Sexual objectification: The common thread connecting myriad forms of sexual violence against women.
In this article, the authors focus on the linkages between objectification and current societal manifestations of sexual violence toward women to make the case that everyday instances of objectification can provide the foundation for more extreme forms of violence. First, they formally introduce the notion of objectification and explain its origins and its consequences in those who perpetrate and those who experience it. Next, they use objectification as a lens through which to consider several related, but distinct, societal problems, including: sexual assault of college women, harassment of women in work settings, and se...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gervais, Sarah J.; Eagan, Sarah Source Type: research

"Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework": Correction to Grossman et al. (2017).
This article provides the outline of a new framework for treating adu lt survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect. Component-based psychotherapy (CBP) is an evidence-informed model that bridges, synthesizes, and expands upon several existing schools, or theories, of treatment for adult survivors of traumatic stress. These include approaches to therapy that s tem from more classic traditions in psychology, such as psychoanalysis, to more modern approaches including those informed by feminist thought. Moreover, CBP places particular emphasis on integration of key concepts from evidence-based treatment models develo...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: No authorship indicated Source Type: research

Moderating effect of child ’s autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis on benefit finding and negative affect of parents.
This study seeks to explore the relationships between benefit finding and parental well-being and aims to bridge the research gaps in 3 ways. First, it seeks to examine the nature of relationships between benefit finding and parent positive and negative affect among parents whose children have ASD or other special needs. Second, we posit that this relationship would be moderated by the presence of ASD in the child. Third, we hypothesize that this moderation may vary with the children ’s age. Three hundred and 2 parents responded to a self-report questionnaire. Specifically, for parents of children who are non-ASD, hi...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lim, Kit Kwan; Chong, Wan Har Source Type: research

Fostering resilience in National Guard and Reserve families: A contextual adaptation of an evidence-based parenting program.
Military deployment of a parent is a risk factor for children ’s internalizing and externalizing problems. This risk may be heightened in National Guard and Reserve (NG/R) families who tend to be isolated from other NG/R families and do not benefit from the centralized support system available to active duty families living on military bases. Isolation and t rauma-related disorders may complicate the adjustment of military families during reintegration. An evidence-based parent training intervention was modified to meet the unique needs of recently deployed NG/R parents and their spouses, and the modified program was...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pinna, Keri L. M.; Hanson, Sheila; Zhang, Na; Gewirtz, Abigail H. Source Type: research

Facilitating successful reintegration: Attending to the needs of military families.
Subsequent to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the experiences of military service members (MSVMs) and veterans have garnered increasing attention. A growing body of work has begun to shed light on their reintegration, a process that can bring with it transitions and challenges for service members and their families. Although many families adapt effectively, some have difficulty navigating this process, which can lead to a host of short- and long-term negative consequences for families. The literature to date is not well-developed regarding strategies for supporting successful reintegration of MSVMs and veterans in the co...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Kilmer, Ryan P.; Larson, Jacqueline C.; Armstrong, Laura Marie Source Type: research

Student service members/veterans on campus: Challenges for reintegration.
In conclusion, there is a clear need to provide education to faculty, students, and staff regarding the experiences of SSM/Vs. Efforts to enhance screening for, availability of, and SSM/V engagement in mental health services would also be beneficial, as would improved availability of and SSM/V access to academic support. All future programs designed to address the unique challenges of SSM/Vs in the academic environment should also be systematically implemented and evaluated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Borsari, Brian; Yurasek, Ali; Miller, Mary Beth; Murphy, James G.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Darcy, Monica G.; Carey, Kate B. Source Type: research

Mental health treatment utilization in OIF/OEF National Guard and Reserve troops with and without DSM diagnoses.
Military service members have an increased risk of developing mental health (MH) problems following deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan, yet only a small percentage seek mental health treatment. The aim of the present study was to explore patterns of MH service utilization within the first 12 months following return from combat deployment. Participants were 169 service members who had returned from war-zone deployment in either Iraq or Afghanistan and had assessments covering a 12-month period following their homecoming. The authors first examined the prevalence of mental health diagnoses and engagement with mental health tr...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Primack, Jennifer M.; Borsari, Brian; Benz, Madeline B.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Shea, M. Tracie Source Type: research

