Differential Neuroprotection of Selective Estrogen Receptor Agonists against Autonomic Dysfunction and Ischemic Cell Death in Permanent versus Reperfusion Injury.
Authors: Connell BJ, Saleh TM Abstract In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that selective activation of estrogen receptor subtypes (ERα and ERβ) would be neuroprotective following ischemia and/or ischemia-reperfusion, as well as prevent the associated autonomic dysfunction. The selective ERα agonist, PPT, when administered 30 min prior to occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO), resulted in a dose-dependent neuroprotection as measured 6 hours postpermanent MCAO, but not following 30 mins of MCAO followed by 5.5 hrs of reperfusion (I/R). In contrast, 30&thinsp...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation.
Authors: Hetland G, Johnson E, Lyberg T, Kvalheim G Abstract The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β-glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mouse models, in addition to anti-inflammatory effects in infl...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Augmentation of Tonic GABA(A) Inhibition in Absence Epilepsy: Therapeutic Value of Inverse Agonists at Extrasynaptic GABA(A) Receptors.
Authors: Errington AC, Cope DW, Crunelli V Abstract It is well established that impaired GABAergic inhibition within neuronal networks can lead to hypersynchronous firing patterns that are the typical cellular hallmark of convulsive epileptic seizures. However, recent findings have highlighted that a pathological enhancement of GABAergic signalling within thalamocortical circuits is a necessary and sufficient condition for nonconvulsive typical absence seizure genesis. In particular, increased activation of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors (eGABA(A)R) and augmented "tonic" GABA(A) inhibition in thalamocort...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in neurodegeneration.
Authors: Shukla V, Mishra SK, Pant HC Abstract It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. Th...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Dysregulation of iron metabolism in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Authors: Oshiro S, Morioka MS, Kikuchi M Abstract Dysregulation of iron metabolism has been observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Utilization of several importers and exporters for iron transport in brain cells helps maintain iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of iron homeostasis leads to the production of neurotoxic substances and reactive oxygen species, resulting in iron-induced oxidative stress. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), circumstantial evidence has shown that dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis leads to abnormal iron accumulation. Several genetic studies ha...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Chronic Treatment with a Promnesiant GABA-A α5-Selective Inverse Agonist Increases Immediate Early Genes Expression during Memory Processing in Mice and Rectifies Their Expression Levels in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model.
Chronic Treatment with a Promnesiant GABA-A α5-Selective Inverse Agonist Increases Immediate Early Genes Expression during Memory Processing in Mice and Rectifies Their Expression Levels in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2011;2011:153218 Authors: Braudeau J, Dauphinot L, Duchon A, Loistron A, Dodd RH, Hérault Y, Delatour B, Potier MC Abstract Decrease of GABAergic transmission has been proposed to improve memory functions. Indeed, inverse agonists selective for α5 GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptors (α5IA) have promnesiant activity. Interestingly, we have recently ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The role of uridine adenosine tetraphosphate in the vascular system.
Authors: Matsumoto T, Tostes RC, Webb RC Abstract The endothelium plays a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, and endothelial dysfunction is a major feature of cardiovascular diseases, such as arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Recently, uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up(4)A) has been identified as a novel and potent endothelium-derived contracting factor (EDCF). Up(4)A structurally contains both purine and pyrimidine moieties, which activate purinergic receptors. There is an accumulating body of evidence to show that Up(4)A modulates vascular function by actions on endothelial and smooth mu...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Neurosteroid Binding Sites on the GABA(A) Receptor Complex as Novel Targets for Therapeutics to Reduce Alcohol Abuse and Dependence.
Authors: Hulin MW, Amato RJ, Porter JR, Filipeanu CM, Winsauer PJ Abstract Despite the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in the US and Europe, there are only five approved pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. Moreover, these pharmacotherapeutic options have limited clinical utility. The purpose of this paper is to present pertinent literature suggesting that both alcohol and the neurosteroids interact at the GABA(A) receptor complex and that the neurosteroid sites on this receptor complex could serve as new targets for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol abuse. This paper will also prese...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Delonix regia (Boj. Ex. Hook).
Authors: Shewale VD, Deshmukh TA, Patil LS, Patil VR Abstract The present work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Delonix regia leaves (Family: Caesalpiniaceae). The powder of Delonix regia leaves was subjected to extraction with ethanol in soxhlet extractor. The ethanol extract after preliminary phytochemical investigation showed the presence of sterols, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma at a three different doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) of ethanol extract...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Central and Peripheral GABA(A) Receptor Regulation of the Heart Rate Depends on the Conscious State of the Animal.
