Kundalini Yoga Meditation Versus the Relaxation Response Meditation for Treating Adults With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusion: KY shows promise as an add-on option for OCD patients unresponsive to first line therapies. Future studies will establish KY’s relative efficacy compared to Exposure and Response Prevention and/or medications, and the most effective treatment schedule.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01833442. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - November 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Surgical compression of uterus: an early description.
PMID: 31691448 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)
Source: BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - November 8, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Tekiner H, Yale S, Faikoglu R Tags: BJOG Source Type: research

Prominent autistic traits and subthreshold bipolar/mixed features of depression in severe anorexia nervosa.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Autistic traits are associated with a burdensome clinical presentation of anorexia nervosa (AN), as is AN with concurrent depression. The aim of the present study was to explore the intertwined association between complex psychopathology combining autistic traits, subthreshold bipolarity, and mixed depression among people with AN. METHOD: Sixty patients with AN and concurrent major depressive episode (mean age, 22.2±7 years) were cross-sectionally assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient test (AQ-test), the Hamilton depression scales for depression and anxiety, the Young Mania Ra...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria - November 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fornaro M, Sassi T, Novello S, Anastasia A, Fusco A, Senatore I, de Bartolomeis A Tags: Braz J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sexual Minorities Found to Be at Elevated Risk for Eating Disorders
People who are homosexual, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual orientation have both a higher risk and a higher rate of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder than people who are heterosexual, astudy in theInternational Journal of Eating Disorders has found. Although prior research suggests that members of sexual minorities have a higher risk of eating disorder symptoms than heterosexuals, this study is believed to be the first to use data from a large number of people to determine how common eating disorders are among sexual minority members.Rebecca C. Kamody, Ph.D., of Yale ...
Source: Psychiatr News - November 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: anorexia nervosa binge eating disorder bulimia nervosa DSM-5 eating disorders heterosexual International Journal of Eating Disorders NESARC-III Rebecca C. Kamody sexual minorities Source Type: research

Development of a Novel Competency-Based Evaluation System for HIV Primary Care Training: the HIV Entrustable Professional Activities
DiscussionDevelopment of HIV-specific training EPAs was effective for driving curricular development and resident evaluation, and served as an effective method to communicate expectations to resident participants. These HIV-specific EPAs could serve as a useful template to enhance HIV education in academic settings. (Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine)
Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine - October 30, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Empirically defining treatment response and remission in body dysmorphic disorder.
CONCLUSION: Based on these results, we propose conceptual and operational definitions of response and full or partial remission in BDD. A consensus regarding these constructs will improve the interpretation and comparison of future clinical trials, as well as improve communication among researchers, clinicians, and patients. Further research is needed, especially regarding definitions of full remission, recovery, and relapse. PMID: 31662124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fernández de la Cruz L, Enander J, Rück C, Wilhelm S, Phillips KA, Steketee G, Sarvode Mothi S, Krebs G, Bowyer L, Monzani B, Veale D, Mataix-Cols D Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Cannabinoids for Psychiatric Disorders? Evidence of Effectiveness is Lacking, Report Concludes
There is little evidence that the use of cannabinoids can improve symptoms of anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychosis, or Tourette syndrome, according to areport inLancet Psychiatry.“Cannabinoids are often advocated as a treatment for various mental disorders,” wrote Nicola Black, Ph.D., of the University of New South Wales and colleagues. Doctors and patients “need to be aware of the low quality and quantity of evidence for the effectiveness of medicinal cannabinoids in treating mental disorders and the potential risk of advers...
Source: Psychiatr News - October 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADHD anxiety cannabinoids cannabis Deepak Cyril D ’Souza depression meta-analysis Nicola Black psychiatric disorders PTSD Tourette syndrome Source Type: research