Exploring the post-deployment reintegration experiences of veterans with PTSD and their significant others.
This study contributes to the understanding of the prolonged postdeployment family reintegration experiences of veterans and their SOs. Findings underscore the importance of continuing to advance the current knowledge base about the long-term impact of deployment on veterans and their famil ies, especially factors that contribute to positive postdeployment family functioning. Additional empirical studies are needed to provide more in-depth understanding of the long-term postdeployment reintegration experiences of veterans and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Jou...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Freytes, I. Magaly; LeLaurin, Jennifer H.; Zickmund, Susan L.; Resende, Rosana D.; Uphold, Constance R. Source Type: research

Burden and mental health among caregivers of veterans with traumatic brain injury/polytrauma.
This study utilized cross-sectional data from the Family and Caregiver Experiences Study, a survey of 564 caregivers caring for veterans who served after September 11, 2001, survived TBI/polytrauma during service, and received inpatient rehabilitation care in a Veterans Affairs Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between caregiver stress (i.e., veterans’ neurobehavior al problems and intensity of care required), and caregiver well-being (i.e., caregiver burden and mental health). Analyses also examined how intrapersonal, family or social, and financial r...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Griffin, Joan M.; Lee, Minji K.; Bangerter, Lauren R.; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Friedemann-S ánchez, Greta; Phelan, Sean M.; Carlson, Kathleen F.; Meis, Laura A. Source Type: research

Perspectives of veterans with mild traumatic brain injury on community reintegration: Making sense of unplanned separation from service.
For veterans separated from the military as a result of acquired mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), the transition from a military identity to a civilian one is complicated by health, cognitive, and psychosocial factors. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 veterans with mTBI to understand how they perceived the experience of departure from the military, rehabilitation services provided at a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma Network Site, and reentry into civilian life. Two distinct patterns of thinking about community reintegration emerged. The first pattern was characterized by the perception of a need t...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Libin, Alexander V.; Schladen, Manon Maitland; Danford, Ellen; Cichon, Samantha; Bruner, Dwan; Scholten, Joel; Llorente, Maria; Zapata, Slavomir; Dromerick, Alexander W.; Blackman, Marc R.; Magruder, Kathryn M. Source Type: research

Military service member and veteran reintegration: A critical review and adapted ecological model.
Returning military service members and veterans (MSMVs) experience a wide range of stress-related disorders in addition to social and occupational difficulties when reintegrating to the community. Facilitating reintegration of MSMVs following deployment is a societal priority. With an objective of identifying challenges and facilitators for reintegration of MSMVs of the current war era, we critically review and identify gaps in the literature. We searched 8 electronic databases and identified 1,764 articles. Screening of abstracts and full-text review based on our inclusion/exclusion criteria, yielded 186 articles for revi...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elnitsky, Christine A.; Blevins, Cara L.; Fisher, Michael P.; Magruder, Kathryn Source Type: research

Facilitating reintegration for military service personnel, veterans, and their families: An introduction to the special issue.
As service members return from active duty and, in some cases, exit the military, they face a process of reintegration (also referred to as community reintegration) as they seek to resume participation in their life roles as civilians. Facilitating this dynamic process of reintegration for service members, veterans, and their families —including outlining potential strategies for supporting this return to civilian life and its demands, roles, and responsibilities—is the focus of this Special Issue. Reintegration has been framed as a national priority (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2015) and has been a po...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elnitsky, Christine A.; Kilmer, Ryan P. Source Type: research

Treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect: A new framework.
This article provides the outline of a new framework for treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect. Component-based psychotherapy (CBP) is an evidence-informed model that bridges, synthesizes, and expands upon several existing schools, or theories, of treatment for adult survivors of traumatic stress. These include approaches to therapy that stem from more classic traditions in psychology, such as psychoanalysis, to more modern approaches including those informed by feminist thought. Moreover, CBP places particular emphasis on integration of key concepts from evidence-based treatment models develope...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Grossman, Frances K.; Spinazzola, Joseph; Zucker, Marla; Hopper, Elizabeth Source Type: research