In conclusion, the impact of changes in GABAergic input is very difficult to predict in these settings, emphasizing the need for experiments performed in conscious animals when aiming at determining the cardiovascular effects of compounds acting on GABAergic neurons. PMID: 22162673 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

A Comparison of the α2/3/5 Selective Positive Allosteric Modulators L-838,417 and TPA023 in Preclinical Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain.
In this study, we have investigated the effects of the medium-efficacy positive allosteric modulator (PAM) L-838,417 and the low-efficacy PAM TPA023 in a number of preclinical inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. We conclude that either the higher level of efficacy at α2/3 or efficacy at α5 is required for compounds to have a significant analgesic effect in a range of models, and, therefore, although the side-effect profile of compounds can be reduced compared to typical benzodiazepines, it is unlikely that it can be completely eliminated. PMID: 22162674 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effects of grape seed extract, vitamin C, and vitamin e on ethanol- and aspirin-induced ulcers.
Authors: Cuevas VM, Calzado YR, Guerra YP, Yera AO, Despaigne SJ, Ferreiro RM, Quintana DC Abstract Effects of GSE and vitamins C and E on aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and associated increases of lipid peroxidation in rats were compared. Two experiments were conducted. Rats were randomized into eight groups: a negative control and seven groups that received aspirin or ethanol for ulcer induction: one positive control (vehicle) and six with VC, VE, or GSE (25 and 250 mg/kg). Ulcer indexes and gastric levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were quantified. VC, VE, and GSE (25 and 250 mg/kg) decre...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The anti-inflammatory role of vitamin e in prevention of osteoporosis.
Authors: Nazrun AS, Norazlina M, Norliza M, Nirwana SI Abstract There is growing evidence that inflammation may be one of the causal factors of osteoporosis. Several cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, RANKL, OPG, and M-CSF were implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. These cytokines are important determinants of osteoclast differentiation and its bone resorptive activity. Anticytokine therapy using cytokine antagonists such as IL-receptor antagonist and TNF-binding protein was able to suppress the activity of the respective cytokines and prevent bone loss. Several animal studies have shown that vitamin E in the ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco.
In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID: 22162677 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Leaf Methanol Extract of Cotyledon orbiculata L. (Crassulaceae).
Authors: Amabeoku GJ, Kabatende J Abstract Leaf methanol extract of C. orbiculata L. was investigated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid writhing and hot-plate tests and carrageenan-induced oedema test in mice and rats, respectively. C. orbiculata (100-400 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing and significantly delayed the reaction time of mice to the hot-plate-induced thermal stimulation. Paracetamol (300 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Supplementation of vitamin C reduces blood glucose and improves glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind study.
In conclusion, oral supplementation of vitamin C with metformin reverses ascorbic acid levels, reduces FBS, PMBG, and improves HbA1c. Hence, both the drugs in combination may be used in the treatment of type 2 DM to maintain good glycemic control. PMID: 22242019 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effect of a CNS-Sensitive Anticholinesterase Methane Sulfonyl Fluoride on Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release in Freely Moving Rats.
Authors: Imanishi T, Hossain MM, Suzuki T, Xu P, Sato I, Kobayashi H Abstract Anticholinesterases (antiChEs) are used to treat Alzheimer's disease. The comparative effects of two antiChEs, methanesulfonyl fluoride (MSF) and donepezil, on the extracellular levels of ACh in the hippocampus were investigated by in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats. MSF at 1 and 2 mg/kg produced a dose-dependent increase in ACh efflux from 10 min to at least 3 hrs after injection. At 2 mg/kg, the increase was still present at 24 hr. Donepezil at 1 mg/kg showed a similar but smaller effec...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

An Overview of the CNS-Pharmacodynamic Profiles of Nonselective and Selective GABA Agonists.
Authors: Chen X, de Haas S, de Kam M, van Gerven J Abstract Various α(2,3) subtype selective partial GABA-A agonists are in development to treat anxiety disorders. These compounds are expected to be anxiolytic with fewer undesirable side effects, compared to nonselective GABA-A agonists like benzodiazepines. Several α(2,3) subtype selective and nonselective GABA-A agonists have been examined in healthy volunteers, using a battery addressing different brain domains. Data from five placebo-controlled double-blind studies were pooled. Lorazepam 2 mg was the comparator in three studies. Three α...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Perisynaptic GABA Receptors The Overzealous Protector.
