arabic versions.  SAMPLE SIZE:124.  RESULTS: The sample comprised 75 patients diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis and 49 healthy control subjects. The Arabic version of both instruments showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: RSDI=0.97, CSS=.88) and the ability to differentiate be...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes with transcatheter aortic valve implantation at a single cardiac center in Saudi Arabia
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been recognized as a valid alternative to surgery for severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) in high-risk surgical patients. OBJECTIVE:Determine first-year clinical outcomes for TAVI at Madinah Cardiac Center (MMC) in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN:Retrospective, analytical cross-sectional. SETTING: Tertiary cardiac care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent TAVI for severe AS between February 2013 and December 2016 were included. Clinical, imaging, and laboratory information at baseline and at one year follow-up were analyzed. MAIN...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation improved survival in patients with massive pulmonary embolism
CONCLUSIONS: Anticoagulation with ECMO support is associated with good survival rate outcomes compared with medical therapy alone.  LIMITATIONS:Relatively small number of patients and retrospective design. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.  (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Portal venous pressure and proper graft function in living donor liver transplants in 69 patients from an Egyptian center
BACKGROUND: Several studies have defined the optimal portal pressure suitable for adequate graft renewal in liver transplantation (LT) but none have studied an Egyptian population to our knowledge. OBJECTIVES: Determine the level of portal venous pressure (PVP) for adequate graft function, and study the effect of PVP modulation on the outcome of LT in an Egyptian population.  DESIGN:Cross-sectional, prospectively collected data. SETTING:Liver transplantation unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The study included adult cirrhotic pa.tients who underwent right lobe liver donor living transplantation (LDLT) at ...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Comparison of two different renal access techniques in one-stage percutaneous nephrolithotomy: triangulation versus “eye of the needle”
CONCLUSION: According to our study, renal access for one-stage PCNL can be achieved using either the EN or TT technique. The renal access technique used does not independently affect the complication rate. LIMITATIONS:Retrospective, small sample size, and no comparison of body mass index. CONFLICT OF INTEREST:None.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Time-to-detection of bacteria and yeast with the BACTEC FX versus BacT/Alert Virtuo blood culture systems
CONCLUSION:TTD was significantly shorter for most of the microorganisms tested on the new BacT/Alert Virtuo system compared to the BACTEC FX system. LIMITATIONS: Use of simulated cultures to assess TTD may not precisely represent clinical blood cultures. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.  (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

A novel high-resolution melting analysis approach for rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci
CONCLUSION: The 16S-PCR-HRMA approach has the potential for detecting vancomycin-resistantE faeciumandE faecalis. Data with VRE provide the basis for combining VRE identification with pathogens speciation in a rapid, cheap assay able to identify a pathogen as an Enterococcus and whether it is vancomycin-sensitive or -resistantE faecium orE faecalis in a single PCR and HRMA run. LIMITATIONS: Tested on specific, but not all, referenceEnterococcus species and clinical isolates.  CONFLICT OF INTEREST:None.  (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Human myiasis in patients with diabetic foot: 18 cases
CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of cases of diabetic foot with myiasis. The most common parasitic agent wasLucilia sericata. Bacterial soft tissue infections were observed in all cases. Poor hygienic conditions were noteworthy and all patients were in need of radical surgery. Myiasis complication of diabetic foot is more frequently seen in the spring and summer.  LIMITATIONS:Insufficient follow-up time for analysis of possible confounding factors. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.  (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Stress and coping among consultant physicians working in Saudi Arabia
BACKGROUND: Exposure to stressful working conditions without adequate stress-coping strategies may lead to stress and even psychiatric morbidity. There are a dearth of studies on stress-coping strategies among consultant physicians in the Arabian Gulf.  OBJECTIVES:Determine stress-coping strategies among consultants in Saudi Arabia and the relationship of strategies to level of stress.  DESIGN: Analytical cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 among physician consultants registered at the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties.  SUBJECTS AND METHO...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Prevalence of fall injuries and risk factors for fall among hospitalized children in a specialized children ’s hospital in Saudi Arabia
CONCLUSION: Risk factor identification is required to prevent falls and their severe outcomes. LIMITATIONS:Underreporting and single-centered study. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Sclerosing encapsulated peritonitis: typical imaging findings for easy diagnosis
Sclerosing encapsulated peritonitis (SEP) is a rare disease characterized by intestinal encasement within a fibrocollagenous membrane. Diagnosis of SEP may be challenging due to a lack of specific symptoms. Demonstration of clustered intestinal segments surrounded by a membranous sac by various imaging modalities is crucial to reveal the presence of SEP. Radiologic examinations play an important role in the management of the disease. This case is not unusual. Our intention is to emphasize the role of the imaging findings of a patient with primary SEP that presented with recurrent intestinal obstruction. SIMILAR CASES ...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - May 31, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Withdrawal of two generic clopidogrel products in Saudi Arabia for non-bio-equivalence
To the Editor: Clopidogrel, a P2Y12 platelet inhibitor, is indicated for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.1-3 In February 2018, the Saudi Food and (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 3 Source Type: research

