Evaluation of Anti-HIV-1 Integrase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Compounds from Betula alnoides Buch-Ham.
Authors: Chaniad P, Sudsai T, Septama AW, Chukaew A, Tewtrakul S Abstract Betula alnoides is a medicinal plant in Thai traditional longevity preparations. The crude extracts of this plant possess various biological activities. However, the isolated compounds from this plant have no reports of anti-HIV-1 integrase (IN) activity. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the anti-HIV-1 integrase and anti-inflammatory effects of isolated compounds from this plant and predict the interaction of compounds with integrase active sites. From the bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of B. alnoides ste...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - July 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Nature-Inspired Drugs: Expanding Horizons of Contemporary Therapeutics.
Authors: Rasul A, Hussain G, Selamoglu Z, López-Alberca MP PMID: 31191650 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - June 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Synthesis of an Activatable Tetra-Substituted Nickel Phthalocyanines-4(3H)-quinazolinone Conjugate and Its Antibacterial Activity.
Authors: Elsharif AM, Youssef TE, Al-Jameel SS, Mohamed HH, Ansari MA, Rehman S, Akhtar S Abstract The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of nickel(II)phthalocyanines (NiPcs) bearing four 4(3H)-quinazolinone ring system units, (qz)4NiPcs 4a-d. The electronic factors in the 4(3H)-quinazolinone moiety that attached to the NiPc skeleton had a magnificent effect on the antibacterial activity of the newly synthesized (qz)4NiPcs 4a-d against Escherichia coli. The minimum MICs and MBCs value were recorded for compounds 4a, 4b, 4c, and 4d, respectively. The results indicated that the studied (qz)4NiPcs 4a-d units...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - June 2, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

GRP78/BIP/HSPA5 as a Therapeutic Target in Models of Parkinson's Disease: A Mini Review.
Authors: Enogieru AB, Omoruyi SI, Hiss DC, Ekpo OE Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the midbrain. Reports from postmortem studies in the human PD brain, and experimental PD models reveal that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. In times of stress, the unfolded or misfolded proteins overload the folding capacity of the ER to induce a condition generally known as ER stress. During ER stress, cells activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to han...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - April 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Novelty of Bioengineered Iron Nanoparticles in Nanocoated Surgical Cotton: A Green Chemistry.
Authors: Turakhia B, Chikkala S, Shah S Abstract The current focus of nanotechnology is to develop environmentally safe methodologies for the formulation of nanoparticles. The phytochemistry of Zingiber officinale inspired us to utilize it for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles. GC-MS analysis revealed the phytochemical profile of ginger. Out of 20 different chemicals, gingerol was found to be the most potent phytochemical with a retention time of 40.48 min. The present study reports a rapid synthesis method for the formation of iron nanoparticles and its potential efficacy as an antibacterial agent and an ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Gnidia glauca- and Plumbago zeylanica-Mediated Synthesis of Novel Copper Nanoparticles as Promising Antidiabetic Agents.
Authors: Jamdade DA, Rajpali D, Joshi KA, Kitture R, Kulkarni AS, Shinde VS, Bellare J, Babiya KR, Ghosh S Abstract Rapid, eco-friendly, and cost-effective one-pot synthesis of copper nanoparticles is reported here using medicinal plants like Gnidia glauca and Plumbago zeylanica. Aqueous extracts of flower, leaf, and stem of G. glauca and leaves of P. zeylanica were prepared which could effectively reduce Cu2+ ions to CuNPs within 5 h at 100°C which were further characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, ener...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Analysis of In Vitro Osteoblast Culture on Scaffolds for Future Bone Regeneration Purposes in Dentistry.
Authors: Gutiérrez-Prieto SJ, Perdomo-Lara SJ, Diaz-Peraza JM, Sequeda-Castañeda LG Abstract One of the main focuses of tissue engineering is to search for tridimensional scaffold materials, complying with nature's properties for tissue regeneration. Determining material biocompatibility is a fundamental step in considering its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze osteoblast cell adhesion and viability on different materials to determine which was more compatible for future bone regeneration. Tridimensional structures were fabricated with hydroxyapatite, collagen, and porous silica...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antibacterial Activity of Coumarins and Carbazole Alkaloid from Roots of Clausena anisata.