Continuing our organizational mission: A new name for a new time.
This editorial explains the need for a new name for the American Orthopsychiatric Association (ORTHO). As ORTHO continues their work into the 21st century, they want to better reflect their global membership and focus, increasing the number of partnerships with individuals and organizations, and commitment to a just society. Therefore, ORTHO is changing their name to the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice. It is crucial to underscore that, although the organizations name is changing, the values and principles that inform their work will remain the same. The mission statement of the Global Alliance for...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 11, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Walker, Deborah Klein; Kilmer, Ryan P.; Armstrong, Mary I. Source Type: research

Stressful life events and perceived parental control in formerly homeless families: Impact on child-internalizing symptoms.
Research has neglected the potential role of perceived parental control as a moderator between stressful life events (SLEs) and child-internalizing symptoms. Using secondary data from the Early Risers “Skills for Success” Program (August, Realmuto, Hektner,& Bloomquist, 2001), this study examined the impact of perceived parental control on the association between SLEs and child internalizing symptoms in formerly homeless families. The sample consisted of 137 families with 223 children between 4 and 12 years of age (M = 8.1, SD = 2.3) living in supportive housing sites in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Participants...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Utr žan, Damir S.; Piehler, Timothy F.; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; August, Gerald J. Source Type: research

What children think about their rights and their well-being: A cross-national comparison.
Recent years have brought a growing social and public commitment to the promotion of children ’s rights and children’s well-being around the world, and these have become important goals of all those striving to improve children’s lives. In spite of the intimate ideological connection between the concepts of children’s rights and children’s well-being, they have evolved separately b oth theoretically and empirically. In the current article, we present a study exploring the empirical association between these 2 concepts based on data from the International Survey on Children’s Well-Being. ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kosher, Hanita; Ben-Arieh, Asher Source Type: research

Adaptation and implementation of a trauma-focused cognitive behavioral intervention for girls in child welfare.
This study describes the process of adapting and implementing Girls Aspiring toward Independence (GAIN), a trauma-focused, group-based therapy adapted from Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) for girls in child welfare. Descriptive data were examined on 3 outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and social problem-solving skills among adolescent girls in the child welfare system. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to inform the adaptation of the CBITS intervention, evaluate feasibility, treatment fidelity, and acceptability, and to test the effects of the inter...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Auslander, Wendy; McGinnis, Hollee; Tlapek, Sarah; Smith, Penny; Foster, April; Edmond, Tonya; Dunn, Jerry Source Type: research

Substance use and psychological distress is related with accommodation status among homeless immigrants.
Discussion groups with care resources practitioners and service users, were followed by in depth interviews combined with psychometric questionnaires. Results show clear interrelations between stressful life events, alcohol and drug use, psychological distress, and the duration of (current) homelessness. This information, and especially the contextualization which took place within the analytical framework of this project, may provide practitioners and policymakers with information that can help overcome barriers preventing homeless immigrants ’ full citizenship and social participation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c)...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 27, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Navarro-Lashayas, Miguel Angel; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose Source Type: research

State psychology licensure questions about mental illness and compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.
State licensing boards have obligations to protect the public from impaired professionals and to protect the rights of professionals applying for licensure. Competently functioning professionals who have or have had a mental health diagnosis or are being treated for a mental health condition should not be screened out, according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A review of case law shows applicable precedents from discrimination among physicians and lawyers but not, to date, among psychologists. An examination of psychology licensure application materials from all 50 states and the District of Columbia reveale...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Boyd, Jennifer E.; Graunke, Bruce; Frese, Frederick J.; Jones, James T. R.; Adkins, Jennifer W.; Bassman, Ronald Source Type: research

Accomplishments of 77 VA mental health professionals with a lived experience of mental illness.
We present descriptive productivity metrics such as publications, presentations, funding, initiating and leading programs, training and supervising other clinicians, and performing community work outside VHA. Very few have asked for accommodations at work. Two thirds have not disclosed their lived experience to any of their patients. On average, respondents have disclosed to only 16% of their colleagues, and about one third have not disclosed to any of their colleagues. Qualitative data show that participants see their lived experience as an asset, whether or not they disclose it. They advocate being conscientious about se...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Boyd, Jennifer E.; Zeiss, Antonette; Reddy, Shilpa; Skinner, Stephanie Source Type: research