The relationship between food addiction and patterns of disordered eating with exercise dependence: in amateur endurance athletes.
Abstract PURPOSE: Examine the prevalence and potential relationships among food addiction (FA)-as measured by Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (YFAS 2.0), eating disorders (ED)-as measured by Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS)-and exercise dependence (EXD)-as measured by Questionnaire to Diagnose Exercise Dependence in Endurance Sports (FESA), for the first time worldwide, in amateur endurance athletes. METHODS: A total of 1022 German-speaking endurance athletes (44% male, Ø 36 years, Ø BMI 23 kg/m2) replied to an online questionnaire consisting of demographics, related parameters, a...
Source: Eating and weight disorders : EWD - October 25, 2019 Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Hauck C, Schipfer M, Ellrott T, Cook B Tags: Eat Weight Disord Source Type: research

Pregabalin augmentation for resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE.: Glutamate dysfunction has been shown to be associated with pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Our objective is to survey the effects of pregabalin (a glutamate-modulating agent) as an augmenting treatment for resistant OCD. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: In this 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 56 patients with resistant OCD were randomly allocated to receive either pregabalin or placebo plus their current medication (sertraline). Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) was used to evaluate the outcomes. Adverse effects were also r...
Source: CNS Spectrums - October 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mowla A, Ghaedsharaf M Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Management of Appendiceal Malignancy
I read with interest the article published by Danielle Heller and colleagues from the Yale Surgical Oncology group,1 and also the thoughtful Invited Commentary by Laura Lambert.2 (Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons)
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - October 23, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Paul H. Sugarbaker Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Limbic cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical functional connectivity in drug-na ïve patients of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Limbic cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical functional connectivity in drug-naïve patients of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychol Med. 2019 Oct 23;:1-13 Authors: Zhao Q, Xu T, Wang Y, Chen D, Liu Q, Yang Z, Wang Z Abstract BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains unclear despite extensive neuroimaging work on the disorder. Exposure to medication and comorbid mental disorders can confound the results of OCD studies. The goal of this study was to explore differences in brain functional connectivity (FC) within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop of ...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhao Q, Xu T, Wang Y, Chen D, Liu Q, Yang Z, Wang Z Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Deep learning based on standard H & E images of primary melanoma tumors identifies patients at risk for visceral recurrence and death.
We present a pathology-based computational method using a deep neural network architecture for DSS prediction. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The model was trained on 108 patients from four institutions and tested on 104 patients from Yale School of Medicine (YSM). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated based on vote aggregation of individual image sequences, an optimized cutoff was selected, and the computational model was tested on a third independent population of 51 patients from Geisinger Health Systems (GHS). RESULTS: Area under the curve (AUC) in the YSM patients was 0.905 (p
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - October 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kulkarni PM, Robinson EJ, Sarin Pradhan J, Gartrell-Corrado RD, Rohr BR, Trager MH, Geskin LJ, Kluger HM, Wong PF, Acs B, Rizk EM, Yang C, Mondal M, Moore MR, Osman I, Phelps R, Horst BA, Chen ZS, Ferringer T, Rimm DL, Wang J, Saenger YM Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research

Is weight status associated with peripheral levels of oxytocin? A pilot study in healthy women.
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Janelle A Skinner, Manohar L Garg, Christopher V Dayas, Tracy L BurrowsABSTRACTThe neuropeptide oxytocin is best known for its role during parturition and the milk-let down reflex. Recent evidence identifies a role for oxytocin in eating behaviour. After oxytocin administration, caloric intake is reduced with stronger inhibitory effects in individuals with obesity. Whether the experience of visual food cues affects secretion or circulating levels of oxytocin is unknown. This pilot study had three aims: 1) to measure fasting appeti...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - October 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

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African American women die of pregnancy-related causes at three times the rate for white women, even after accounting for income, education, and access to other resources. What is it about being born black in America that leads to such outcomes? To answer this question, Shanoor Seervai interviews Kennetha Gaines, clinical nurse manager for UCSF Health in San Francisco, for the latest episode of The Dose podcast. Gaines, a Pozen Commonwealth Fund Fellow in Minority Health Leadership at Yale University, speaks candidly about her personal experiences and her work to transform the way health care providers treat black women....
Source: The Commonwealth Fund: Publications - October 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Shanoor Seervai Source Type: research