Authors: Tamene D, Endale M Abstract Clausena anisata is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of parasitic infections, irritation (boils, ringworm, and eczema), flatworm infestations, influenza, abdominal cramps, and constipation. Phytochemical screening test of dichloromethane/methanol (1 : 1) roots extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, coumarins, phenols, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, and free reducing sugars and the absence of saponins. Silica gel column chromatographic separation of the dichloromethane/methanol (1 : 1) extract afforded a...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Allergic Airway-Induced Hypersensitivity Is Attenuated by Bergapten in Murine Models of Inflammation.
Authors: Aidoo DB, Obiri DD, Osafo N, Antwi AO, Essel LB, Duduyemi BM, Ekor M Abstract Bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen, 5-MOP) is a plant-derived furocoumarin with demonstrated anti-inflammatory action. The present study investigated its effects on allergic inflammation in two related pathways of mast cell degranulation. Compound 48/80 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to activate the IgE-independent pathway while bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as allergen for the IgE-dependent pathway. The modulatory effect of bergapten on mast cell degranulation, neutrophil extravasation, protein concentration, lung histop...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Effect of "DXB-2030," a Polyherbal Formulation, on Experimental Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Associated with Hyperandrogenism.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate "DXB-2030," a polyherbal combination of Trigonella foenum-graecum, Aloe vera, Sphaeranthus indicus, Nardostachys jatamansi, and Symplocos racemosa extracts in an experimental model of testosterone propionate (TP), induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in female rats. Thirty animals were divided into 3 groups of 10 each; group 1 served as normal control; group 2 was administered with TP and served as positive control; along with TP, group 3 was treated with "DXB-2030" at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o., for 60 days. At the end of the study period, the...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Role of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in Cancer Prevention and Cancer Promotion.
Authors: Wong RSY Abstract The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed by medical practitioners in many clinical conditions for the symptomatic treatment of pain and fever. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, these drugs have been investigated for their anticancer effects in numerous studies. This is because chronic inflammation has long been linked to carcinogenesis. As such, anti-inflammatory drugs are believed to play a role in cancer treatment and prevention. In the past few decades, research has shown that NSAIDs may decrease the risk of certain types of cancer. However, th...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Disease-Modifying Effects of Long-Term and Continuous Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in Spondyloarthritis.
Authors: Wong RSY Abstract Spondyloarthritis or spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a group of related rheumatic disorders, which presents with axial and nonaxial features, affecting structures within the musculoskeletal system, as well as other bodily systems. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapeutic options are available for SpA. For decades, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used as the first-line drugs to treat the disease. Research has shown that other than pain relief, NSAIDs have disease-modifying effects in SpA. However, to achieve these effects, continuous and/or long-term NSA...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antimutagenic and Synergistic Cytotoxic Effect of Cisplatin and Honey Bee Venom on 4T1 Invasive Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line.
In this study, 4T1 cell line was cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), at 37°C in humidified CO2 incubator. The cell viabilities were examined by the MTT assay. Also, HBV was screened‏ for its antimutagenic activity via the Ames test. The results were assessed by SPSS software version 19 and one-way ANOVA method considering p
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antipathogenic Potential of a Polyherbal Wound-Care Formulation (Herboheal) against Certain Wound-Infective Gram-Negative Bacteria.
This study investigated antipathogenic efficacy of a polyherbal wound-healing formulation Herboheal against three multidrug-resistant strains of gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with wound infections. Herboheal was evaluated for its quorum-modulatory potential against three different human-pathogenic bacteria, first in vitro through the broth dilution assay and then in vivo in the model host Caenorhabditis elegans. Herboheal at ≥0.1% v/v was able to inhibit (19-55%) in vitro production of quorum sensing-regulated pigments in all these bacteria and seemed to interfere with bacterial quorum sensing by acting a...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - March 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Screening of Ethanol Extract of Lavandula stoechas and Investigation of Its Biochemical Composition.