Provider lived experience and stigma.
This article reports on a continuing education needs assessment of 101 mental health providers, including evaluation of (a) knowledge about recovery-oriented care, (b) work engagement, (c) provider lived experience with mental health challenges, and (d) stigma, measured as disidentification. In this group of providers, recovery knowledge, lived experience, and work engagement were associated with less stigma toward clients. Recovery knowledge and work engagement were associated with less stigma toward other providers with lived experience, but having lived experience was not associated with stigma toward other providers wi...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Harris, J. Irene; Leskela, Jennie; Hoffman-Konn, Lisa Source Type: research

Introduction to the special section: Mental health professionals with mental illness.
This is an introduction to the special section “Mental Health Professionals With Mental Illness.” The articles in this special section address issues of stigmatization, recovery, and vocational functioning in mental health professionals with potentially disabling mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Spaulding, William Source Type: research

Adult women survivors of intrafamilial child sexual abuse and their current relationship with the abuser.
This article examines the adult perceptions of women survivors of intrafamilial child sexual abuse and their current relationship with the family member who abused them in their childhood. Twenty Jewish Israeli women were interviewed in depth between 2008 and 2009. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis produced 2 interrelated continua with regard to the presence of the perpetrator in the women ’s life: a continuum of his actual daily presence in the woman’s living space, ranging from complete absence to a continuous presence, and a continuum of his experiential presence, ranging ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eisikovits, Zvi; Tener, Dafna; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel Source Type: research

Beyond adoption status: Post-adoptive parental involvement and children ’s reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade.
In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children ’s reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children’s reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children’s math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted). Descriptive data showed no gr...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tan, Tony Xing; Kim, Eun Sook; Baggerly, Jennifer; Mahoney, E. Emily; Rice, Jessica Source Type: research

Achieving social justice for children: How can children ’s rights thinking make a difference?
This article draws on themes from the author's book, Children ’s Rights: Toward Social Justice, that emerge from surveying children’s rights issues in different childhood contexts; the family, education, child protection, and health services. The author has selected five examples of application of children’s rights to a policy area and identified the imp lications for policy and practice. There are four core rights that cut across all children’s rights issues that are mentioned before discussing specific areas. First, children, regardless of race, sex, language, religion, disability, or class, are e...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Smith, Anne B. Source Type: research

Parental ethnic-racial socialization and social attitudes among ethnic-racial minority and White American emerging adults.
This article utilizes moderated mediation analyses to explore whether the relations between parental ethnic-racial socialization (PERS) dimensions and social attitudes differ across ethnic-racial minority (n = 128) and White (n = 131) college-going emerging adults. We examined social dominance orientation (SDO) as an index of antiegalitarian intergroup attitudes and attitudes toward interpersonal harmony as an index of interpersonal attitudes. We tested whether there were ethnic-racial variations in mediation models in which each type of PERS dimension was expected to be linked to greater antiegalitarian attitudes (greater...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tran, Alisia G. T. T.; Mintert, Jeffrey S.; Jew, Gilbert B. Source Type: research

Adolescents ’ experience of parental psychological caregiving and neglect: Construct development.
We present an operationalization of psychological caregiving/neglect using adolescent self-reported survey items. A confirmatory latent variable modeling approach was used to measure and validate psychological caregiving/neglect in 2 adolescent (age 11 to 17) population cohorts involved with Child Protective Services (CPS) in the United States. The latent variable fits the samples well in both cohort populations indicating a valid construct, is mostly invariant across gender and age, is stable over time, and has good reliability. The measure also shows concurrent validity, associating strongly with all problem behavior dom...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christ, Sharon L.; Kwak, Yoon Young; Lu, Ting Source Type: research

Perceived primal threat of mental illness and recovery: The mediating role of self-stigma and self-empowerment.
This study adds to the understanding of the mechanism underlying the influence of perceived primal threat on recovery and suggests that perceived primal threat should be considered in the recovery process among people with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - August 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhang, Ruirui; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Chan, Randolph C. H. Source Type: research