Immune cell PD-L1 co-localizes with macrophages and is associated with outcome in PD-1 pathway blockade therapy.
Abstract BACKGROUND: PD-L1 is expressed in tumor cells and immune cells and both have been associated with response to anti-PD-1 axis immunotherapy. Here, we examine the expression of PD-L1 to determine which cell type carries the predictive value of the test. METHODS: We measured the expression of PD-L1 in multiple immune cells with two platforms and confocal microscopy on three retrospective Yale NSCLC cohorts (425 non-immunotherapy-treated cases and 62 pembrolizumab/nivolumab/atezolizumab-treated cases). The PD-L1 level was selectively measured in different immune cell subsets using two multiplexed QIF pan...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - October 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Liu Y, Zugazagoitia J, Ahmed FS, Henick BS, Gettinger S, Herbst RS, Schalper KA, Rimm DL Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research

Anterior capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review of old and new literature.
Abstract Over the last two decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has gained popularity as a treatment of severe and medically refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), often using brain targets informed by historical lesional neurosurgical procedures. Paradoxically, the use of DBS in OCD has led some multidisciplinary teams to revisit the use of lesional procedures, especially anterior capsulotomy (AC), although significant aversion still exists toward the use of lesional neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review all literature on the use of AC for OCD to examine its effectiveness and...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - October 11, 2019 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Pepper J, Zrinzo L, Hariz M Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

QnAs with Gunter P. Wagner [QnAs]
Günter P. Wagner works at the interface of population genetics and evolutionary developmental biology, and has made several key contributions to both fields. A professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at Yale University, Wagner was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2018. Wagner focuses on the evolution of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 8, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sandeep Ravindran Tags: QnAs Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation of ventral internal capsule for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Authors: Gupta A, Khanna S, Jain R Abstract The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral striatum (VS) of the anterior limb of internal capsule for patients suffering from refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to compare its result with traditional anterior capsulotomy. The present study consisted of two patients subjected to stimulation of ventral capsule (VC)/VS region of internal capsule for refractory OCD. Leads were implanted on both sides stereotactically using fused images of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scan...
Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry - October 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Indian J Psychiatry Source Type: research

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Each day, Philadelphia’s fire department responds to nearly a thousand emergencies, whether it’s saving someone from opioid overdose or helping a person having trouble getting out of bed. What would it be like to spend a day in the life of the person who runs emergency medical services for a big city? Listen to the latest episode of The Dose podcast to find out how Philadelphia EMS deputy commissioner Crystal Yates deals with crises on a daily basis. Yates, one of the first recipients of the Pozen Commonwealth Fund Fellowship in Minority Health Leadership at Yale University, has made it her mission to find in...
Source: The Commonwealth Fund: Publications - October 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Shanoor Seervai Source Type: research

Increased cerebellar-default-mode network connectivity at rest in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Authors: Lv D, Ou Y, Chen Y, Yang R, Zhong Z, Jia C, Sun L, Wang Y, Zhang G, Sun Z, Wang W, Wang Y, Wang X, Guo W, Li P Abstract Abnormalities of the cerebellum and default-mode network (DMN) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been widely reported. However, alterations of reciprocal functional connections between the cerebellum and DMN at rest in OCD remain unclear. Forty patients with OCD and 38 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based functional connectivity (FC) and support vector machine (SVM...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