Authors: Canlı K, Yetgin A, Benek A, Bozyel ME, Murat Altuner E Abstract The aim of this study was to test antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Lavandula stoechas against 22 bacteria and 1 yeast. Also, biochemical composition of the extract was investigated. A wide range of Gram-positive, Gram-negative microorganisms, and multidrug resistant bacteria were selected to test the antimicrobial activity. As a result, the extract is observed to contain fenchone (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,3,3-trimethyl-, (1R)-) and camphor (+)-2-bornanone) as major components and showed antimicrobial activity against all stud...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - February 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Nutraceuticals Inspiring the Current Therapy for Lifestyle Diseases.
Authors: Chanda S, Tiwari RK, Kumar A, Singh K Abstract Nutraceuticals are the pharmaceutically blended products that possess both nutritional as well as the medicinal value. Such a product is designed to improve the physical health, fight against day-to-day challenges such as stress, increase longevity, etc. Nowadays, emphasis is given to those herbs which are used as food and medicine due to its greater acceptance. Due to dynamic action, the popularity of nutraceuticals among people as well as healthcare providers has been increased over medicines and health supplements. This review documents herbs with a wide va...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - February 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Neuroprotection in Glaucoma: Old and New Promising Treatments.
Authors: Rusciano D, Pezzino S, Mutolo MG, Giannotti R, Librando A, Pescosolido N Abstract Glaucoma is a major global cause of blindness, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for the neurodegenerative damage are not clear. Undoubtedly, the high intraocular pressure (IOP) and the secondary ischemic and mechanical damage of the optic nerve have a crucial role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Several studies specifically analyzed the events that lead to nerve fiber layer thinning, showing the importance of both intra- and extracellular factors. In parallel, many neuroprotective substances have been tested for...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - February 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Oleander Stem and Root Standardized Extracts Mitigate Acute Hyperglycaemia by Limiting Systemic Oxidative Stress Response in Diabetic Mice.
Authors: Dey P, Saha MR, Roy Choudhuri S, Sarkar I, Halder B, Poddar-Sarkar M, Sen A, Chaudhuri TK Abstract The extracts of different parts of Nerium oleander L. are used as antidiabetic remedy in the traditional medicinal systems of different parts of the world. Despite these uses in ethnomedicinal system, the antihyperglycemic potentials of oleander stem (NOSE) and root (NORE) extracts have not been pharmacologically evaluated. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic ethnomedicinal claims of NOSE and NORE, primarily focusing on glucose homeostasis and associated metabolic implications. Alloxan-treated ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - February 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Pereskia bleo.
Authors: Johari MA, Khong HY Abstract Different solvent extracts of Pereskia bleo leaves were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities based on the Folin-Ciocalteu test and DPPH scavenging activities. The antibacterial activities against four bacteria, namely, Gram-positive bacteria: Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 (SP) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29737 (SA) and Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 (EC) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (PA), were also performed based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - February 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Depression as a Neuroendocrine Disorder: Emerging Neuropsychopharmacological Approaches beyond Monoamines.
Authors: Chávez-Castillo M, Núñez V, Nava M, Ortega Á, Rojas M, Bermúdez V, Rojas-Quintero J Abstract Depression is currently recognized as a crucial problem in everyday clinical practice, in light of ever-increasing rates of prevalence, as well as disability, morbidity, and mortality related to this disorder. Currently available antidepressant drugs are notoriously problematic, with suboptimal remission rates and troubling side-effect profiles. Their mechanisms of action focus on the monoamine hypothesis for depression, which centers on the disruption of serotonergic, noradrenerg...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - February 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of Novel 3-Hydroxyflavone Analogues as HDAC Inhibitors against Colorectal Cancer.
Authors: Biswas S, Reddy ND, Jayashree BS, Rao CM Abstract Alteration of epigenetic enzymes is associated with the pathophysiology of colon cancer with an overexpression of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) enzyme in this tissue. Numerous reports suggest that targeting HDAC8 is a viable strategy for developing new anticancer drugs. Flavonols provide a rich source of molecules that are effective against cancer; however, their clinical use is limited. The present study investigated the potential of quercetin and synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone analogues to inhibit HDAC8 enzyme and evaluated their anticancer property. Synthesi...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - January 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Is Associated with a Set-Point Variation in the Calcium-Parathyroid Hormone-Vitamin D Axis: Results from a German Cohort.
