Contents
Publication date: March 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 20, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 20, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Masthead
Publication date: March 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 3Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 20, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A Case of New-Onset Nephrotic Syndrome
Publication date: March 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 3Author(s): Alberto Revuelta, Héctor Rivera-Villegas, Carlos A. Carranza, Juan C. Ramírez-Sandoval, Norma O. Uribe-Uribe, Diego Luis Carrillo-Pérez (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 20, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of Using Kidneys From HCV-Viremic Donors for Transplantation Into HCV-Uninfected Recipients
ConclusionsTransplanting kidneys from HCV-viremic donors into HCV-uninfected recipients increased quality-adjusted life expectancy and reduced costs compared with a strategy of transplanting kidneys from HCV-unexposed donors. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 17, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Overcoming Barriers for Uptake and Continued Use of Home Dialysis: An NKF-KDOQI Conference Report
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Christopher T. Chan, Kelli Collins, Erich P. Ditschman, Lisa Koester-Wiedemann, Tonya L. Saffer, Eric Wallace, Michael V. RoccoHome dialysis modalities are used in a minority of patients with kidney failure in the United States. During the 2018 National Kidney Foundation–Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) Home Dialysis Conference, numerous ideas were suggested to help minimize barriers for the uptake and retention of home dialysis therapies. First, educational tools are needed to increase knowl...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Endovascular Bypass for Thoracic Vein Occlusion: An Innovative Technique for Hemodialysis Vascular Access
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Tushar J. Vachharajani, Lee Kirksey, Gordon McLennan (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

AKI—A Relevant Safety End Point?
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Ian E. McCoy, Glenn M. ChertowAcute kidney injury (AKI) is a common outcome evaluated in clinical studies, often as a safety end point in a variety of cardiovascular, kidney disease, and other clinical trials. AKI end points that include modest increases in serum creatinine levels from baseline may not associate with patient-centered outcomes such as initiation of dialysis, sustained decline in kidney function, or death. Surprisingly, data from several randomized controlled trials have suggested that in certain settings,...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Icodextrin Versus Glucose Solutions for the Once-Daily Long Dwell in Peritoneal Dialysis: An Enriched Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
ConclusionsIcodextrin for once-daily long-dwell PD has clinical benefit for some patients, including those not meeting ultrafiltration targets and at risk for fluid overload. Future research into patient-centered outcomes and cost-effectiveness associated with icodextrin is needed. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 5, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Cognitive Function, Access to Kidney Transplantation, and Waitlist Mortality Among Kidney Transplant Candidates With or Without Diabetes
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Nadia M. Chu, Zhan Shi, Christine E. Haugen, Silas P. Norman, Alden L. Gross, Daniel C. Brennan, Michelle C. Carlson, Dorry L. Segev, Mara A. McAdams-DeMarcoRationale & ObjectiveIntact cognition is generally a prerequisite for navigating through and completing evaluation for kidney transplantation. Despite kidney transplantation being contraindicated for those with severe dementia, screening for more mild forms of cognitive impairment before referral is rare. Candidates may have unrecognized cognitive impairment, whi...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - February 4, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension in CKD
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Sankar D. Navaneethan, Jingyin Yan, Anita Deswal (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 31, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The Cost of Screening Kidney Transplant Candidates for Coronary Artery Disease
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Allyson Hart, Krista L. Lentine, Bertram L. Kasiske (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 31, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Routine Monthly Blood Draws in Hemodialysis: Where Is the Evidence?
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Eduardo Lacson, Klemens B. Meyer (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 31, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

