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The cost of reproduction in women: Reproductive effort and oxidative stress in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women
Abstract ObjectivesLife history theory predicts a trade‐off between female investment in reproduction and somatic maintenance, which can result in accelerated senescence. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a causal physiological mechanism for accelerated aging and a possible contributor to this trade‐off. We aimed to test the hypothesis for the existence of significant associations between measures of reproductive effort and the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women. MethodsSerum samples and questionnaire data were collected from 63 premenopausal and postmenopausal w...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - October 6, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Anna Ziomkiewicz, Amara Frumkin, Yawei Zhang, Amelia Sancilio, Richard G. Bribiescas Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Resting metabolic rate of Indian Junior Soccer players: Testing agreement between measured versus selected predictive equations
Abstract ObjectivesOwing to a dearth of research related to Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) among adolescent athletes in India, our study aimed to document RMR among junior soccer players (JSP) and to identify suitable RMR predictive models for JSP from nine existing equations. MethodsForty Indian JSP (Boys = 21, Girls = 19) representing the under‐12 and under‐16 age categories were assessed for body composition (skinfold technique) and RMR (oxycon mobile). Two‐way ANOVA and ANCOVA were used to examine the differences across age and sex. Bland‐Altman plot was used to test agreement between ...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 30, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Keren Susan Cherian, Faaiza Shahkar, Ashok Sainoji, Nagalla Balakrishna, Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Biological measures of the human experience Edited by Lynnette Leidy SievertDaniel E. Brown 336 pp (2016). Springer $99.00 (cloth), $79.99 (eBook)
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 26, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Deborah L. Crooks Tags: BOOK REVIEW Source Type: research

Longitudinal patterns in BMI and percent total body fat from peak height velocity through emerging adulthood into young adulthood
ConclusionsDuring emerging adulthood, the prevalence of OWO increased. Being NW at PHV was not protective against being overweight in young adulthood. Emerging adulthood appears to be a potential critical period for fat accrual and warrants further attention. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 13, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Erin Barbour ‐Tuck, Marta Erlandson, Nazeem Muhajarine, Heather Foulds, Adam Baxter‐Jones Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Relationships between the second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and game ‐related statistics in semi‐professional female basketball players
ConclusionsThis study found evidence that 2D:4D was a correlate of performance in an open‐skill sport. Female players with lower digit ratios tended to perform better in several aspects of basketball, especially defensively, and were more likely to be starters, suggesting they are the best players on the team in their positions. These results probably reflect the organizational benefits of prenatal testosterone. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Makailah Dyer, Sandra E. Short, Martin Short, John T. Manning, Grant R. Tomkinson Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Short ‐term resource allocation during extensive athletic competition
Abstract ObjectivesFollowing predictions from life history theory, we sought to identify acute trade‐offs between reproductive effort (as measured by psychological arousal) and somatic maintenance (via functional measures of innate immunity) during conditions of severe energetic imbalance. MethodsSixty‐six male ultramarathon runners (ages 20 to 37 years) were sampled before and after a lengthy race. Saliva and sera were collected for testosterone and immunological analyses (hemolytic complement activity and bacterial killing ability). Lean body mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance, and libido was measured using...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Daniel P. Longman, Sean P. Prall, Eric C. Shattuck, Ian D. Stephen, Jay T. Stock, Jonathan C. K. Wells, Michael P. Muehlenbein Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Validation of multi ‐frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis versus dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry to measure body fat percentage in overweight/obeses Colombian adults
ConclusionsOur analysis showed a strong agreement between the two methods as reflected in the range of BF%. These results show that mBCA and DXA are comparable methods for measuring body composition with higher body fat percentages. However, due to broad limits of agreement, we can only recommend mBCA for groups of populations. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Robinson Ram írez‐Vélez, Alejandra Tordecilla‐Sanders, Jorge Enrique Correa‐Bautista, Katherine González‐Ruíz, Emilio González‐Jiménez, Hector Reynaldo Triana‐Reina, Antonio García‐Hermoso, Jacqueline Schmidt‐RioValle Tags: SHORT REVIEW Source Type: research