Prevalence and correlates of substance use in Black, White, and biracial Black –White adolescents: Evidence for a biracial intermediate phenomena.
This study compared the prevalence and correlates of substance use among Black, White, and biracial Black –White youth. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health, which is a longitudinal investigation using stratified random sampling to study health behaviors. After controlling for sociodemographic factors and using weighted Poisson and logistic regression, the authors found the substance-use prevalence rates of Black–White youth to be intermediate to the higher rates of Whites and lower rates of Blacks. In addition, Black–White youth’s scores on most cova...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 17, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Goings, Trenette Clark; Butler-Bente, Emily; McGovern, Tricia; Howard, Matthew O. Source Type: research

Profiles of youth in therapeutic group care: Associations with involuntary psychiatric examinations and readmissions.
The study aims were to identify distinct subgroups among youth placed in therapeutic group care (TGC) and to examine the effect of specific constellations of risk factors on readmission to residential mental health care and involuntary psychiatric examination among youth in TGC. Several administrative databases were merged to examine outcomes for youth placed in TGC during fiscal year FY04-05 through FY07-08 (N = 1,009). Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted. Two classes were identified: youth with multiple needs (Class 1) and lower risk youth (Class 2). Class 1 represented 45% of youth in TGC. Compared with Class 2, t...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Mowery, Debra Source Type: research

Family first: Community-based supports for refugees.
This article presents a community-based approach that targets family interventions and services through a preventive, family systems ecological framework. A public health approach is used to emphasize the need for a tiered model of family support that builds on the strengths of refugee families while recognizing their specific needs and challenges. The rationale for a family systems ecological perspective is presented to highlight the critical features of effective family support programs for refugee families, followed by a discussion regarding the transitions and adaptation faced by refugee families when entering the Unit...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pejic, Vanja; Hess, Robyn S.; Miller, Gloria E.; Wille, Alice Source Type: research

Transgender health and well-being: Gains and opportunities in policy and law.
This article discusses gains and opportunities in policy and law in the United States related to transgender health and well-being. Topics include (1) how the bathroom myth has been used every time a trans nondiscrimination bill is considered, (2) transgender nondiscrimination laws and policies, (3) the expansion of gender discrimination, (4) strategies for promoting mental health and well-being among trans people, (5) policy developments supporting the mental health and well-being of trans people, and (6) opportunities for action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Scout, NFN Source Type: research

The power of 41%: A glimpse into the life of a statistic.
This article explores some of the key takeaways from the survey and the ways in which the 41% statistic has affected conversations about the injustices transgender people face and the importance of family and societal acceptance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tanis, Justin Source Type: research

Psychosocial, HIV, and health care management issues impacting transgender individuals.
This article reviews the varied process of transitioning and the psychosocial and quality-of-life benefits and outcomes of gender-affirmation therapeutic interventions, examines the barriers that transgender (TG) persons face in accessing health care, and describes the authors’ experiences in improving access to medical services by launching a TG health care clinic and a service provider collaborative. It concludes with a summary of the burgeoning prevalence of HIV among TG people and the associated psychosocial effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Redfern, Jan S.; Barnes, Arti; Chang, Joseph Source Type: research

Culturally competent evidence-based behavioral health services for the transgender community: Progress and challenges.
The presence of individuals who identify as transgender has emerged into public awareness in the United States in recent years. Celebrities who publicly transition have expanded the national conversation about gender variation beyond gender and women’s studies classrooms and certain specialty health and mental health services. This increased public visibility has been accompanied by increased visibility in the mental health literature, including the publishing of competencies or guidelines for working with clients who identify as transgender by various professional organizations. However, rapid societal changes and i...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hope, Debra A.; Mocarski, Richard; Bautista, Chandra L.; Holt, Natalie R. Source Type: research

