Rethinking social inclusion: Experiences of persons in recovery from mental illness.
This qualitative study examines the relational dimension of social inclusion by exploring the ways in which persons in recovery from mental illness understand and define their relationships with various communities. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 participants who were heterogeneous with respect to gender, psychiatric diagnoses, sexual orientation and gender identity, and living environments. We found competencies for establishing reciprocal social relationships and taking on responsibility as citizens and community members, rendering support for the capabilities approach as a promising schema for understa...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wong, Yin-Ling Irene; Stanton, Megan C.; Sands, Roberta G. Source Type: research

Interpersonal relationship narratives of older adults with schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses.
Shared themes connected to interpersonal relationships across the life courses of older adults with schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses were identified in first-person life history narratives and explored in depth. Findings were developed through thematic narrative analysis of 35 interviews with 7 older adults currently in treatment for schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses. A combination of open-ended questions, life history calendars, and time diaries were used to structure interviews, and narrative and analytical development. Themes of relational losses, relational voids, relational adjustments, relational adaptations, and the ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ogden, Lydia P. Source Type: research

The health equity promotion model: Reconceptualization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health disparities.
National health initiatives emphasize the importance of eliminating health disparities among historically disadvantaged populations. Yet, few studies have examined the range of health outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. To stimulate more inclusive research in the area, we present the Health Equity Promotion Model—a framework oriented toward LGBT people reaching their full mental and physical health potential that considers both positive and adverse health-related circumstances. The model highlights (a) heterogeneity and intersectionality within LGBT communities; (b) the influence of ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Simoni, Jane M.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Lehavot, Keren; Walters, Karina L.; Yang, Joyce; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.; Muraco, Anna Source Type: research

Bullied youth: The impact of bullying through lesbian, gay, and bisexual name calling.
This study examines bullying experiences in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 3,379 rural elementary-, middle-, and high-school youth. We use latent class analysis to establish clusters of bullying behaviors, including forms of biased-based bullying. The resulting classes are examined to ascertain if and how bullying by biased-based labeling is clustered with other forms of bullying behavior. This analysis identifies 3 classes of youth: youth who experience no bullying victimization, youth who experience social and emotional bullying, and youth who experience all forms of social and physical bullying, including b...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Evans, Caroline B. R.; Chapman, Mimi V. Source Type: research

Being out at school: The implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment.
This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21–25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of L...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Russell, Stephen T.; Toomey, Russell B.; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M. Source Type: research

Young adults in conflict: Confident but struggling, networked but disconnected.
This article discusses the conflict the cohort of adults known as the Millennials has been affected by. More specifically this article takes a look at how changes in the economy and society have influenced Millennials and what can be done to promote their well-being and that of future generations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: McLeigh, Jill D.; Boberiene, Liepa V. Source Type: research

Fifteen years after treatment: A follow-up study of comprehensive vocationally-oriented psychotherapy.
This reprinted article originally appeared in American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1979, Vol. 49, No. 2, 240–245. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-43131-006.) The fourth follow-up study of adolescent delinquent boys treated in a community-based program that combined job placement, remedial education, and psychotherapy indicates that the better overall adjustment of the treated group, compared to untreated controls, is maintained well into adulthood. It reaffirms the importance of developing sound, innovative means of reaching adolescents in crisis, and suggests the value of a fu...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shore, Milton F.; Massimo, Joseph L. Source Type: research

Marking time in the land of plenty: Reflections on mental health in the United States.
This article focuses on reflections on mental health in the United States. This accumulation of wisdom and knowledge from experts inside and outside government has for the most part been ignored or shelved over the years because of revisions, deferrals, impoundments, vetoes, threatened vetoes, reorganizations, budget cuts, inflation, and military demands. Programs such as Head Start, which have been proven successful, have been fighting for survival, and community mental health centers, which in many ways represented a bold, new approach with much creative promise, were threatened with the loss of federal funding in the ea...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shore, Milton F. Source Type: research

Milt Shore: Editor and advocate.
This editorial pays tribute to former editor, Milton F. Shore, who has for many years been one of Ortho’s most dedicated members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Melton, Gary B. Source Type: research

Editing on the edge in Denver, New Orleans, and Williamston—and soon in Dallas and Lincoln, too.
This editorial provides a farewell from the coeditors of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Barbarin, Oscar; Melton, Gary B. Source Type: research

Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: A prospective study.
This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive s...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 24, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Krabbendam, Anne A.; Colins, Olivier F.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van der Molen, Elsa; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M. Source Type: research

A culturally adapted depression intervention for African American adults experiencing depression: Oh Happy Day.
The purpose of this article is to describe development of a culturally adapted depression intervention (Oh Happy Day Class, OHDC) designed for African American adults experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). This project included 2 pilot studies testing the feasibility and acceptability of the OHDC and examining short-term effects of the OHDC in reducing symptoms of MDD. The OHDC is a 2.5-hr weekly, culturally specific, cognitive behavioral, group counseling intervention for 12 weeks. Cultural adaptations of the OHDC are based on the ecological validity and culturally sensitive framework, along with an Afrocentric par...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 24, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ward, Earlise C.; Brown, Roger L. Source Type: research

Regional and national differences in stressful life events: The role of cultural factors, economic development, and gender.
The study analyzed differences in the risk of experiencing stressful life events (SLE) according to cultural factors, the level of economic development of the region inhabited, and gender. Information was gathered on the number and nature of SLE experienced by a sample of 604 undergraduates from 3 regions with very different levels of economic development: Madrid (Spain), León (Nicaragua), and Bilwi (Nicaragua). The results indicated a greater risk of experiencing SLE among undergraduates from Nicaragua, but few differences attributed to the undergraduates’ gender or the level of economic development in the re...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Martín, Rosa M. Source Type: research

Adoption and guardianship: A moderated mediation analysis of predictors of post-permanency continuity.
This study examined the mediating effects of caregivers’ thoughts about ending an adoption or guardianship, and how this mechanism may be contingent on primordial and bureaucratic factors that child welfare agencies rely on to ensure family continuity after legal permanence. In 2006, a sample of 346 Illinois caregivers who finalized an adoption or guardianship between 1998 and 2002 completed surveys about child behavior problems, the adequacy of financial assistance, and thoughts about maintaining the permanency relationship. Responses were linked to administrative data that tracked continuity of care through 2012. S...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Testa, Mark F.; Snyder, Susan M.; Wu, Qi; Rolock, Nancy; Liao, Minli Source Type: research

Ethnic identity, perceived support, and depressive symptoms among racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents.
Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role of nativity status (U.S. born vs. foreign...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha Source Type: research

Sense of coherence mediates the effect of trauma on the social and emotional functioning of Palestinian health providers.
Palestinian health providers are widely recognized to be at risk of developing trauma. Research has examined the role of sense of coherence (SOC) as a determinant or component of psychological distress in emergency workers. In the current study, we expected that SOC would mediate the relationship between individual health providers’ primary responses to the traumatic environment (as assessed using intrusion and avoidance measures) and the secondary effects suffered in terms of general psychological distress as reflected in levels of anxiety, social dysfunction, and loss of confidence. Participants (N = 218) were recr...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro Source Type: research

Dialogue as skill: Training a health professions workforce that can talk about race and racism.
We present evidence establishing the need to go beyond training in interview skills that efficiently “extract” relevant cultural and clinical information from patients. This evidence includes concepts from social psychology that include implicit bias, explicit bias, and aversive racism. Aiming to connect the dots of diverse literatures, we believe health professions educators and institutional leaders can play a pivotal role in reducing racial disparities in health care encounters by actively promoting, nurturing, and participating in this dialogue, modeling its value as an indispensable skill and institutional...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Murray-García, Jann L.; Harrell, Steven; García, Jorge A.; Gizzi, Elio; Simms-Mackey, Pamela Source Type: research

Disorganized and controlling patterns of attachment, role reversal, and caregiving helplessness: Links to adolescents’ externalizing problems.
The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal associations between attachment at early school age and the development of externalizing symptoms in adolescence. The mediating roles of maternal helplessness and role reversal were also examined. Attachment classifications of 136 children (63 boys and 73 girls) and quality of mother–child interactions (role reversal) were observed at ages 5–6 using the separation–reunion procedure (Main & Cassidy, 1988). At age 13, externalizing problems reported by both the adolescent and the mother (Youth Self-Report; Achenbach, 1991), and caregiving helplessnes...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lecompte, Vanessa; Moss, Ellen Source Type: research