Authors: Noe S, Heldwein S, Wiese C, Pascucci R, von Krosigk A, Schabaz F, Jonsson-Oldenbuettel C, Jaeger H, Wolf E Abstract Background: Higher levels of parathyroid hormone have been associated with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in people with and without HIV infection. Yet, alterations in calcium levels have never been elucidated in detail. Objective: To compare the association of parathyroid hormone with serum calcium levels and other markers of calcium and bone metabolism in people living with HIV on TDF- and non-TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy. Patients and Methods: A retrospecti...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - January 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Therapeutic Properties of Stingless Bee Honey in Comparison with European Bee Honey.
Authors: Zulkhairi Amin FA, Sabri S, Mohammad SM, Ismail M, Chan KW, Ismail N, Norhaizan ME, Zawawi N Abstract Both honeybees (Apis spp.) and stingless bees (Trigona spp.) produce honeys with high nutritional and therapeutics value. Until recently, the information regarding potential health benefits of stingless bee honey (SBH) in medical databases is still scarce as compared to the common European bee honey (EBH) which is well known for their properties as therapeutic agents. Although there have been very few reports on SBH, empirically these products would have similar therapeutic quality as the EBH. In addition,...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - January 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Phenolic Rich Fractions from Mycelium and Fruiting Body of Ganoderma lucidum Inhibit Bacterial Pathogens Mediated by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Protein Leakage and Modulate Hypoxic Stress in HEK 293 Cell Line.
Authors: Mishra J, Joshi A, Rajput R, Singh K, Bansal A, Misra K Abstract Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) fungus (Family Ganodermataceae) is widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and many Asian countries on account of its numerous medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, energy enhancing, and immunostimulatory. This broad spectrum of therapeutic effects exhibited by G. lucidum is ascribed to its abundance in several classes of chemical constituents, namely, carbohydrates, flavonoids, minerals, phenolics, proteins, and steroids which possess substantial bioactivities. The ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - January 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Niosome: A Promising Nanocarrier for Natural Drug Delivery through Blood-Brain Barrier.
Authors: Gharbavi M, Amani J, Kheiri-Manjili H, Danafar H, Sharafi A Abstract Niosomes (the nonionic surfactant vesicles), considered as novel drug delivery systems, can improve the solubility and stability of natural pharmaceutical molecules. They are established to provide targeting and controlled release of natural pharmaceutical compounds. Many factors can influence on niosome construction such as the preparation method, type and amount of surfactant, drug entrapment, temperature of lipids hydration, and the packing factor. The present review discusses about the most important features of niosomes such as their...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - January 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. (Anil): Plant Profile, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology Review.
Authors: Campos JKL, Araújo TFDS, Brito TGDS, da Silva APS, da Cunha RX, Martins MB, da Silva NH, Dos Santos BS, da Silva CA, Lima VLM Abstract Indigoferasuffruticosa Mill. (Fabaceae) is known as anil or anileira and also with other names, due to the production of a blue pigment, which is commonly used for yarn dyeing. It is distributed in some states of Brazil (Pernambuco, Paraíba, Mato Grosso, São Paulo, Bahia, Pará, and others) and is used in the popular medicine as a febrifuge, antispasmodic, diuretic, abortive, analgesic, purgative, or soothing agent against stomach and urinary prob...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - January 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Use of Flavonoids and Cinnamates, the Main Photoprotectors with Natural Origin.
Authors: Nunes AR, Vieira ÍGP, Queiroz DB, Leal ALAB, Maia Morais S, Muniz DF, Calixto-Junior JT, Coutinho HDM Abstract Many pathological problems are initiated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), such as skin cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) wavelengths may cause effects such as photoaging, DNA damage, and a series of cellular alterations. The UVA radiation can damage the DNA, oxidize the lipids, and produce dangerous free radicals, which can cause inflammation, modify the gene expression in response to stress, and weaken the skin immu...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - January 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Clustering, Pathway Enrichment, and Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis of Gene Expression in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
In this study, we have used four samples of microarray neuronal developmental data: control, RV (resveratrol), NGF (nerve growth factor), and RV + NGF. By using computational methods, we have identified genes that are expressed in the early stage of neuronal development and also involved in neuronal diseases. We have used MeV application to cluster the raw data using distance metric Pearson correlation coefficient. Finally, 60 genes were selected on the basis of coexpression analysis. Further pathway analysis was done using the Metascape tool, and the biological process was studied using gene ontology database. A total of ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - January 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Allium sativum Cloves from China and Ta şköprü, Turkey.