Reproductive health profile and circumcision of females in the Hali semi-urban region, Saudi Arabia: A community-based cross-sectional survey
CONCLUSION: The pattern of early female marriage, high consanguinity, GMP, low contraceptive use, and a high frequency of circumcision in girls was apparent in Hali. Public health education and legislative policies are needed. LIMITATIONS:Recall bias may affect the reported frequency of circumcision, and related complications. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST:None.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Screening of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers working in Hajj pilgrimage area in Saudi Arabia, using interferon gamma release assay and tuberculin skin test
CONCLUSION: Agreement between the tests was poor. QFT-GIT detected LTBI when TST was negative in HCWs who had a history of close contact with TB patients.  LIMITATIONS: A second step TST was not feasible within 2-3 weeks. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Donor-specific HLA-DQ antibodies may contribute to poor graft outcome after heart transplantation
BACKGROUND: HLA-DQ donor-specific antibodies (DSA) are implicated in allograft dysfunction after renal and lung transplantation. Limited data exists on the impact of HLA-DQ antibodies on heart transplant patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of DSA formation on allograft function and outcomes in heart transplant patients. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:Collating post-transplantation patient data from computerized database in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2006 to October 2014.  PATIENTS AND METHODS:We excluded recipients with positive preoperative comp...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Outcomes of common general surgery procedures for patients discharged over weekends at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia
CONCLUSION:Weekend discharge was not associated with higher readmission rates. Physicians may consider discharging post-operative patients over a weekend without an increased risk to the patient. Day of discharge, length of stay and increased patient age are not predictors of early readmission.  LIMITATIONS:Single-center study and retrospective. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Elevated fasting blood glucose, but not obesity, is associated with coronary artery disease in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography in a referral hospital in Jordan
BACKGROUND: Obesity and its metabolic complications are endemic in the Middle East, but the cardiovascular consequences are not well defined in local studies. OBJECTIVE:To assess the association between fasting blood glucose (FBG), obesity and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Jordan.  DESIGN: A cross-sectional, hospital-based study. SETTING:A referral hospital in Amman, Jordan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with complete anthropomorphic data who were referred for elective coronary angiography were included in the analysis. Associations between CAD, FBG and obesity were assessed in multivariate log...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Endobronchial biopsy in the final diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma: a clinicopathological study
CONCLUSIONS:The thickness of the RBM is the only reproducible histopathological feature to differentiate COPD from irreversible asthma. LIMITATIONS: The study included a limited number of patients. A qualitative approach was used to compare epithelial cell injury, inflammation, submucosal glandular and muscular hyperplasia.  CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Comparison of cochlear duct length between the Saudi and non-Saudi populations
CONCLUSIONS:The CDL differed significantly according to side of the cochlea and sex, but not by age. Geographically and ethnically, the mean CDL for Saudis was significantly different from the CDL of subjects of some ethnic backgrounds, but not others. Due to this diversity, we recommend that the CDL be measured before cochlear implant surgery.  LIMITATIONS:All the measurements were done by one person, and the subjects’ physical measurements, such as height or head circumference, were not included. CONFLICT OF INTEREST:None.  (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Vitamin D deficiency in sickle cell disease patients in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a major global health problem. In sickle cell disease (SCD), VDD is highly prevalent, reaching up to 96% of populations. VDD may contribute to many of the complications of SCD.  OBJECTIVE: Estimate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the frequency of VDD and insufficiency among among SCD patients by age group and disease status. DESIGN:Analytical cross-sectional. SETTING: Ministry of Health (MOH) secondary care hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Non-probability purposive sampling was used to select SCD patients, aged 12 years and older, of both sexes, ...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Age at presentation of undescended testicles: a single-center study in Saudi Arabia
BACKGROUND:The undescended testis (UDT) is the most common genital anomaly encountered in pediatrics with an estimated incidence of 1% to 4% in full-term and 1% to 45% in preterm newborn boys. Over the years, studies on progressive histological deterioration and cancer risk has led to a change in recommendations for when orchidopexy should be done. OBJECTIVES:Determine age at presentation of patients for UDT to a specialist in Saudi Arabia, age of operation and whether the recommended targeted time frame has been met.  DESIGN:Descriptive retrospective medical record review. SETTINGS:University hospital ...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Turnover among Filipino nurses in Ministry of Health hospitals in Saudi Arabia: causes and recommendations for improvement
CONCLUSION:Managing nurse turnover can be implemented on the organizational as well as at MOH levels. The recommendations given by the participants provide direct targets to improve retention. LIMITATIONS:With convenience sampling, the sample is probably not representative of the Filipino nursing population. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid leakage after turbinate submucosal diathermy: an unusual complication
We describe the first reported case in the literature of an iatrogenic CSF fistula caused by SMDIT, an unusual and potentially fatal complication, and its surgical management.  SIMILAR CASES PUBLISHED: None. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Cerebrodpinal fluid leakage after turbinate submucosal diathermy: an unusual complication
We describe the first reported case in the literature of an iatrogenic CSF fistula caused by SMDIT, an unusual and potentially fatal complication, and its surgical management.  CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.  (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Graves disease: a non-invasive, widely underutilized diagnostic tool
We present the case of a patient with Graves disease (GD) to draw attention to the prac­tical reliability of ultrasound (US) Doppler (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - March 28, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 4 Source Type: research