Nonevent stress contributes to mental health disparities based on sexual orientation: Evidence from a personal projects analysis.
This study examined the role of nonevent stress—in the form of frustrated personal project pursuits in the arenas of relationships and work—as a contributing factor to mental health disparities between heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. A purposive sample of 431 LGB (55%) and heterosexually identified (45%) individuals living in the United States and Canada completed the Personal Project Inventory by describing and rating core personal projects they were pursuing. The intensity of perceived barriers to the achievement of relationship- and work-related personal projects served as indi...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Frost, David M.; LeBlanc, Allen J. Source Type: research

Sex and the sinner: Comparing religious and nonreligious same-sex attracted adults on internalized homonegativity and distress.
Homonegative prejudice has long been connected with poor psychological outcomes. These have often been purported to include internalized homonegativity (IH), an outcome regarded as especially detrimental given its association with a large number of adverse mental health correlates. Given the evidence that homonegative prejudice often prevails most strongly within many mainstream religious contexts, the current study examined whether religious lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals would possess higher levels of internalized homonegativity than their nonreligious, and formerly religious, LGB counterparts. To test this...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sowe, Babucarr J.; Brown, Jac; Taylor, Alan J. Source Type: research

“I need you to listen to what happened to me”: Personal narratives of social trauma in research and peace-building.
This article explores the uses of personal narratives of massive social trauma in conflict, most specifically as they relate to the Palestinian–Israeli context. It is asserted that there are types of narratives, fixated on persecution, hatred, and fear, that can obstruct peace, and different types that encourage peace and reconciliation. The article discusses the impacts of sharing personal narratives on the victims and others in society, the connections between personal and master narratives, and ways in which dialogue that incorporates personal narratives can encourage peace. A theoretical categorization of 4 types...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chaitin, Julia Source Type: research

The effectiveness of housing interventions and housing and service interventions on ending family homelessness: A systematic review.
Family homelessness has become a growing public health problem over the last 3 decades. Despite this trend, few studies have explored the effectiveness of housing interventions and housing and service interventions. The purpose of this systematic review is to appraise and synthesize evidence on effective interventions addressing family homelessness. We searched 10 major electronic databases from 2007 to 2013. Empirical studies investigating effectiveness of housing interventions and housing and service interventions for American homeless families regardless of publication status were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes includ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bassuk, Ellen L.; DeCandia, Carmela J.; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Richard, Molly K. Source Type: research

Coming from behind: A historical perspective on Black education and attainment.
In our current reliance on “hard data,” achievement test scores are used incorrectly and without warrant as the ultimate mark of educational progress. While it is true that a gap continues to exist, educational history shows that, overall, both Black and White students have participated steadily in increasing numbers in the educational system, whether the measure is the number of students attending school, the increasing length of the school years, literacy rates, or in the actual level of educational attainment over a period of more than 100 years. The data examined in historical perspective show that the Amer...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Levine, Murray; Levine, Adeline G. Source Type: research

How can policy strengthen community support for children in military families?
The extraordinary demands of recent wars have increased burdens on many military families and existing systems of care. The sacrifices made by service members are made also by their children and families, and these sacrifices can have long-term consequences. Therefore, military children and families cannot go unrecognized and unsupported. Policy responses should be less about diagnosing and treating individuals and more about recognizing and supporting families’ and communities’ resilience in the face of wartime deployment. Policy should focus on identifying military children in diverse communities and supporti...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Boberiene, Liepa V.; Hornback, Bradley J. Source Type: research

Risk factors for suicidal behaviors among Filipino Americans: A data mining approach.
Filipino Americans have lower suicide rates than other Asian ethnic groups. The present study examined risk factors for suicide ideation and attempt among Filipino Americans with random forest. The data were from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Study (Takeuchi, 2011). The results showed that the important predictors for suicide ideation were depressive disorder, substance use disorder, and years in the United States. The important predictors for suicide attempt were the number of family relatives and family conflict. Clinicians are advised to investigate familial and cultural factors among Filipino American...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 11, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kuroki, Yusuke Source Type: research

Sudden losses and negative appraisal in people with severe mental illness.
Research on the impact of sudden or unexpected losses in people with severe mental illness is scarce. The purpose of our study was to examine the relationship between subjective distress from sudden losses in people with severe mental illness and posttraumatic stress symptoms while controlling for gender, psychiatric symptoms, and negative appraisals. As part of routine care, treatment personnel collected data from 371 community mental health clients diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that negative appraisals of the self and the world correlated significantly with posttraumatic ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 11, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: O’Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.; Shen, Ce Source Type: research