Association of common genetic variants with human skin color variation in Indian populations
ConclusionsThese observations support the findings that rs1426654 and rs4775730 located in SLC24A5, and rs11070627 and rs12913316 located in MYEF2 and CTXN2 genes respectively, are major contributors toward skin pigmentation and would aid in further unraveling the genotype‐phenotype association in Indian populations. These findings can be utilized in forensic DNA applications for criminal investigations. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Anujit Sarkar, Madhusudan R. Nandineni Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Positive effects of refugee presence on host community nutritional status in Turkana County, Kenya
ConclusionsKakuma Refugee Camp is associated with better host community energetic status indicators, compared to other relevant, regional sites varying in development and resources. Based on global nutritional standards, observed differences likely represent meaningful disparities in overall health. We suggest that access to cereals via refugee trade networks and employment might mediate this relationship. However, perceptions of refugees as illegitimate interlopers maintain a high psychological burden. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Rieti G. Gengo, Rahul C. Oka, Varalakshmi Vemuru, Mark Golitko, Lee T. Gettler Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The association of air pollution with height: Evidence from Hong Kong's “Children of 1997” birth cohort
ConclusionsThese observations suggest that air pollution may affect the trajectory of growth and development rather than final height, with corresponding implications for health in later life. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Jian V. Huang, Gabriel M. Leung, C. Mary Schooling Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Mutual compensation of the effects of religious and ethnic homogamy on reproduction
ConclusionsWe suggest that the interaction between ethnic homogamy, religious homogamy, and reproduction provides an interesting example for gene‐culture co‐evolution. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Susanne Huber, Martin Fieder Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluating minimally invasive sample collection methods for telomere length measurement
ConclusionsUsing a matched dataset we demonstrate that sample type significantly influences the TL measurement obtained using the MMQPCR assay. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Elisabeth A. Goldman, Geeta N. Eick, Devan Compton, Paul Kowal, J. Josh Snodgrass, Dan T.A. Eisenberg, Kirstin N. Sterner Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Measuring arterial blood pressure in humans: Auscultatory and automatic measurement techniques for human biological field studies
Abstract Human biologists have been examining arterial blood pressure since they began studying the effects of the environment and culture on the health of diverse populations. The Korotkoff auscultatory technique with a trained observer and aneroid sphygmomanometer is the method of choice for blood pressure measurement in many bioanthropological field contexts. Korotkoff sounds (the first and fifth phases) are the preferred determinants of systolic and diastolic pressure, even in infants, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. Training of observers, positioning of individuals, and selection of cuff size are all essent...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Gary D. James, Linda M. Gerber Tags: HUMAN BIOLOGY TOOLKIT Source Type: research

Resemblance in physical activity levels: The Portuguese sibling study on growth, fitness, lifestyle, and health
ConclusionsAge, physical fitness, and parental support were the best predictors of TPAI levels. A moderate level of resemblance in TPAI was observed in SS pairs, while lower resemblance was found for BS and BB pairs. These findings may be due to differences in the roles of shared genetic factors, familial, and environmental characteristics across different sibling types. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: S. Pereira, P. T. Katzmarzyk, T. N. Gomes, M. Souza, R. N. Chaves, F. K. Santos, D. Santos, A. Bustamante, T. V. Barreira, D. Hedeker, J. A. Maia Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Child fosterage and sex ‐biased nutritional outcomes among Namibian pastoralists
ConclusionsSex plays a role in the nutritional impact of fosterage among Himba children. These differences could be related to differential child labor demands, investment patterns, and the divergent reasons girls and boys are placed into fosterage. Future studies should consider how fosterage can magnify existing biases, like sex, when studying its impact on child health. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Sean P. Prall, Brooke A. Scelza Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native Amazonians
ConclusionsThe results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self‐sufficient society. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Eduardo A. Undurraga, Jere R. Behrman, Susan D. Emmett, Celeste Kidd, William R. Leonard, Steven T. Piantadosi, Victoria Reyes ‐García, Abhishek Sharma, Rebecca Zhang, Ricardo A. Godoy Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Amerindian ancestry and extended longevity in Nicoya, Costa Rica
Conclusions and ImplicationsTo our knowledge, this is the first time that ancestry is implicated as a likely determinant of extended longevity. Amerindian‐specific alleles may protect against early mortality. The identification of these protective alleles should be the focus of future studies. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Jorge Azofeifa, Edward A. Ruiz ‐Narváez, Alejandro Leal, Hanna Gerlovin, Luis Rosero‐Bixby Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

American Journal Of Human Biology, Volume 29, Issue 5, September/October 2017
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 8, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Use of iDXA spine scans to evaluate total and visceral abdominal fat
ConclusionsThis replication of the strong correlation between SFF and abdominal fat measures on the iDXA in a new population confirms the previous Prodigy model findings and improves generalizability. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - September 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: J. W. Bea, C ‐H Hsu, R. M. Blew, A. P. Irving, B. J. Caan, M. L. Kwan, I. Abraham, S. B. Going Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