Authors: Clarkson AN Abstract An attempt to find pharmacological therapies to treat stroke patients and minimize the extent of cell death has seen the failure of dozens of clinical trials. As a result, stroke/cerebral ischemia is the leading cause of lasting adult disability. Stroke-induced cell death occurs due to an excess release of glutamate. As a consequence to this, a compensatory increased release of GABA occurs that results in the subsequent internalization of synaptic GABA(A) receptors and spillover onto perisynaptic GABA(A) receptors, resulting in increased tonic inhibition. Recent studies show that the b...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Allosteric modulation of beta1 integrin function induces lung tissue repair.
Authors: Aljamal-Naylor R, Wilson L, McIntyre S, Rossi F, Harrison B, Marsden M, Harrison DJ Abstract The cellular cytoskeleton, adhesion receptors, extracellular matrix composition, and their spatial distribution are together fundamental in a cell's balanced mechanical sensing of its environment. We show that, in lung injury, extracellular matrix-integrin interactions are altered and this leads to signalling alteration and mechanical missensing. The missensing, secondary to matrix alteration and cell surface receptor alterations, leads to increased cellular stiffness, injury, and death. We have identified a monocl...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Mechanisms Underlying Tolerance after Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use: A Future for Subtype-Selective GABA(A) Receptor Modulators?
Authors: Vinkers CH, Olivier B Abstract Despite decades of basic and clinical research, our understanding of how benzodiazepines tend to lose their efficacy over time (tolerance) is at least incomplete. In appears that tolerance develops relatively quickly for the sedative and anticonvulsant actions of benzodiazepines, whereas tolerance to anxiolytic and amnesic effects probably does not develop at all. In light of this evidence, we review the current evidence for the neuroadaptive mechanisms underlying benzodiazepine tolerance, including changes of (i) the GABA(A) receptor (subunit expression and receptor coupling...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

GABA(A) Receptor Subtypes: Novel Targets for Novel Medicines.
Authors: Mirza NR, Atack J, Wafford K PMID: 22570647 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Biomarkers of oxidative stress and personalized treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: emerging role of gamma-glutamyltransferase.
Conclusion. The initial two months led to significant improvement of oxidative stress. Values of oxidative markers in normal ranges might predict low rate of ADR. PMID: 22611380 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The Anti-Inflammatory, Phytoestrogenic, and Antioxidative Role of Labisia pumila in Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.
Authors: Nadia ME, Nazrun AS, Norazlina M, Isa NM, Norliza M, Ima Nirwana S Abstract Osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal degeneration with low bone mass and destruction of microarchitecture of bone tissue which is attributed to various factors including inflammation. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone-formation and increase in bone-resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, and TNF-α. This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmeno...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of mangrove plants: a mini review.
Authors: Shilpi JA, Islam ME, Billah M, Islam KM, Sabrin F, Uddin SJ, Nahar L, Sarker SD Abstract Mangrove plants are specialised plants that grow in the tidal coasts of tropic and subtropic regions of the world. Their unique ecology and traditional medicinal uses of mangrove plants have attracted the attention of researchers over the years, and as a result, reports on biological activity of mangrove plants have increased significantly in recent years. This review has been set out to compile and appraise the results on antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of mangrove plants. While the Web of...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The treatment of inflammation, pain, and Fever using medicinal plants.
Authors: Akkol EK, Das S, Sarker SD, Nahar L PMID: 22693493 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effects of Nicotine on Emotional Reactivity in PTSD and Non-PTSD Smokers: Results of a Pilot fMRI Study.
Authors: Froeliger B, Crowell Beckham J, Feldman Dennis M, Victoria Kozink R, Joseph McClernon F Abstract There is evidence that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may smoke in part to regulate negative affect. This pilot fMRI study examined the effects of nicotine on emotional information processing in smokers with and without PTSD. Across groups, nicotine increased brain activation in response to fearful/angry faces (compared to neutral faces) in ventral caudate. Patch x Group interactions were observed in brain regions involved in emotional and facial feature processing. These preliminary find...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.
Authors: Kaushik D, Kumar A, Kaushik P, Rana AC Abstract The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Assessment of 5-HT(7) Receptor Agonists Selectivity Using Nociceptive and Thermoregulation Tests in Knockout versus Wild-Type Mice.
Authors: Brenchat A, Rocasalbas M, Zamanillo D, Hamon M, Vela JM, Romero L Abstract No study has ever examined the effect of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists on nociception by using 5-HT(7) receptor knockout mice. Basal sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli and formalin-induced nociception in both phase I and II of the formalin test did not differ in 5-HT(7) receptor knockout mice and paired wild-type controls. Similarly, there was no significant difference in basal body temperature between both genotypes. Subcutaneous administration of 5-HT(7) receptor agonists AS-19 (10 mg/kg), E-57431 (10 mg/kg), and E-5588...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Polysaccharides of St. John's Wort Herb Stimulate NHDF Proliferation and NEHK Differentiation via Influence on Extracellular Structures and Signal Pathways.