A Novel Approach Inspired by Optic Nerve Characteristics for Few-Shot Occluded Face Recognition
Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: NeurocomputingAuthor(s): Wenbo Zheng, Chao Gou, Fei-Yue WangAbstractAlthough there has been a growing body of work for face recognition, it is still a challenging task for faces under occlusion with limited training samples. In this work, we propose a novel framework to address the problem of few-shot occluded face recognition. In particular, inspired by the human being’s optic nerves characteristics that humans recognize the face under occlusion using contextual information rather than paying attention to the facial parts, we propose an effective feature ex...
Source: Neurocomputing - October 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relationships Between Body Mass Index and Static and Dynamic Balance in Active and Inactive Older Adults
Conclusion: We conclude that the amount of physical activity performed is a potential contributing factor affecting the association between body mass index and balance in older persons. These findings could be of importance when identifying the main factors that influence postural control among older adults with obesity. (Source: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy)
Source: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy - October 1, 2019 Category: Physiotherapy Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

1127PBrachytherapy and non-cancer mortality in patients with oral cavity and oropharynx SCCs
AbstractBackgroundOral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OC-OPSCC) display high cancer mortality. Aspiration, infection, other complications or treatment, and age- and substance-related comorbidities contribute to non-cancer mortality. This single-institution study examines cause of death in patients treated for OC-OPSCC with brachytherapy, chemotherapy, external beam radiation, surgery, or combination of modalities. We hypothesize that brachytherapy results in lower non-cancer mortality.MethodsIRB approval was obtained. Our institution ’s Tumor Registry and electronic medical record were used to identi...
Source: Annals of Oncology - October 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

1149PPathologic staging changes in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Stage migration and implications for adjuvant treatment
AbstractBackgroundThe American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th Edition (AJCC 8) for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) incorporates depth of invasion (DOI) into the pathologic tumor classification (pT) and pathologic extranodal extension (pENE) into the pathologic nodal classification (pN). We sought to evaluate the incidence and prognostic importance of stage migration as a result of these changes on the AJCC 8 staging system.MethodsFrom the National Cancer Database, cohorts were identified from patients with OCSCC undergoing definitive surgery between 2004-2013 for pT (n  = 7,184), pN (n =&thi...
Source: Annals of Oncology - October 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Roy Schafer (1922-2018).
This article memorializes Roy Schafer (1922-2018). Schafer was a major theoretician of psychoanalysis. He began his long professional life in the famous Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas, conducting psychological diagnostic research. Early on he became known for foundational work on the Rorschach test. Schafer pursued traditional ego psychology in the then-new Western New England Institute of Psychoanalysis in New Haven, Connecticut, where he became a Training Analyst. He was the Chief Psychologist in Yale Department of Psychiatry (1953- 1961), and later worked with Yale students in the health services (1961-1976). In 197...
Source: The American Psychologist - October 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Balsam R Tags: Am Psychol Source Type: research

4.9 integrated pediatric and mental health care for child refugees: descriptive analysis and reflections from clinical experience
The world is witnessing one of the largest refugee crises in modern history, with around 25.4 million refugees worldwide. Connecticut carries the second highest number of refugees ’ settlement in the United States, with a range of 375–897 families settled yearly. However, child refugees (CRs) do not receive enough mental health care. Yale Child Study Center (YCSC), in collaboration with Yale Pediatric Refugee Clinic (YPRC) and Integrated Refugee and Immigrant Services, es tablished an integrated Pediatric and Mental Health Clinic for CRs newly arrived at New Haven, Connecticut. (Source: Journal of the American ...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - October 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ayman Saleh, Jimena Tuis-Elizalde Source Type: research

2.1 analyses of the bloc and blas rating scales and their impact on adolescents age 11 –17 diagnosed with ocd and/or anxiety disorder
Standardized rating scales are commonly used in mental health care. Several scales used for adolescents diagnosed with anxiety and/or OCD include Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED), and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Lin Lu, MD, at Rosalind Franklin University developed “blink light rating scales” (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms [BLAS] and blink light obsessive-compulsive [BLOC]), which have patients consider their anxious thoughts as a blinking light. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - October 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah M. Laudon, Lin Lu Tags: New Research Poster Session 2 Source Type: research