GENOMES, EVOLUTION, AND CULTURE: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF HUMAN KIND Rene J. HerreraRalph Garcia ‐BertrandFrancisco M. Salzano Hoboken: Wiley Blackwell, 2016. 254 pp, $67.00 (Cloth)
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 20, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Douglas E. Crews Tags: BOOK REVIEW Source Type: research

Antioxidant defense and oxidative damage vary widely among high ‐altitude residents
ConclusionsHigh‐altitude residence alone does not associate with high antioxidant defenses; residence length appears to be influential. The single‐generation upward migrant sample had the lowest defense and nearly the highest DNA damage. The two high‐altitude resident samples with millennia of residence had higher defenses than the two with multiple or single generations of residence. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 20, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Allison J. Janocha, Suzy A. A. Comhair, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Amha Gebremedhin, Anam Khan, Kristin S. Ricci, Renliang Zhang, Serpil C. Erzurum, Cynthia M. Beall Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

American Journal Of Human Biology, Volume 29, Issue 4, July/August 2017
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 16, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Pregnancy and immune stimulation: re ‐imagining the fetus as parasite to understand age‐related immune system changes in US women
ConclusionsThis research supports the hypothesis that maternal immune systems respond to prior pregnancies as they do to macro‐parasitic exposures, and may modify the expected linear declines of IgE levels in women that accompanies aging. These finding have implications for understanding the evolution of internal gestation in mammals. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 16, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Anna C. Rivara, Elizabeth M. Miller Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Agreement between specific measures of adiposity and associations with high blood pressure in black South African women
Abstract ObjectivesTo derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut‐points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut‐points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure. MethodsBlack women aged 29–65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross‐sectional study. Socio‐demographic and anthropometric data were collected (weight, height and BMI). %BF using dual‐energy X...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 12, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Herculina S. Kruger, Chrisna Botha ‐Ravyse, Lize Havemann‐Nel, Maretha Doubell, Johannes M. van Rooyen Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Fifty years of child height and weight in Japan and South Korea: Contrasting secular trend patterns analyzed by SITAR
Conclusions The secular height trend in these countries represents increased growth in the long bones during infancy, so it can be viewed as the inverse of stunting. There are striking country differences in growth pattern, but they are not easily explained by differences in national income, diet or lifestyle. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: T. J. Cole, H. Mori Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

DEMOGRAPHY AND EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY OF HADZA HUNTER ‐GATHERERS By Nicholas Blurton Jones 508 pp. (2016). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. $130.00 (paperback)
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Herman Pontzer Tags: Book review Source Type: research

COLONIZED BODIES, WORLDS TRANSFORMED: TOWARD A GLOBAL BIOARCHAEOLOGY OF CONTACT AND COLONIALISM Melissa S. Murphy Haagen D. KlausUniversity Press of Florida, Gainsville, 2017. 464 pp. $120.00 (cloth)
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Christina Torres ‐Rouff Tags: BOOK REVIEW Source Type: research

No change in energy efficiency in lactation: Insights from a longitudinal study
ConclusionWe found no support for the idea that lactating women undergo an increase in energy efficiency to support the energy costs of lactation. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Richard L. Bender, Heather S. Williams, Darna L. Dufour Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

In memoriam Alexander Francis Roche (1921 –2017)
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Steven B. Heymsfield Tags: IN MEMORIAM Source Type: research