Contemporary heterosexism on campus and psychological distress among LGBQ students: The mediating role of self-acceptance.
Contemporary heterosexism includes both overt and subtle discrimination. Minority stress theory posits that heterosexism puts sexual minorities at risk for psychological distress and other negative outcomes. Research, however, tends to focus only on 1 form at a time, with minimal attention being given to subtle heterosexism. Further, little is known about the connection between minority stressors and underlying psychological mechanisms that might shape mental health outcomes. Among a convenience sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) college students (n = 299), we investigated the role of blatant victimization ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 11, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Woodford, Michael R.; Kulick, Alex; Sinco, Brandy R.; Hong, Jun Sung Source Type: research

Posttraumatic growth in children and youth: Clinical implications of an emerging research literature.
Posttraumatic growth (PTG), positive change resulting from the struggle with trauma, has garnered significant attention in the literature on adults. Recently, the research base has begun to extend downward, and this literature indicates that youth also evidence PTG-like changes. Researchers have sought to assess the construct, examine its correlates, and understand the factors that contribute to PTG in youth. Drawing from this work, this article considers clinical implications for youth. After briefly describing the PTG construct, its hypothesized process, and its distinction from resilience, the article focuses on key the...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 11, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kilmer, Ryan P.; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Griese, Brook; Hardy, Steven J.; Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie; Alisic, Eva Source Type: research

The psychosocial impact of detention and deportation on U.S. Migrant children and families.
This article critically examines the current state of the literature on the psychosocial consequences of detention and deportation for unauthorized migrants, mixed-status families, and their U.S.-born children. In particular, drawing on social and psychological theory and research, we (a) review the impact of parents’ unauthorized status on children; (b) summarize the literature on the impact of detention processes on psychosocial well-being; (c) describe the dilemma faced by a mixed-status family when a parent faces deportation; (d) examine the current social scientific literature on how parental deportation impacts...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 11, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brabeck, Kalina M.; Lykes, M. Brinton; Hunter, Cristina Source Type: research

Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: A 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects.
This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers’ perceptions of their children’s adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress, and their child’s adjustment, in a 2-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive 4 broad parenting constructs (involvement, control, rejection, and stress) and 3 child adjustment constructs (internalizing problems, externalizing...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S. Source Type: research

A compensatory model of risk and resilience applied to adolescent sexual orientation disparities in nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempts.
This study investigated and applied a compensatory model of risk and resilience to differences in past-year nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts by sexual orientation using representative data from the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 3,131). Self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) adolescents comprised 7% of the sample, but accounted for 67% of NSSI and 80% of suicide attempts. Compared with heterosexuals, LGBQ adolescents had an increased odds of NSSI (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 2.76; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [2.00, 3.81] and suicide attempts (aOR = 2.73; 95% C...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Reisner, Sari L.; Biello, Katie; Perry, Nicholas S.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Mimiaga, Matthew J. Source Type: research

Complicated grief in help-seeking torture survivors in sub-Saharan African contexts.
Many help-seeking torture survivors in sub-Saharan Africa report sudden or violent bereavements, as well as risk factors associated with complicated grief. This mixed-methods article reviews 85 therapeutic client files from torture treatment centers in 3 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Thirty-nine clients had lost loved ones and were at greater risk for depression (effect size 0.65) and thoughts of suicide (OR = 4.99). Qualitative analysis of case histories and interviews with clients elaborate the links between torture and complicated grief. Recommendations are offered for the treatment of complicated grief in sub-Sahara...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 4, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Higson-Smith, Craig Source Type: research