RE: Serum viral markers in Iranian patients with congenital bleeding disorder
  To The Editor: We have read with great interest the article of Dr Nassiri-Toosi in your journal1 re­garding the prevalence of hepatitis C infection in (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - March 28, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 4 Source Type: research

RE: Serum viral markers in Iranian patients with congenital bleeding disorder
(Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - March 28, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: VOLUME 38 Source Type: research

Left-sided Amyand hernia
To the Editor: Claudius Amyand, surgeon to King George II, was the first to describe in 1736 the presence of a perforated appendix within the (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - March 28, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 4 Source Type: research

Breast metastasis of small bowel carcinoid tumor misdiagnosed as primary breast cancer
  To the Editor: Carcinoid tumors are rare, but constitute the most common gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors.1 These tumors arise from enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract. (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - March 28, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 4 Source Type: research

A 15-year-old girl with pancytopenia and congenital defects
(Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - March 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 4 Source Type: research

Experience with oral mexiletine in primary erythromelalgia in children
We present two cases of primary erythromelalgia both of whom presented with a history of several months of severe burning pain in both hands and feet. Both patients had received multiple pain medications with no improvement in symptoms. Rain was relieved by putting affected parts in ice cold water, which resulted in immersion injury of the affected parts. Both patients stopped taking part in school and social activities. We tried oral mexiletine, a class lb antiarrythmic agent, in view of its reported role in various chronic painful conditions. Dramatic improvement was observed with its use. Both patients improved after se...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - March 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 4 Source Type: research

Forced eye closure-induced reflex seizure and non-ketotic hyperglycemia
We report an uncommon case of 53-year-old female patient with partial seizure induced by forced vol¬untary eye closure due to non-ketotic hyperglycemia. The initial laboratory tests showed an elevated blood glucose level of 550 mg/dL but no evidence of ketosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal. When the blood glucose levels decreased slowly to about 150 mg/dL in five days, the seizures ended completely. No anticonvulsants were used. Since seizures are generally refractory to antiepileptic medication, control of blood glucose is essential. Ann Saudi Med 2009; 29(4): 313-315 (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - March 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 4 Source Type: research

Gender differences in mortality among ST elevation myocardial infarction patients in Malaysia from 2006 to 2013
BACKGROUND:Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death in Malaysia. However, the prevalence of CAD in males is higher than in females and mortality rates are also different between the two genders. This suggest that risk factors associated with mortality between males and females are different, so we compared the clinical characteristics and outcome between male and female STEMI patients. OBJECTIVES:To identify the risk factors associated with mortality for each gender and compare differences, if any, among ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. DESIGN:Retrospective analysis....
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

Association between the mode of transport and in-hospital medical complications in trauma patients: findings from a level-I trauma center in Saudi Arabia
CONCLUSION:Multiple factors may influence this unexpected finding, such as distance to health care set.tings, the belief that PT is faster or lack of knowledge of the EMS contact number. Further efforts are needed to raise awareness of the importance of using EMS to transport trauma patients to hospitals. Prevention programs to reduce traffic crashes may facilitate reduction in traumatic injuries and associated complications. LIMITATIONS:Retrospective and conducted in one center only.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