Secular trend and social variation in age at menarche among polish schoolgirls before and after the political transformation
DiscussionSocioeconomic changes were significantly associated with age at menarche. Social inequalities, reflected in menarcheal age, continue to be present in Poland. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Aleksandra Gomula, Slawomir Koziel Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Is early postnatal growth velocity, a proxy of minipubertal androgen action, related to adult second ‐to‐fourth digit (2D:4D) ratios in men? A test in Cebu, Philippines
Abstract ObjectivesThe ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) of the hand is often used as an index of prenatal androgen exposure but it might also be affected by androgens during “minipuberty,” a period of temporarily high testosterone (T) production in the first few months of life. To examine this, we tested the prediction that men with lower 2D:4D ratios had greater weight growth velocities during the first months of life—a metric recently shown to correlate with concurrent T levels. MethodsWe related early growth data to 2D:4D ratios of both hands measured in 756 men (25–2...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Alexander V. Georgiev, Calen P. Ryan, Judith B. Borja, Christopher W. Kuzawa Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Genetic ‐genealogy approach reveals low rate of extrapair paternity in historical Dutch populations
ConclusionThe Dutch EPP rate fits perfectly within the range reported for other contemporary and historical populations in Western Europe and was highly congruent with that estimated for neighboring Flanders, despite the socio‐economic and religious differences between both populations. The estimated low EPP rate challenges the “dual mating strategy hypothesis” that states that women could obtain fitness benefits by securing investment from one man while cuckolding him to obtain good genes from an affair partner. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Maarten H. D. Larmuseau, Sofie Claerhout, Leen Gruyters, Kelly Nivelle, Michiel Vandenbosch, Anke Peeters, Pieter van den Berg, Tom Wenseleers, Ronny Decorte Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Household fear of deportation in Mexican ‐origin families: Relation to body mass index percentiles and salivary uric acid
ConclusionKey features of the social ecology in which mixed‐status families are embedded are associated with individual differences in biological processes linked to increased risk for chronic disease. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Air ín D. Martínez, Lillian Ruelas, Douglas A. Granger Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Associations between neighborhood food environments and deficient protein intake among elderly people in a metropolitan suburb: A case study in Kisarazu city, Japan
ConclusionThe findings demonstrate that living in a poor neighborhood food environment, which is becoming increasingly prevalent in Japan and other developed countries, has the potential to result in malnutrition, or at least in a low‐quality diet, in elderly populations. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Yuri Hamamatsu, Chiho Goto, Masaru Nishitani, Riko Shimadate, Junko Ueno, Yoko Kusakari, Masahiro Umezaki Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Economic activity and patterns of infant growth in a high altitude district of Peru
Abstract ObjectivesChanging economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long‐lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru. MethodsThe length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 8, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Morgan K. Hoke Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Food insecurity partially mediates associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults in india: Results from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)
Abstract ObjectiveOur objective was to test whether food insecurity mediates cross‐sectional associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults (aged 50+) in India (n = 6556). MethodsAdjusting for key sociodemographic and dietary variables, we examined whether markers of social disadvantage (lower educational attainment, lower household wealth, belonging to a disadvantaged caste/tribe, and belonging to a minority religion) were associated with food insecurity. We then examined whether food insecurity, in turn, was associated with anthropometric measures of body composition, bod...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 5, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Joshua M. Schrock, Heather H. McClure, J. Josh Snodgrass, Melissa A. Liebert, Karen E. Charlton, Perianayagam Arokiasamy, Nirmala Naidoo, Paul Kowal Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Abdominal obesity in adolescents: Development of age ‐specific waist circumference cut‐offs linked to adult IDF criteria
ConclusionsWe provide age‐ and sex‐specific cut‐off points that can be used to identify abdominal obesity in adolescents. The present findings provide a tool that can be used in the clinical setting for the early detection and prevention of adult obesity. Population‐specific cutoffs may be required for pediatric ages to diagnose children at risk. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - July 1, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Jorge Bravo, Armando M. Raimundo, Diana A. Santos, Rafael Tim ón, Luís B. Sardinha Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup variation of contemporary mixed South Americans reveals prehistoric displacements linked to archaeologically ‐derived culture history
ConclusionsWe propose an updated model of South American colonization that is fully compatible with previous studies based on autosomal, mtDNA, and Y chromosome variation and with archaeologically‐derived culture history. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - June 27, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Francisco Rothhammer, Lars Fehren ‐Schmitz, Giannina Puddu, José Capriles Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Adrenal maturation, nutritional status, and mucosal immunity in Bolivian youth
ConclusionsIn accordance with predictions derived from life‐history theory, males with higher energy stores secrete more adrenal androgens. This suggests that adrenal maturation is costly and subject to constraints; that is, only males with sufficient reserves will invest in accelerated adrenal maturation. Further, DHEA‐S appears to have a measureable influence on immunocompetence in adolescent males and females; therefore, deficits in DHEA‐S may have important consequences for health and maturation during this period. Adrenal maturation is an important, but understudied component of human growth and development. (So...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - June 27, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Carolyn R. Hodges ‐Simeon, Sean P. Prall, Aaron D. Blackwell, Michael Gurven, Steven J.C. Gaulin Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

GIVE A MAN A FISH: REFLECTIONS ON THE NEW POLITICS OF DISTRIBUTION James Ferguson Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 2015. 280 pp. $24.93 (paperback), $13.99 (e ‐book)
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - June 13, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Craig Hadley, Tatenda Mangurenje, Anna Grace Tribble Tags: BOOK REVIEW Source Type: research

American Journal Of Human Biology, Volume 29, Issue 3, May/June 2017
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 15, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Feminization of the fat distribution pattern of children and adolescents in a recent German population
ConclusionsConcurrent with drastic and rapid changes of environmental conditions, the body fat distribution of children and adolescents changed to a more feminized pattern during the early 1990s in an East German population. The changes in this endocrinologically mediated pattern might be associated with the increased exposure of individuals to endocrine‐disrupting chemicals which are known to influence the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems in animals and humans. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Christiane Scheffler, Melanie Dammhahn Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