In this study, antimicrobial activities of two different samples of Allium sativum L. from Turkey (TR) (Taşköprü, Kastamonu, Turkey) and China (CN) were determined. A broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (17 bacteria) including species of Bacillus, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Listeria, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus were used for testing antibacterial activity. In addition, antifungal activity against Candida albicans was also investigated. Antimicrobial activity was tested by using 3 different processes (chopping, freezing, and slicing by the disk diff...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - January 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antidiabetic Effects of the Ethanolic Root Extract of Uvaria chamae P. Beauv (Annonaceae) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Potential Alternative Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus.
This study showed that U. chamae has antidiabetic activity which may be through α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition and regeneration of pancreatic beta cells. Also, it may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing HDL-cholesterol levels. PMID: 30532775 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - December 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

HPTLC Analysis of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl., a Siddha Medicinal Herb.
Authors: Preet R, Gupta RC Abstract In the present study, HPTLC is used to detect the presence and amount of triterpenoids and phytosterols in different plant parts (fruit, stem, leaf, and root) of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl.; such analysis is done for the first time. Each plant part has its own medicinal value and is used as Siddha medicinal herb. The employed statistical analysis ensures that the developed method is reproducible and selective. The results show that the fruit samples contain highest amount of tested phytochemicals. This method can be used as an important tool to ensure the therapeutic ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - December 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Investigation of Antioxidant/Oxidant Status and Antimicrobial Activities of Lentinus tigrinus.
In conclusion, it was suggested that L. tigrinus can be used as a natural source due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. PMID: 30515206 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - December 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Simultaneous Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne. by Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD-UV).
Authors: Preet R, Chand Gupta R Abstract During the present study, an endeavor has been made to produce a simple, rapid, and simultaneous method for determination of phenolic compounds by using high-performance liquid chromatography in aerial parts of Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne. collected from the Indian Thar Desert. The optimized process was used for the quantification of ten phenolic compounds. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Atlantis T3 column at 25°C with isocratic elution. A mixture of acetonitrile and water was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Crude Polysaccharides from Okra Pods (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Indonesia Enhance the Immune Response due to Bacterial Infection.
This study showed that crude polysaccharides at a dose of 75 and 100 mg/kg improved phagocytic activity, spleen index, and splenocytes proliferation. Rising of TNF-α levels was shown in groups treated with crude polysaccharides at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. All treatment groups showed a decreasing level of IL-17. Crude okra polysaccharides also showed a slight increase in NK cells activity and IFN-γ level. Thus, crude okra polysaccharides could act as an effective material to enhance immune response including phagocytic activity, spleen index, splenocytes proliferation, and control immune res...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - November 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Updates on the Status of Vitamin D as a Risk Factor for Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Authors: Gatera VA, Abdulah R, Musfiroh I, Judistiani RTD, Setiabudiawan B Abstract To update the guidelines regarding vitamin D status in respiratory distress syndrome, we reviewed recent human and animal studies on the benefits of vitamin D in respiratory distress. We searched PubMed and ProQuest for studies on the use of vitamin D from 2009 to 2017. The common parameters in these studies included the use of lung tissue, phospholipids, blood, and plasma to assess the effects of vitamin D on respiratory syndrome. The metabolized form of vitamin D used in these studies was 1,25(OH)2D3 in animal studies and 25(OH)D ...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - October 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Cytotoxicity of the Aqueous Extract and Organic Fractions from Origanum majorana on Human Breast Cell Line MDA-MB-231 and Human Colon Cell Line HT-29.