In conclusion polysaccharides have been shown as biologically active ingredients of aqueous St. John's Wort extracts with a relation between their structural characteristics and function. PMID: 22848211 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Anti-Inflammatory Actions of 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl Isothiocyanate Derived from Wasabi (Wasabia japonica).
Authors: Uto T, Hou DX, Morinaga O, Shoyama Y Abstract 6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) is a major bioactive compound in wasabi (Wasabia japonica), which is a typical Japanese pungent spice. Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that 6-MSITC has several biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiplatelet, and anticancer effects. We previously reported that 6-MSITC strongly suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines, which are important factors that mediate inflammatory processes. Moreover, molecular analysis de...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Central dopaminergic system and its implications in stress-mediated neurological disorders and gastric ulcers: short review.
Authors: Rasheed N, Alghasham A Abstract For decades, it has been suggested that dysfunction of dopaminergic pathways and their associated modulations in dopamine levels play a major role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Dopaminergic system is involved in the stress response, and the neural mechanisms involved in stress are important for current research, but the recent and past data on the stress response by dopaminergic system have received little attention. Therefore, we have discussed these data on the stress response and propose a role for dopamine in coping with stress. In addition, we have also...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment.
Authors: Naghibi SM, Hosseini M, Khani F, Rahimi M, Vafaee F, Rakhshandeh H, Aghaie A Abstract In the present study, the effect of aqueous extracts of saffron on morphine-induced memory impairment was investigated. On the training trial, the mice received an electric shock when the animals were entered into the dark compartment. Twenty-four and forty-eight hours later, the time latency for entering the dark compartment was recorded and defined as the retention trial. The mice were divided into (1) control, (2) morphine which received morphine before the training in the passive avoidance test, (3-5) three groups tre...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Protective effects of methylsulfonylmethane on hemodynamics and oxidative stress in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.
Authors: Mohammadi S, Najafi M, Hamzeiy H, Maleki-Dizaji N, Pezeshkian M, Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Darabi M, Mostafalou S, Bohlooli S, Garjani A Abstract Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is naturally occurring organic sulfur that is known as a potent antioxidant/anti-inflammatory compound. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MSM on hemodynamics functions and oxidative stress in rats with monocrotaline- (MCT-) induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 38-days treatment. MSM was administered to rats at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day doses 10 days before a singl...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-Like Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Alafia multiflora Stem Barks in Rodents.
Authors: Foyet HS, Tsala DE, Bouba AA, Hritcu L Abstract The present study examined the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the aqueous extract of Alafia multiflora Stapf (AM) stem barks (150 and 300 mg/kg, 7 days administration) on rats and mice, using experimental paradigms of anxiety and depression. In the open field, the aqueous extract increased significantly the number of center square crossed and the time spent at the center of the field as well as the rearing time, while the grooming time was reduced significantly. In the elevated plus maze, the aqueous extract increased the time spent and the n...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Memory-enhancing activity of palmatine in mice using elevated plus maze and morris water maze.
Authors: Dhingra D, Kumar V Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmatine on memory of Swiss young male albino mice. Palmatine (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) per se were administered for 10 successive days to separate groups of mice. Effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice was evaluated using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also estimated. Effect of palmatine on scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia was also investigated. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and physostigmine signifi...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Preclinical Determinants of Drug Choice under Concurrent Schedules of Drug Self-Administration.
Authors: Banks ML, Negus SS Abstract Drug self-administration procedures have played a critical role in the experimental analysis of psychoactive compounds, such as cocaine, for over 50 years. While there are numerous permutations of this procedure, this paper will specifically focus on choice procedures using concurrent schedules of intravenous drug self-administration. The aims of this paper are to first highlight the evolution of drug choice procedures and then review the subsequent preclinical body of literature utilizing these choice procedures to understand the environmental, pharmacological, and biological d...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Trends in Ambulatory Prescribing of Antiplatelet Therapy among US Ischemic Stroke Patients: 2000-2007.
Conclusion. We observed a continued increase in prescription of the aspirin-clopidogrel combination from 2000 to 2007. Clinical trial evidence suggests that the aspirin-clopidogrel combination does not provide any additional benefit compared with clopidogrel alone; however, our study findings indicate that even with lack of adequate clinical evidence physician prescribing of this combination has increased in real-world community settings. PMID: 23251145 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Chronic administration of a combination of six herbs inhibits the progression of hyperglycemia and decreases serum lipids and aspartate amino transferase activity in diabetic rats.