Effectiveness of school-based mental health playgroups for diagnosable and at-risk preschool children.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an on-site integrated school-based mental health services and consultation program for preschool children and their families. The sample consisted of 47 children and parents in 3 childcare centers who came from low-socioeco nomic, urban backgrounds. Parents provided questionnaire data on children’s social-emotional functioning at 2 assessment times. Children’s ages ranged between 2 and 4 years at Time 1. Approximately half of the sample consisted of children who were selected for and received twice-weekly peer play psychotherapy (PPP) and, at-times, other men...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bekar, Özlem; Shahmoon-Shanok, Rebecca; Steele, Miriam; Levy, Jaclyn; deFressine, Lauren; Giuseppone, Katie; Steele, Howard Source Type: research

Mental health treatment seeking patterns and preferences of Appalachian women with depression.
This study’s findings reiterate the need for improved quality and increa sed availability of depression treatment in rural areas. In addition, culturally appropriate depression interventions must acknowledge rural cultural values of self-reliance and barriers to obtaining social support that lead many women to endure depression in isolation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Snell-Rood, Claire; Hauenstein, Emily; Leukefeld, Carl; Feltner, Frances; Marcum, Amber; Schoenberg, Nancy Source Type: research

Vicarious resilience: Complexities and variations.
This article presents results from a qualitative study further exploring the concept of vicarious resilience. Thirteen therapists working with survivors of torture in 3 different locations were interviewed to better understand the complexities and variations of vicarious resilience. The analysis focuses on the therapists ’ perception of clients’ resilience and the therapists’ awareness of how this affects the therapists themselves. Four major themes emerge: change in the therapists’ self-perception and their general outlook on the world, altered spirituality, modified thoughts about self-care, and n...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Edelkott, No ëmi; Engstrom, David W.; Hernandez-Wolfe, Pilar; Gangsei, David Source Type: research

The moderating role of cultural affiliation in the link between emotional closeness to grandparents and adolescent adjustment difficulties and prosocial behavior.
A growing body of research has shown the positive contribution of grandparents to adolescents ’ well-being. However, studies often overlook the cultural context in which this relationship is embedded. The current study examined whether emotional closeness to the grandparent identified by the adolescents as their closest grandparent varied among Arab and Jewish adolescents and whether cultu ral affiliation serves as a moderator in the association between emotional closeness to grandparents and adolescent adjustment difficulties and prosocial behaviors. The study was based on a sample of 2,751 Jewish and Arab secondary...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 1, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona Source Type: research

Obsessive –compulsive disorder in African American children and adolescents: Risks, resiliency, and barriers to treatment.
This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also d iscussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious co...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Williams, Monnica T.; Jahn, Matthew E. Source Type: research

Psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children in Chilean population affected by the earthquake of 2010.
The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children in its brief version (PTGI –C-R; Kilmer et al., 2009), an inventory that measured positive personal changes that occur after experiencing a traumatic event. The PTGI-C-R was applied to 393 children from 10 to 15 years of age affected by the earthquake and tsunami in Chile February 27, 2010. The scale showed good internal co nsistency and discriminant validity in relation to an inventory of posttraumatic stress symptoms. It was also able to discriminate between children who had high exposure to the earthquake and ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrades, Mariela; Garc ía, Felipe E.; Reyes-Reyes, Alejandro; Martínez-Arias, Rosario; Calonge, Isabel Source Type: research

Potentially traumatic events and mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees: The roles of relationships with parents and feelings about school.
This study examined mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees, most of whom were Christian. Exposure to potentially traumatic events was hypothesized to predict more symptoms of depression and traumatic stress. Moreover, youth reports of supportive relationships with parents and positive feelings about school were examined in relation to mental health problems. These promotive factors were expected to mitigate the hypothesized association between traumatic event exposure and mental health problems. Participants were 211 youth recruited from agencies and programs serving Iraqi refugees in a large metropolitan ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Trentacosta, Christopher J.; McLear, Caitlin M.; Ziadni, Maisa S.; Lumley, Mark A.; Arfken, Cynthia L. Source Type: research

Sex and the nursing home.
This article addresses the ability to assessed competence to consent to sex in similar situations. The current rules and attitudes about senior sex in nursing homes needs to be reevaluated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Levine, Murray Source Type: research