Authors: Makrane H, El Messaoudi M, Melhaoui A, El Mzibri M, Benbacer L, Aziz M Abstract The toxicity of the aqueous extract of Origanum majorana was tested (5 and 10 g/kg) in albino mice. No symptoms of toxicity or mortality were observed. The mice survived being active and healthy during all 14 days of observation. In addition, the weight measurement of the left and right kidneys, heart, and liver shows no significant difference between the control, 5 g/kg, and 10 g/kg. All extracts (aqueous, petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanolic, and depleted aqueous extracts) of Origan...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - September 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

A Review of Malaysian Medicinal Plants with Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity.
This article aims to provide detailed information on Malaysian plants used for treating inflammation. An extensive search on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect and conference papers was done to find relevant articles on anti-inflammatory activity of Malaysian medicinal plants. The keyword search terms used were "inflammation," "Malaysia," "medicinal plants," "mechanisms," "in vitro," and "in vivo." As a result, 96 articles on anti-inflammatory activity of Malaysian medicinal plants were found and further reviewed. Fort...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - August 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Toxicity and Safety Evaluation of Doxorubicin-Loaded Cockleshell-Derived Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticle in Dogs.
This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity effects of repeated dose administration of DOX-loaded CS-CaCO3NP in healthy dogs. Fifteen dogs with an average body weight of 15 kg were randomized equally into 5 groups. Dogs were subjected to 5 doses at every 3-week interval with (i) normal saline, (ii) DOX, 30 mg/m2, and the experimental groups: CS-CaCO3NP-DOX at (iii) high dose, 50 mg/m2, (iv) clinical dose, 30 mg/m2, and (v) low dose, 20 mg/m2. Radiographs, electrocardiography, and blood samples were collected before every treatment for haematology, serum biochemistry, and cardiac injury as...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - August 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Toward Improving Medication Adherence: The Suppression of Bitter Taste in Edible Taste Films.
Authors: Cherian S, Lee BS, Tucker RM, Lee K, Smutzer G Abstract Bitter taste is aversive to humans, and many oral medications exhibit a bitter taste. Bitter taste can be suppressed by the use of inhibitors or by masking agents such as sucralose. Another approach is to encapsulate bitter tasting compounds in order to delay their release. This delayed release can permit the prior release of bitter masking agents. Suppression of bitter taste was accomplished by encapsulating a bitter taste stimulus in erodible stearic acid microspheres, and embedding these 5 µmeter diameter microspheres in pullulan films...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - July 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Supplementation with Alpha-Tocopherol and Ascorbic Acid to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease's Statin Therapy in Men.
Authors: Hadzi-Petrushev N, Dimovska K, Jankulovski N, Mitrov D, Mladenov M Abstract Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the control of lipid status by statins may help to stop the progression of NAFLD. We hypothesized that the addition of antioxidant vitamins C and E to atorvastatin therapy is associated with improved serum enzyme antioxidant status. NAFLD-related serum parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, before and after 3 months of treatment, were determined in patients receiving atorvastatin alone or at...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - June 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antibacterial Activity of Two Flavans from the Stem Bark of Embelia schimperi.
Authors: Guyasa B, Melaku Y, Endale M Abstract Embelia schemperi Vatke is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of intestinal tape worm, dysmenorrheal, bacterial, and fungal infections. Phytochemical screening test of the dichloromethane/methanol (1 : 1) and methanol extracts revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids whereas terpenoids, glycoside, and phytosterols were absent. Silica gel column chromatographic separation of the methanol extract afforded 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavan, named epicatechin (1), along with a close flavan derivative (2). Str...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - June 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Astragalin: A Bioactive Phytochemical with Potential Therapeutic Activities.
Authors: Riaz A, Rasul A, Hussain G, Zahoor MK, Jabeen F, Subhani Z, Younis T, Ali M, Sarfraz I, Selamoglu Z Abstract Natural products, an infinite treasure of bioactive chemical entities, persist as an inexhaustible resource for discovery of drugs. This review article intends to emphasize on one of the naturally occurring flavonoids, astragalin (kaempferol 3-glucoside), which is a bioactive constituent of various traditional medicinal plants such as Cuscuta chinensis. This multifaceted compound is well known for its diversified pharmacological applications such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, c...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - June 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Efficacy of Aloe vera, Ananas comosus, and Sansevieria masoniana Cream on the Skin Wound Infected with MRSA.