A270 Validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 in Bariatric Surgery-Seeking Patients
The objective of this study was to validate the YFAS 2.0 in a sample of adults seeking bariatric surgery. (Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases)
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - October 1, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Afton Koball, Andrew Borgert, Kara Kallies, Karen Grothe, Ashley Gearhardt Source Type: research

The connectivity index: an effective metric for grading epileptogenicity.
CONCLUSIONS: The authors found enhanced connectivity when stimulating the SOZ compared to stimulating control contacts; responses were more distant as well. Habitual auras and seizures provoked by SPES were highly predictive of brain sites involved in seizure generation. PMID: 31561212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - September 27, 2019 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Yan Q, Gaspard N, Zaveri HP, Blumenfeld H, Hirsch LJ, Spencer DD, Alkawadri R Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research

Face recognition approach by subspace extended sparse representation and discriminative feature learning
Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: NeurocomputingAuthor(s): Mengmeng Liao, Xiaodong GuABSTRACTTo address the problem of face recognition where the number of the labeled samples is insufficient and those samples involve pose, illumination and expression variations, etc., this paper proposes a face recognition approach by subspace extended sparse representation and discriminative feature learning, called SESRC & LDF. In SESRC&LDF, each test image is considered to be the image with small pose variation or the image with large pose variation according to its symmetry. For each test image, if it...
Source: Neurocomputing - September 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sorting and Trafficking in the Endo-Lysosomal System: An Interview with Chris Burd, PhD.
Authors: Qiu J PMID: 31543719 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Insights from Algae on Engineering High Efficiency Plants: An Interview with Martin Jonikas, PhD.
Authors: Bai H, Gonzalez IJ PMID: 31543718 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Uncovering the Starr of the Cell - SUN and KASH Proteins: An Interview with Daniel A. Starr, PhD.
Authors: Bacher SZ PMID: 31543717 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Mycobacterial Membrane Domain, or a Primordial Organelle?
Authors: Hayashi JM, Morita YS Abstract Mycobacteria, like many other prokaryotic organisms, do not appear to have membrane-bound organelles to organize the subcellular space. Nevertheless, mycobacteria and related bacteria grow their cell envelope in a spatially controlled manner, restricting cell elongation to the polar regions of the rod-shaped cell. This spatial organization demands that de novo synthesized cell envelope components must be supplied to the polar ends of the cell. Because many cell envelope components are either lipids or built as lipid-anchored precursors, the plasma membrane is the major site o...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Chromosome Territorial Organization Drives Efficient Protein Complex Formation: A Hypothesis.
Authors: Bera M, Kalyana Sundaram RV Abstract In eukaryotes, chromosomes often form a transcriptional kissing loop during interphase. We propose that these kissing loops facilitate the formation of protein complexes. mRNA transcripts from these loops could cluster together into phase-separated nuclear granules. Their export into the ER could be ensured by guided diffusion through the inter-chromatin space followed by association with nuclear baskets and export factors. Inside the ER, these mRNAs would form a translation hub. Juxtaposed translation of these mRNAs would increase the cis/trans protein complex assembly...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Role of Mitochondrial Markers in Improved Detection and Risk-Stratification in Barrett's Esophagus Patients.
Authors: Grewal US, Randhawa MS, Mehta A Abstract Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and is amenable to treatment. However, more than 90 percent of EAC patients are never diagnosed with antecedent BE. Identification of molecular markers for BE is needed to improve detection of BE through efficient non-endoscopic methods that are cost-effective, sensitive and can be used to cater to a larger group of the population at risk. Alterations in mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA have been shown to be associated with various cancers, including esophageal cancer. Mitochon...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Phosphorylation of OXPHOS Machinery Subunits: Functional Implications in Cell Biology and Disease.
Authors: Castellanos E, Lanning NJ Abstract The complexes of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase comprise the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. The reactions of OXPHOS generate the mitochondrial membrane potential, drive the majority of ATP production in respiring cells, and contribute significantly to cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regulation of OXPHOS is therefore critical to maintain cellular homeostasis. OXPHOS machinery subunits have been found to be highly phosphorylated, implicating this post-translational modification as a means whereby OXPHOS is regulated. Multiple lines of evid...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Leishmania Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane at the Parasite-Host Interface.
Authors: Young J, Kima PE Abstract The Leishmania parasitophorous vacuole membrane (LPVM) sits at the interface of the parasite and its host. Evidence shows that molecules from the endocytic pathway as well as molecules from the secretory pathway are localized in the LPV and displayed on LPVM. In the review, we discuss our current understanding of the composition of the LPVM. PMID: 31543712 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine)
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Sustaining Life: Maintaining Chloroplasts and Mitochondria and their Genomes in Plants.
Authors: Rose RJ Abstract Chloroplasts (members of the plastid family) and mitochondria are central to the energy cycles of ecosystems and the biosphere. They both contain DNA, organized into nucleoids, coding for critical genes for photosynthetic and respiratory energy production. This review updates the cellular and molecular biology of how chloroplasts, mitochondria, and their genomes in Angiosperms are maintained; particularly in leaf development and maternal inheritance. Maternal inheritance is the common form of transmission to the next generation. Both organelles cannot be derived de novo. Proplastids during...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Inflammasomes in Colitis and Colorectal Cancer: Mechanism of Action and Therapies.
Authors: Pandey A, Shen C, Man SM Abstract Colorectal cancer is a multifactorial disease and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Inflammation is a driver across multiple stages in the development of colorectal cancer. The inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein complex of the innate immune system central to the regulation of inflammation, pyroptosis, and other cellular processes important for maintaining gut homeostasis. Studies using mouse models of colitis and colitis-associated colorectal cancer have highlighted diverse and sometimes contrasting roles of inflammasomes in maintaining a balance be...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Primary Cilium, An Unsung Hero in Maintaining Functional β-cell Population.
Primary Cilium, An Unsung Hero in Maintaining Functional β-cell Population. Yale J Biol Med. 2019 Sep;92(3):471-480 Authors: Lodh S Abstract A primary challenge in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the preservation of a functional population of β-cells, which play a central role in regulating blood glucose levels. Two congenital disorders, Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Alström syndrome (ALMS), can serve as useful models to understand how β-cells are normally produced and regenerated. Both are characterized by obesity, loss of β-cells, and defects in primary cilia - the sensory center ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