Optimizing foster family placement for infants and toddlers: A randomized controlled trial on the effect of the foster family intervention.
This study shows that the FFI has a significant positive effect on parenting skills as measured with EAS and on Responsiveness of the foster child. Findings are discussed in terms of impact and significance relating to methodology and design of the study and to clinical relevance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Van Andel, Hans; Post, Wendy; Jansen, Lucres; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Knorth, Erik; Grietens, Hans Source Type: research

Domestic violence survivors’ empowerment and mental health: Exploring the role of the alliance with advocates.
This study explored in a sample of help-seeking survivors (N = 370) whether the strength of the alliance between survivors and their advocates is related to lower symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and whether this association is mediated by survivors’ sense of empowerment in the domain of safety. The structural equation model we tested also controlled for variables that might influence these relationships, including race/ethnicity, financial strain, and length of stay in the program. As expected, stronger alliance was associated with reduced symptoms of both depression and PTSD, through ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Goodman, Lisa A.; Fauci, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Cris M.; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Wilson, Joshua M. Source Type: research

“Calculating The Toll Of Trauma” in the headlines: Portrayals of posttraumatic stress disorder in the New York Times (1980–2015).
Public awareness about traumatic stress is needed to address trauma as a public health issue. News media influence public awareness, but little is known about how traumatic-related disorders are portrayed in the news. A content analysis was conducted of all articles that mentioned posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in The New York Times between 1980 –2015. There were 871 articles analyzed. The number of PTSD articles published annually increased dramatically, from 2 in 1980 to 70 in 2014. Overall, 50.6% of articles were focused on military populations. Combat was identified as the trauma exposure in 38.0% of articl...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Purtle, Jonathan; Lynn, Katherine; Malik, Mashal Source Type: research

A grounded theory of bisexual individuals ’ experiences of help seeking.
Bisexual people constitute the largest sexual minority group in North America and experience significant mental health disparities in relation to heterosexuals, gays, and lesbians. In this article, we will examine the process and experience of help seeking among bisexuals. This was a community-based study that collected qualitative interview data from 41 diverse bisexual people from across Ontario, Canada. We analyzed the interview data using grounded theory and constructed an understanding of bisexuals ’ experiences of help seeking. We have conceptualized an overarching model that illustrates 4 interrelated stages: ...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret; Pinder, Sarah; Ross, Lori E. Source Type: research

Psychological health and academic success in rural Appalachian adolescents exposed to physical and sexual interpersonal violence.
We present baseline rates of each form of IPV for these rural male and female adolescents and assessed the strength and statistical significance of these associations between physical and sexual IPV and other risk factors using χ2 tests and relative risk ratios. Results suggested that each form of IPV was associated with greater risk for depression and suicidal behaviors, substance use, risky sexual behaviors for both sexes, and lower academic grades for females. Relative risk ratios tended to be more robust and statistic ally significant for females compared with males on most risk behaviors. Furthermore, victimizatio...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martz, Denise M.; Jameson, John Paul; Page, Amy Dellinger Source Type: research

Political violence exposure, adolescent school violence, and drug use: The mediating role of school support and posttraumatic stress.
Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors to cope with the negative psychological impacts resulting from exposure to political violence. Guided by the Deterioration Deterrence Model and General Strain Theory, the present study assessed the mediating role of school support and posttraumatic stress (PTS) on two adolescent risk behaviors (i.e., school violence and drug use) among Arab and Jewish Israeli adolescents. We analyzed data from a nationally representative survey that consisted of 4,733 Israeli high school students (54.5% females; 63.2% Jewish) following the Second Lebanon War. Structural equation modeling using weigh...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fang, Lin; Schiff, Miriam; Benbenishty, Rami Source Type: research

Parenting self-efficacy beliefs in parents of children with autism: Perspectives from Singapore.
Substantial empirical evidence has highlighted the psychological stress and negative well-being of parents whose children are diagnosed with autism. It has further indicated a need for understanding the mechanisms through which these parents come to successfully meet the challenges of caregiving for these children whose condition are often characterized by persistent behavioral, social, and communication problems. This qualitative study aims to bridge the research gap in 3 ways. First, we sought to understand the ways in which mothers of children having autism foster their parenting self-efficacy (PSE) when caring for thei...
Source: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chong, Wan Har; Kua, Shu Mei Source Type: research