KDOQI US Commentary on the 2017 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline on the Evaluation and Care of Living Kidney Donors
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Didier A. Mandelbrot, Peter P. Reese, Neetika Garg, Christie P. Thomas, James R. Rodrigue, Carrie Schinstock, Mona Doshi, Matthew Cooper, John Friedewald, Abhijit S. Naik, Daniel R. Kaul, Michael G. Ison, Michael V. Rocco, Jennifer Verbesey, Michelle A. Hladunewich, Hassan N. Ibrahim, Emilio D. PoggioLiving kidney donation is widely practiced throughout the world. During the past 2 decades, various groups have provided guidance about the evaluation and care of living donors. However, during this time, our knowledge in th...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A Guide to Management of Sleepiness in ESKD
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Jennifer Y. So, Karen M. Warburton, Ilene M. RosenDaytime sleepiness, also known as hypersomnolence, is common among patients receiving maintenance dialysis and following successful kidney transplantation. Sleepiness may be secondary to medical comorbid conditions, medication side effect, insufficient sleep syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing or the result of a primary central disorder of hypersomnolence, such as narcolepsy. Unrecognized and untreated sleep disorders are associated with substantial morbidity and mor...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 24, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Maintenance Peritoneal Dialysis in Children With Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Comparative Cohort Study of the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network Registry
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Abdelaziz Akarkach, Kathrin Burgmaier, Anja Sander, Nakysa Hooman, Lale Sever, Francisco Cano, Pedro Zambrano, Ilmay Bilge, Joseph T. Flynn, Onder Yavascan, Patricia G. Vallés, Reyner Loza Munarriz, Hiren P. Patel, Erkin Serdaroglu, Vera H. Koch, Angela del Carmen Suarez, Monica Galanti, Claudia Gonzalez Celedon, Anabella Rébori, Jameela A. Kari (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 24, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Plasma Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) and CKD Progression in Children
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Darcy K. Weidemann, Alison G. Abraham, Jennifer L. Roem, Susan L. Furth, Bradley A. WaradyRationale & ObjectiveSoluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has been identified as an independent risk factor for CKD progression in children, although these findings remain preliminary, limited to a single point in time, and unreplicated in pediatric cohorts.Study DesignProspective longitudinal cohort study.Setting & Participant...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 24, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Critical Care Nephrology: Core Curriculum 2020
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Benjamin R. Griffin, Kathleen D. Liu, J. Pedro TeixeiraThe intensive care unit (ICU) is a common source of high-acuity nephrology consultations. Although advanced chronic kidney disease is associated with increased ICU mortality, the prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy is far worse, with short-term mortality rates that often exceed 50%. As such, it is essential that practicing nephrologists be comfortable caring for critically ill patients. This Core Curriculum article emphasizes th...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 23, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Publication date: February 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Masthead
Publication date: February 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 2Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury and Electrolyte Abnormalities After Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell (CAR-T) Therapy for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
ConclusionsIn this case series of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma receiving CAR-T therapy, AKI and electrolyte abnormalities occurred commonly in the context of cytokine release syndrome. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Interoperability and Patient Electronic Health Record Accessibility: Opportunities to Improve Care Delivery for Dialysis Patients
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Yvelynne P. Kelly, Gilad J. Kuperman, David J.R. Steele, Mallika L. Mendu (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

In Reply to ‘High-Dose Versus Standard-Dose Influenza Vaccine in Hemodialysis Patients’
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Anne M. Butler, J. Bradley Layton, Vikas R. Dharnidharka, Leah J. McGrath (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