GLUT4 Storage Vesicles: Specialized Organelles for Regulated Trafficking.
Authors: Li DT, Habtemichael EN, Julca O, Sales CI, Westergaard XO, DeVries SG, Ruiz D, Sayal B, Bogan JS Abstract Fat and muscle cells contain a specialized, intracellular organelle known as the GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV). Insulin stimulation mobilizes GSVs, so that these vesicles fuse at the cell surface and insert GLUT4 glucose transporters into the plasma membrane. This example is likely one instance of a broader paradigm for regulated, non-secretory exocytosis, in which intracellular vesicles are translocated in response to diverse extracellular stimuli. GSVs have been studied extensively, yet these vesicles ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Lipid Droplets and the Management of Cellular Stress.
Authors: Jarc E, Petan T Abstract Lipid droplets are cytosolic fat storage organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. Long regarded merely as inert fat reservoirs, they are now emerging as major regulators of cellular metabolism. They act as hubs that coordinate the pathways of lipid uptake, distribution, storage, and use in the cell. Recent studies have revealed that they are also essential components of the cellular stress response. One of the hallmark characteristics of lipid droplets is their capacity to buffer excess lipids and to finely tune their subsequent release based on specific cellular requirements. ...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Divide et Impera: Drp1-mediated Mitochondrial Fission in Glioma Malignancy.
Authors: Eugenio-Pérez D, Briones-Herrera A, Martínez-Klimova E, Pedraza-Chaverri J Abstract Mitochondria are pivotal organelles involved in vital cellular functions, including energy generation, reactive oxygen species and calcium signaling, as well as intermediate biosynthesis. They are dynamic organelles that adapt their shape, size, and distribution to changes in intracellular conditions, being able to divide, fuse, or move along the cell, processes known as mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial dynamics are involved in cell division and migration, as well as maintenance of pluripotency in stem (n...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Identifying Specific Subcellular Organelle Damage by Photosensitized Oxidations.
Authors: Tsubone TM, Martins WK, Baptista MS Abstract The search for conditions that maximize the outcome of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) continues. Recent data indicate that PDT-induced cell death depends more on the specific intracellular location of the photosensitizer (PS) than on any other parameter. Indeed, knowledge of the PS intracellular location allows the establishment of clear relationships between the mechanism of cell death and the PDT efficacy. In order to determine the intracellular localization sites of a given PS, classical co-localization protocols, which are based in the comparison of the emissive...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