An assessment of postcranial indices, ratios, and body mass versus eco ‐geographical variables of prehistoric Jomon, Yayoi agriculturalists, and Kumejima Islanders of Japan
ConclusionsThe complex interaction of evolutionary forces and development/nutritional constraints are implicated in the mismatch of limb and body proportions. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 10, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Noriko Seguchi, Conrad B. Quintyn, Shiori Yonemoto, Hirofumi Takamuku Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Scaling children's waist circumference for differences in body size
ConclusionsScaling children's WC for differences in height using allometric modeling reveals new insights into the growth and development of children's WC, findings that might well have been be overlooked if body size/height had been ignored. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 6, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Alan M Nevill, Michael J. Duncan, Ian M Lahart, Paul Davies, Robinson Ramirez ‐Velez, Gavin Sandercock Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Body size of young adult Polish college ‐age women born before, during, and after WWII
Abstract ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to compare the young adult body size of Polish female university students born before, during, and after WWII. MethodsAge, height, and weight of 492 students measured between 1956 and 1972 were accessed from the Department of Anthropology archives (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań). The sample was divided into three birth year cohorts relative to WWII: before (n = 120), during (n = 196), and after (n = 176). Birth years spanned 1935 through 1952. BMI was calculated. Body size among birth cohorts was compared with age of the student an...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 6, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Gra żyna Liczbińska, Zbigniew Czapla, Robert M. Malina, Janusz Piontek Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research

Linear and nonlinear relationships between body mass index and physical fitness in Brazilian children and adolescents
ConclusionThe association between BMI and physical fitness is nonlinear in the majority of its components, and those with lower and higher BMI had poorer fitness. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 6, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: V ítor P. Lopes, Marco Cossio‐Bolaños, Rossana Gómez‐Campos3, Miguel de Arruda, Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol, Luis P. Rodrigues Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Analysis of admixture proportions in seven geographical regions of the state of Guerrero, Mexico
ConclusionsThe genetic structure of the population of Guerrero reflects quite well the historical processes that have occurred in this state. Native American population settlements were mainly in the regions of Montaña, Norte, and Centro, where the highest indigenous genetic contribution is observed today. European settlers came from the center of the state to regions with significant agricultural and mining activities. The highest African contributions are observed in coastal regions, in agreement with historical evidence about slave trade routes in the Americas. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 6, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Jos é Ángel Cahua‐Pablo, Miguel Cruz, Pedro Vidal Tello‐Almaguer, Luz Carmen del Alarcón‐Romero, Esteban Juan Parra, Salvador Villerías‐Salinas, Adán Valladares‐Salgado, Vianet Argelia Tello‐Flores, Abigail Méndez‐Palacios, Claudia Pao Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A matter of perception: Perceived socio ‐economic status and cortisol on the island of Utila, Honduras
ConclusionsFor adults on Utila, perceptions of unmet need outweigh other social and economic status factors in predicting cortisol AUC and slope. In addition, the unmediated effects of access to sanitation and owing money on cortisol suggest that these distinct aspects of inequality are important to consider when seeking to understand how inequality can impact HPA function. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 6, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Angela R. Garc ía, Michael Gurven, Aaron D. Blackwell Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluation of baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in an italian population according to age, sex, smoking habits, and gene polymorphisms
ConclusionWe describe the association between some phase I, phase II, and DNA‐repair gene polymorphisms with increased SCEs frequencies, reinforcing the importance of genetic analysis in biomonitoring studies. Sex and age were found to be important endogenous factors that affect the level of genomic damage and the replicative capacity of cells, respectively. (Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 6, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Alfredo Santovito, Claudio Gendusa, Piero Cervella Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Normative data for quantitative calcaneal ultrasound in young males and females
Abstract ObjectiveThe quantitative ultrasound (QUS) method has been recognized as an optimal screening tool for assessing bone mass status. The aim of this study was to provide standardized values for bone health status measured by the QUS technique based on age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). MethodsThe study population consisted of 1322 healthy individuals (822 females and 500 males) aged 14–25 years. Bone mass in both calcaneus was estimated with QUS to obtain Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) (dB/MHz). ResultsThe linear models revealed statistically significant differences between bone mass status of the ca...
Source: American Journal of Human Biology - May 6, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Mar ía Correa‐Rodríguez, Emilio González‐Jiménez, Pedro A. García, Blanca Rueda‐Medina, Jacqueline Schmidt‐RioValle Tags: SHORT REPORT Source Type: research