Authors: Prakoso YA, Setiyo Rini C, Wirjaatmadja R Abstract The tropical area has a lot of herbal medicines such as Aloe vera (AV), Ananas comosus (AC), and Sansevieria masoniana (SM). All the three have a unique potential effect as an antibacterial and wound-healing promoter. The aim of this study is to explore the role of AV, AC, and SM on the skin wound infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Forty-five adult female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into 5 groups. All the groups were exposed to two round full-thickness punch biopsy and infected with MRSA. The group...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - June 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Studies on the Dual Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Properties of Berberis vulgaris Extracts and Its Main Constituent Berberine.
Authors: El Khalki L, Tilaoui M, Jaafari A, Ait Mouse H, Zyad A Abstract The present study attempts to investigate the cytotoxic activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the Moroccan Berberis vulgaris and its major component berberine, together with exploring their antioxidant properties. It also consists of studying the combination effect of berberine and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Using the MTT assay, we report a differential cytotoxic effect of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts since the ethanol extract i...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - May 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Synthesis and Pharmacological Valorization of Derivatives of 4-Phenyl-1,5-Benzodiazepin-2-One.
This study was conducted according to OECD 423 guidelines in female mice and revealed that these compounds are nontoxic. We then assessed the psychotropic effects of our products on the central nervous system (CNS). The results obtained show that 4-phenyl-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one has no sedative effect at therapeutic doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. On the other hand, its long-chain derivatives possess them. Moreover, all these products have no cataleptic and hypnotic effects at the doses studied. But at 100 mg/kg, these compounds all have the ability to significantly prolong the hypnotic effect of thiopental sodiu...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - May 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antibacterial and Antioxidant Compounds from the Flower Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina.
Authors: Habtamu A, Melaku Y Abstract Vernonia amygdalina is traditionally used in Ethiopia to treat various diseases. This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds from the flowers of this plant. The CHCl3 extract after silica gel column chromatography has led to the isolation of two compounds identified as tricosane (1) and vernolide (2), while the acetone extract furnished isorhamnetin (3) and luteolin (4). The acetone extract and isorhamnetin significantly scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 91.6 and 94%, respectively. It was also shown that the acetone extract and isorhamnetin inhib...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - May 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Downregulation of Thromboxane A2 Receptor Occurs Mainly via Nuclear Factor-KappaB Signaling Pathway in Rat Renal Artery.
Authors: Zhang Y, Mi M, Xie YH, Wang SW, Edvinsson L, Xu CB Abstract Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) acts on TXA2 receptors (TP) to regulate renal artery blood flow and subsequently contributes to the pathogenesis of renal ischemia. The present study was designed to examine if nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is involved in the downregulation of TP receptors in rat renal artery. Rat renal artery segments were organ cultured for 6 or 24 h. Downregulation of TP receptors was monitored using myograph (contractile function), real-time PCR (receptor mRNA), and immunohistochemistry (receptor protein). S...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - August 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oil of Aloysia citriodora Palau Grown in Morocco.
Authors: Oukerrou MA, Tilaoui M, Mouse HA, Leouifoudi I, Jaafari A, Zyad A Abstract The aim of this work is to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of the essential oils of Aloysia citriodora Palau, harvested in different regions of Morocco. The chemical profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The cytotoxic activity against P815, MCF7, and VERO cell lines as well as the normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated using the MTT assay. Standard, ATCC, strains of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aer...
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - July 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The Effects of Punica granatum Flower Extract on Skin Injuries Induced by Burn in Rats.
Conclusion. These results indicated that P. granatum flower extract promoted wound healing in rats and could be used for managing burn injuries. PMID: 28203250 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - February 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Changes in IL-2 and IL-10 during Chronic Administration of Isoniazid, Nevirapine, and Paracetamol in Rats.
In conclusion, the initial drug-induced subclinical liver injury, its spontaneous healing, and the associated adaptive immune response have been demonstrated. PMID: 27990159 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences - December 20, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Adv Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research