Does Job Stability Mediate the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Among Low‐Income Women?
This study demonstrates the need for interventions that effectively address barriers to employment as a means of enhancing the mental health of low‐income women with abusive partners. (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adrienne E. Adams, Deborah Bybee, Richard M. Tolman, Cris M. Sullivan, Angie C. Kennedy Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Characteristics, Needs, and Help Seeking of Partner Violence Victims Mandated to Community Services by Courts and Child Protective Services
This article presents an exploratory, descriptive study that investigates (a) the characteristics of service‐mandated, parenting IPV victims; (b) the needs of service‐mandated, parenting IPV victims; and (c) the types of help‐seeking behavior these women had engaged in before their service referral. Study findings indicate that, although the participants showed parenting strengths and active help‐seeking efforts, this sample of women was characterized by severe IPV experiences and serious mental health needs. (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rebecca J. Macy, Cynthia F. Rizo, Dania M. Ermentrout Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Mothering Experiences of Sex‐Trafficked Women: Between Here and There
This qualitative study focuses on the mothering experiences of women from the former Soviet Union (FSU) who were sex‐trafficked to Israel. In‐depth interviews were conducted with 8 women who gave birth either in the FSU or in Israel. The women's stories reflect 3 experiential spheres, those of “the good mother,” “the sacrificing mother,” and “the mother who wants for herself.” These mothering spheres were found to exist against the backdrop of a life between 2 countries, where the women's mothering is split between “here” and “there.” Furthermore, it was found...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Einat Peled, Ayelet Parker Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Child Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation: A Review of Promising Prevention Policies and Programs
This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yvonne Rafferty Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Challenges of Reintegration for Service Members and Their Families
The ongoing wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have posed a number of reintegration challenges to service members. Much of the research focuses on those service members experiencing psychological problems and being treated at the VA. In this article, we contend that much of the distress service members experience occurs following deployment and is a consequence of the difficulties encountered during their efforts to successfully reintegrate into their families and communities. We propose a new conceptual framework for intervening in this reintegration distress that is psycho‐educational in nature as well as a new delivery mode...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Steven J. Danish, Bradley J. Antonides Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Childhood Antecedents of Incarceration and Criminal Justice Involvement Among Homeless Veterans
This study examined the association between three types of childhood problems, family instability, conduct disorder behaviors, and childhood abuse, and criminal justice involvement and incarceration in adulthood. Data from 1,161 homeless veterans across 19 sites participating in the Housing and Urban Development–Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program were examined. After controlling for sociodemographics and mental health diagnoses, veterans who reported more conduct disorder behaviors during childhood tended to report more criminal charges of all types, more convictions, and longer periods of incarceration duri...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jack Tsai, Robert A. Rosenheck Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Stress‐Related Changes in Toddlers and Their Mothers Following the Attack of September 11
Unlike other forms of disaster, terrorism is not confined to a particular place or time, and recent evidence indicates that the 9/11 terrorist attack was a significant macrolevel stressor affecting the health and mental health of United States citizens. No studies, however, have reported symptoms in toddlers and their mothers both before and after the attacks. To address this gap, we examined the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on mothers and their 33‐month‐old toddlers. The attacks occurred during data collection at 33 months of a longitudinal study. Thirty‐three‐month‐old toddlers and mothers who wer...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anne Conway, Susan C. McDonough, Michael J. MacKenzie, Chantal Follett, Arnold Sameroff Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Differential Impact of Terrorism on Two Israeli Communities
The authors evaluated 2 cohorts of individuals from different Israeli communities (Sderot and Otef Aza) that are repeatedly subjected to potentially lethal missile attacks. Although both communities border the Gaza Strip and face similar levels of threat, the authors hypothesized that the Sderot cohort would endorse higher rates of stress‐related symptoms because it has fewer mitigating economic and psychosocial resources. The authors further hypothesized that there would be a significant relationship between exposure to terror and psychopathology regardless of community context. To test these predictions, the authors co...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nathan R. Stein, Yonit Schorr, Lillian Krantz, Benjamin D. Dickstein, Zahava Solomon, Danny Horesh, Brett T. Litz Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cultural Aspects Within Caregiver Interactions of Ultra‐Orthodox Jewish Women and Their Family Members With Mental Illness
The role of cultural dynamics and norms within families of persons with mental illness has been an underexplored subject, although the familial context has been recognized as influential. This subject was studied with 24 ultra‐Orthodox Jewish mothers of persons with mental illness who live in a relatively closed religious community. While participating in the Keshet educational program designed for family caregivers in mental health, they wrote Meaningful Interactional Life Episodes that involved a dialogue exchange in their lives. Qualitative analysis of 50 episodes illuminates the significant role that religious and cu...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Penina Weiss, Ron Shor, Naomi Hadas‐Lidor Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Political Violence, Health, and Coping Among Palestinian Women in the West Bank
This study examined the influence of lifetime and past 30‐day experiences of political violence on the mental and physical health of adult Palestinian women from the West Bank (N = 122). Two hypotheses were examined: (a) Reports of political violence exposure would be related to reports of poorer physical and mental health and (b) several coping variables (proactive coping; self‐reliance; reliance on political, family, and religious support; and political or civic engagement) would function as moderators of the effects of political violence, buffering or weakening its effects on physical and mental health out...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Cindy A. Sousa Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Relative Impacts of Uncertainty and Mothers' Communication on Hopelessness Among Palestinian Refugee Youth
This study applies the Entropy Model of Uncertainty (Hirsh, Mar, & Peterson, 2012) and the stress‐buffering hypothesis (for review, see Hegelson, 2003) to examine the experience of uncertainty among adolescent Palestinians living in refugee camps in Lebanon. It then tests the role of mothers' uncertainty‐related communication for adolescent hopelessness. One hundred and sixty‐two adolescents across 2 refugee camps in Lebanon participated in the study. Results support the existence of elevated levels of uncertainty about both personal and macrosecurity, show an association between uncertainty regarding personal se...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Walid A. Afifi, Tamara D. Afifi, Stephanie Robbins, Najib Nimah Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Parental Styles in the Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma Stemming From the Khmer Rouge Regime in Cambodia
The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role‐reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTS...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nigel P. Field, Sophear Muong, Vannavuth Sochanvimean Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Study of Demographic Factors Associated With Stressors and Symptoms in African Refugees
The objectives of this study were to assess differences in premigration, transit, and resettlement stressor exposure and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a function of demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, ethnicity, age, time in United States) and to examine the concurrent and longitudinal relations between stressor exposure and PTSD symptoms. The sample consisted of adult (18–78 years) Somali and Oromo refugee men and women (N = 437). Qualitative data regarding participants’ self‐nominated worst stressors collected at Time 2 (T2) informed the development of quantitative ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sulani Perera, Margaret Gavian, Patricia Frazier, David Johnson, Marline Spring, Joseph Westermeyer, James Butcher, Linda Halcon, Cheryl Robertson, Kay Savik, James Jaranson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Differential Influence of Contextual Risks on Psychosocial Functioning and Participation of Australian Aboriginal Youth
This study investigated the differential influence of contextual risks for positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment in a representative sample of 12‐ to 17‐year‐old Aboriginal youth (N = 674) using data drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS) 2000–2002. The authors modeled the influence of 3 empirical risk measures (risk factor, cumulative risk, and single risks) on positive psychosocial functioning and participation in education or employment. Results showed different risks for different developmental outcomes. Single sociodemogr...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katrina D. Hopkins, Catherine L. Taylor, Stephen R. Zubrick Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Tiger Mother: Popular and Psychological Scientific Perspectives on Asian Culture and Parenting
(Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: P. Priscilla Lui, David Rollock Tags: The Community Source Type: research