Actin Waves and Dynamic Patterning of the Plasma Membrane.
Authors: Gerisch G, Prassler J, Butterfield N, Ecke M Abstract Plasma membrane and underlying actin network are connected to a functional unit that by non-linear interactions is capable of forming patterns. For instance, in cell motility and chemotaxis, cells polarize to form a protruding front and a retracting tail. Here we address dynamic patterns that are formed on a planar substrate surface and are therefore easily accessible to optical recording. In these patterns two distinct areas of the membrane and actin cortex are interconverted at the site of circular actin waves. The inner territory circumscribed by a w...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

The Short N-Terminal Repeats of Transcription Termination Factor 1 Contain Semi-Redundant Nucleolar Localization Signals and P19-ARF Tumor Suppressor Binding Sites.
Authors: Boutin J, Lessard F, Tremblay MG, Moss T Abstract The p14/p19ARF (ARF) tumor suppressor provides an important link in the activation of p53 (TP53) by inhibiting its targeted degradation via the E3 ligases MDM2/HDM2. However, ARF also limits tumor growth by directly inhibiting ribosomal RNA synthesis and processing. Initial studies of the ARF tumor suppressor were compounded by overlap between the INK4A and ARF genes encoded by the CDKN2A locus, but mouse models of pure ARF-loss and its inactivation in human cancers identified it as a distinct tumor suppressor even in the absence of p53. We previously demon...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

In Vitro Screening to Identify Anti-Toxoplasma Compounds and In Silico Modeling for Bioactivities and Toxicity.
In this study, we screened 62 compounds comprising natural products (NPs) and FDA-approved (FDA) drugs, to identify the hit compounds that suppress the growth of T. gondii. To determine the parasite inhibitory potential of the compounds, host mammalian cells were infected with a transgenic T. gondii strain, and the viability of the parasite was evaluated by luminescence. Of the 62 compounds, tubericidin, sulfuretin, peruvoside, resveratrol, narasin and diacetoxyscirpenol of the natural product isolates, as well as bortezonib, 10-Hydroxycamtothecin, mebendazole, niflumic acid, clindamycin HCl, mecamylamine, chloroquine, mit...
Source: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine - September 24, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Yale J Biol Med Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo assessment of the antibacterial activity of colistin alone and/or in combination with other antibiotics against A. baumannii and E. coli
ConclusionsThe effectiveness of COL alone in vitro and in vivo suggested that intravenous CMS will be an effective and available therapeutic strategy for UTI due to MDR gram-negative pathogens. In-depth in vitro tests demonstrated that COL combined with DOR could be an attractive option, especially when COL MIC of the pathogen is ≥ 1 μg/ml. (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - September 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Augmentation therapy of N-acetylcysteine for OCD: A meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Eliska Noskova, Pavla Stopkova, Jiri Horacek, Antonin SebelaAbstract:Treatment resistance is a barrier to the successful care of patients with OCD. Glutamate modulators such as n-acetylcysteine (NAC) represent a promising new treatment option. To elucidate the current evidence of the efficacy and safety of NAC, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Primary outcomes were full and partial response rates and a reduction in the Yale-Brow...
Source: Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders - September 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research