High-Dose Versus Standard-Dose Influenza Vaccine in Hemodialysis Patients
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Dana Miskulin, Daniel E. Weiner, Harold J. Manley (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 21, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Ultrafiltration Rate and Residual Kidney Function Decline: Yet Another Good Reason to Ask About Urine
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Magdalene M. Assimon, Jennifer E. Flythe (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 18, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Home Dialysis in the United States: A Roadmap for Increasing Peritoneal Dialysis Utilization
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Erin P. Flanagin, Yashodhan Chivate, Daniel E. Weiner (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 18, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A Self-management Approach for Dietary Sodium Restriction in Patients With CKD: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Jelmer K. Humalda, Gerald Klaassen, Hanne de Vries, Yvette Meuleman, Lara C. Verschuur, Elisabeth J.M. Straathof, Gozewijn D. Laverman, Willem Jan W. Bos, Paul J.M. van der Boog, Karin M. Vermeulen, Olivier A. Blanson Henkemans, Wilma Otten, Martin H. de Borst, Sandra van Dijk, Gerjan J. Navis, P.J.M. van der Boog, S. van Dijk, G.J. Navis, J.K. Humalda (project coordination), G. KlaassenRationale & ObjectivePatients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are particularly sensitive to dietary sodium. We evaluated a self-ma...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 18, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Establishing a Core Outcome Set for Peritoneal Dialysis: Report of the SONG-PD (Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology–Peritoneal Dialysis) Consensus Workshop
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Karine E. Manera, David W. Johnson, Jonathan C. Craig, Jenny I. Shen, Talia Gutman, Yeoungjee Cho, Angela Yee-Moon Wang, Edwina A. Brown, Gillian Brunier, Jie Dong, Tony Dunning, Rajnish Mehrotra, Saraladevi Naicker, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Jeffrey Perl, Martin Wilkie, Allison Tong, Adeera Levin, Adrian Liew, Alfonso Cueto ManzanoOutcomes reported in randomized controlled trials in peritoneal dialysis (PD) are diverse, are measured inconsistently, and may not be important to patients, families, and clinicians. The Standar...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 18, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Refining ESKD Risk Assessment in Living Kidney Donors
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Mona D. Doshi, Raviprasenna Parasuraman (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 15, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Peritoneal Dialysis–Related Infection Rates and Outcomes: Results From the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS)
We describe peritonitis rates and the associations of selected facility practices with peritonitis risk among countries participating in the Peritoneal Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (PDOPPS).Study DesignObservational prospective cohort study.Setting & Participants7,051 adult PD patients in 209 facilities across 7 countries (Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States).ExposuresFacility characteristics (census count, facility age, nurse to patient ratio) and selected facility practices (use of automated PD, use of icodextrin or biocompatible PD solutions, antibiotic pro...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - January 11, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Comparability of Plasma Iohexol Clearance Across Population-Based Cohorts
ConclusionsAgreement between the iohexol assays and clearance protocols in the 3 investigated cohorts was substantial. Our findings indicate that plasma iohexol clearance measurements can be compared across these studies. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 24, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Perceived Health and Quality of Life in Patients With CKD, Including Those With Kidney Failure: Findings From National Surveys in France
ConclusionsThis study highlights the degree to which perceived physical health is lower in the setting of CKD than in the general population, even in the absence of kidney failure, and calls for greater attention to CKD-related quality of life. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 24, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Peripheral Artery Disease in CKD: Anatomically Peripheral But Clinically Central
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Manabu Hishida, Steven Menez, Kunihiro Matsushita (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 23, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Peripheral Artery Disease: Its Adverse Consequences With and Without CKD
ConclusionsPAD is more common in patients with CKD G3-G5 and G5D compared with those with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and frequently leads to lower-limb complications. Medical interventions and care pathways specifically designed to slow or prevent the development of lower-limb complications in this population are urgently needed. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 23, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Inflammation and Response to Sertraline Treatment in Patients With CKD and Major Depression
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): L. Parker Gregg, Thomas Carmody, Dustin Le, Robert D. Toto, Madhukar H. Trivedi, S. Susan Hedayati (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Moral Distress in Nephrology: Perceived Barriers to Ethical Clinical Care
This article offers an international perspective on moral distress in nephrology in diverse contexts and health care systems. We examine and discuss the sociocultural factors that contribute to moral distress in nephrology and offer suggestions for interventions from individual provider, facility, and health care systems perspectives to reduce the impact of moral distress on nephrology providers. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Long-term Mortality Risks Among Living Kidney Donors in Korea
ConclusionsKidney donors experienced long-term rates of death comparable to nondonor comparators with similar health status. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Does Vitamin B12 Delay CKD Progression?
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Angela Yee-Moon Wang (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Chronic Microangiopathy Due to DCR-MYC, a Myc-Targeted Short Interfering RNA
We present a case of TMA with predominantly chronic features in a 70-year-old patient being treated for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast with a single agent, a short interfering RNA targeted against Myc (DCR-MYC). (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Serial Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Measurements and Risk of Requirement for Kidney Replacement Therapy: The CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study
ConclusionsIncreasing FGF-23 levels are independently associated with increased risk for incident KRT. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Myeloperoxidase and the Risk of CKD Progression, Cardiovascular Disease, and Death in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Simon Correa, Jessy Korina Pena-Esparragoza, Katherine M. Scovner, Sushrut S. Waikar, Finnian R. Mc CauslandBackgroundMyeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyzes the formation of reactive nitrogen species and levels are elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although increased oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with progression of CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD), relationships between MPO concentration, CKD progression, CVD, and death remain unclear.Study DesignProspective cohort.Setting & Pa...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Blood Pressure Measurement: A KDOQI Perspective
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Paul E. Drawz, Srinivasan Beddhu, Holly J. Kramer, Michael Rakotz, Michael V. Rocco, Paul K. WheltonThe majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have elevated blood pressure (BP). In patients with CKD, hypertension is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, progression of CKD, and all-cause mortality. New guidelines from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) recommend new thresholds and targets for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in patients ...
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Surgeon Characteristics and Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation Success
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: American Journal of Kidney DiseasesAuthor(s): Thomas S. Huber (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

2019 AJKD Editors’ Choice Awards
Publication date: January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 1Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Masthead
Publication date: January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 1, Supplement 1Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 1, Supplement 1Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Support Page
Publication date: January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 1, Supplement 1Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
Publication date: January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 1, Supplement 1Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Masthead
Publication date: January 2020Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 75, Issue 1Author(s): (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - December 18, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research