Vouchers and Free Market Ideology
(Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 1, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Murray Levine, Adeline Levine Tags: The Community Source Type: research

The School Readiness of Children Born to Low‐Income, Adolescent Latinas in Miami
Although studies show teenage parenting and low socioeconomic status predict poor child academic performance, limited research has examined relations between teen parenting and children's school readiness within low‐income Latina mothers. In the context of the Miami School Readiness Project, low‐income preschoolers (N = 3,023) attending subsidized child‐care programs were assessed on cognitive, language, and fine motor skills, and parents and teachers reported on children's social skills and behavior concerns. Maternal teenage status at time of birth, maternal education, child attachment, child immigrant ge...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 29, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ana‐Carolina Loyola Briceno, Jessica J. Feyter, Adam Winsler Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Normative Environment for Substance Use Among American Indian Students and White Students Attending Schools On or Near Reservations
American Indian and White students who attended the same schools located on or near reservations were surveyed to determine the comparative normative environment for substance use. Descriptive norms increased and student injunctive norms decreased across grade in school. Female students reported higher levels of descriptive norms compared to male students. For marijuana use, a substantial decrease in student injunctive norms occurred between grades 8 and 10. Adult injunctive norms were perceived by female students to be higher than those perceived by male students, particularly among American Indian females. Somewhat surpr...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 29, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Randall C. Swaim, Linda R. Stanley, Fred Beauvais Tags: Original Article Source Type: research