Delirium and correlates of delirium among newly admitted elderly patients: a cross-sectional study in a Saudi general hospital
CONCLUSIONS: Delirium was common and frequently not recognized in elderly patients admitted to the hospital. Administration of the CAM was very helpful in identifying delirium at admission. LIMITATIONS:The main limitation of our study was the relatively small number of patients which might have limited the power to detect some associations.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

Psychometric Arabic Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22: validation and translation in chronic rhinosinusitis patients
 BACKGROUND:The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT)-22 has multiple items that reflect how nasal disease affects quality of life. Currently, no validated Arabic version of the SNOT-22 is available.  OBJECTIVE:. To develop an Arabic-validated version of SNOT-22. DESIGN:Prospective. SETTING:Tertiary care center. PATIENT AND METHODS:This single-center validation study was conducted between 2015 and 2017 at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The SNOT-22 English version was translated into Arabic by the forward and backward method. The test and retest reliability, internal consis...
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

Descemet stripping automated endothelialkeratoplasty (DSAEK) versus repeat penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) to manage eyes with failed corneal graft
CONCLUSIONS: DSAEK and PKP for previously failed corneal graft resulted in similar BCVA 6 months after repeat surgery. However, the visual outcomes were less promising with both types of surgeries. The lower complication rate and surgical ease may favor DSAEK over PKP in managing failed grafts. LIMITATIONS: Small sample, retrospective study.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

Sleep disorders as primary and secondary factors in relation with daily functioning in medical students
CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep is a common issue in medical students and a number of sleep disorders were found. The results suggest that sleep disorders could have negative impacts on the daily functioning of students. LIMITATIONS:The study findings may not be generalizable because sociocultural characteristics of the sample may differ from the general population.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

The endangered clinician-investigator profession in Saudi Arabia: curricular attention is required
(Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

Nonmelanoma skin cancer in Saudi Arabia: single center experience
CONCLUSIONS: BCC and SCC are uncommon but not rare. However, skin cancers are underreported in in our population. NMSC in individuals younger than 50 years of age requires more careful evaluation of possible risk factors. LIMITATIONS:Retrospective in a single tertiary care setting.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - January 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

Nonmelanoma skin cancer in Saudi Arabia: single center experience
CONCLUSIONS: BCC and SCC are uncommon but not rare. However, skin cancers are underreported in in our population. NMSC in individuals younger than 50 years of age requires more careful evaluation of pos.sible risk factors. LIMITATIONS:Retrospective in a single tertiary care setting.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - January 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: AHEAD OF PRINT Source Type: research

B cell aplasia and hypogammaglobulinemia associated with levetiracetam
We report a 45-year-old female who developed hypogammaglobulinemia and B cell aplasia during LEV treatment. The Naranjo probability score for an adverse drug reaction was 6. After LEV discontinuation, the number of B cells gradually increased and reached normal levels within two months. This case suggests that monitoring of immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subsets analysis is important in patients treated with LEV, especially in cases of prolonged infections.  SIMILAR CASES PUBLISHED: 1   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - January 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

The Saudi Diabetic Kidney Disease study (Saudi-DKD): clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters
CONCLUSION: Diabetic nephropathy is associated with insulin resistance, changes in liver enzymes and uric acid in addition to abnormalities in the red blood cell count and red blood cell shape that warrant frequent monitoring among patients with diabetic kidney disease. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional study design and exclusion of patients with some risk factors.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - January 3, 2018 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

Association between body mass index and dental caries among special care female children in Makkah City
CONCLUSION:This study demonstrated a significant association between caries frequency and overweight/obesity in special care school children.  LIMITATIONS:Since the data was cross-sectional, causal relationships cannot be established and the observed association could be due to other unexplored factors. Because of cultural and ethical consideration, including segregation of gender in Saudi Arabia, only female children were included in the present study, which limited the findings.   (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 31, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 1 Source Type: research

The association between body mass index and frequency of emergency department visits and hospitalization for asthma exacerbation in a pediatric population
CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of an association between BMI and frequency of ED visits and hospitalization for asthma exacerbation among children.  LIMITATIONS: This study included patients as young as 2 years, while asthma is only well-defined in children>5 years. Asthma triggers that can cause exacerbation despite body weight were not included. We included only frequency of ED visits and hospitalization, which may be inadequate to measure asthma severity.    (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - December 11, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 6 Source Type: research