Authors: Shafiee-Nick R, Ghorbani A, Vafaee Bagheri F, Rakhshandeh H Abstract The effects of a polyherbal compound, containing six plants (Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Nigella sativa, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis and Teucrium polium) were tested on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin caused an approximately 3-fold increase in fasting blood sugar level after 2 days. The diabetic control rats showed further increase in blood glucose after 30 days (384 ± 25 mg/dl in day 30 versus 280 ± 12 mg/dl in day 2, P
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Drug-eluting stents in multivessel coronary artery disease: cost effectiveness and clinical outcomes.
Authors: Panchal K, Patel S, Bhatt P Abstract Multivessel coronary artery disease is more often treated either with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting. The advent of drug-eluting stent (DES) has changed the revascularization strategy, and caused an increase in the use of DES in multivessel disease (MVD), with reduced rate of repeat revascularization compared to conventional bare metal stent. The comparative studies of DES-PCI over CABG have shown comparable safety; however, the rate of major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiac events and repeat revascular...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effect of coenzyme-q10 on Doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
Authors: El-Sheikh AA, Morsy MA, Mahmoud MM, Rifaai RA, Abdelrahman AM Abstract Nephrotoxicity is one of the limiting factors for using doxorubicin (Dox) as an anticancer chemotherapeutic. Here, we investigated possible protective effect of coenzyme-Q10 (CoQ10) on Dox-induced nephrotoxicity and the mechanisms involved. Two doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) of CoQ10 were administered orally to rats for 8 days, in the presence or absence of nephrotoxicity induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Dox (15 mg/kg) at day 4 of the experiment. Our results showed that the low dose of CoQ10 succeeded in reversin...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.
Authors: Azmi MB, Qureshi SA Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg) and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg), negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg), positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg) controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed t...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Inhibition of Growth and Induction of Apoptosis in Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines by Echinophora platyloba DC: In Vitro Analysis.
The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activity and the mechanism of cell death of crude methanolic extracts prepared from Echinophora platyloba DC, on mouse fibrosarcoma cell line (WEHI-164). Cytotoxicity and viability of methanolic extract was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and dye exclusion assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determine whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. The cell death was identified as apoptosis using ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Preparation and evaluation of intravaginal ring containing drospirenone.
Authors: Zhang Y, Li CX, Ning MY, Duan XY, Liu Y Abstract In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of the vaginal administration of drospirenone silicone IVR. The in vitro release characteristics of matrix-type and reservoir-type IVR were compared under sink conditions in 21 days. At the same time, API excipients compatibility and preformulation study was performed by HPLC, IR, and DSC methods. Biocompatibility of reservoir system was evaluated by tolerability on tissue level in rats. It was found that, under strong light exposure, high temperature, and high humidity conditions, drospirenone and excipi...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.
Authors: Agyare C, Dwobeng AS, Agyepong N, Boakye YD, Mensah KB, Ayande PG, Adarkwa-Yiadom M Abstract Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diff...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Interactions among Low Dose of Methotrexate and Drugs Used in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
In conclusion, during the treatment with MTX, DDIs play an important role in both the development of ADRs and therapeutic failure. PMID: 23737767 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Comparative in vitro effects of calcineurin inhibitors on functional vascular relaxations of both rat thoracic and abdominal aorta.
Authors: Jadhav A, Gopalakrishnan V, Shoker A Abstract Background and Aim. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have shown to develop hypertension in transplant patients. The in vitro incubation effects of cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) on vascular relaxations of rat thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) need to be investigated. Methods. The optimal concentrations of CsA (1.0 mg/mL) and Tac (0.1 mg/mL) used to compare endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine (ACh)) and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) vascular relaxation against the agonists in phenylephrine (PE-) constricted ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats.
Authors: Kannan N, Sakthivel KM, Guruvayoorappan C Abstract The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antiox...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Labisia pumila Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Expression in Rat Adipose Tissues and 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.
Authors: Mansor F, Gu HF, Ostenson CG, Mannerås-Holm L, Stener-Victorin E, Wan Mohamud WN Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of Labisia pumila (LP) standardized water extract on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. We used a rat model of dihydrotestosterone- (DHT-) induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition characterized by insulin resistance. At 9 weeks of age, the PCOS rats were randomly subdivided into two groups:...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

HPLC Evaluation of Phenolic Profile, Nutritive Content, and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts Obtained from Punica granatum Fruit Peel.
This study revealed polyphenolic content, nutritive content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic profile of methanol and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum peel extract. For this, extracts were screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The total phenolics and flavonoid recovered by methanolic (MPE) and the water extract (AQPE) were ranged from 185 ± 12.45 to 298.00 ± 24.86 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/gm and 23.05 ±&thins...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research