Molecular Insights into the Dynamics of Pharmacogenetically Important N-Terminal Variants of the Human β2-Adrenergic Receptor
This study thus reveals key differences between the variants providing a molecular framework towards understanding the variable drug response in asthma patients. (Source: PLoS Computational Biology)
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - December 11, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: Ganesh Shahane et al. Source Type: research

Comparison of HFNC, bubble CPAP and SiPAP on aerosol delivery in neonates: An in‐vitro study
Summary Aerosol drug delivery via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), bubble continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and synchronized inspiratory positive airway pressure (SiPAP) has not been quantified in spontaneously breathing premature infants. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare aerosol delivery via HFNC, bubble CPAP, and SiPAP in a model of a simulated spontaneously breathing preterm infant. Working hypothesis: The types of CPAP systems and nebulizer positions used during aerosol therapy will impact aerosol deposition in simulated spontaneously breathing infants. Study design: Quantitative, comparati...
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - December 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fatemah S. Sunbul, James B. Fink, Robert Harwood, Meryl M. Sheard, Ralph D. Zimmerman, Arzu Ari Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Respiratory mechanics: Comparison of Beagle dogs, Göttingen minipigs and Cynomolgus monkeys
Discussion: Scientific literature is available on respiratory mechanics in monkeys and dogs but not in minipigs. Our results suggest that minipigs were more reactive than dogs and monkeys to IV methacholine while less sensitive to inhaled albuterol. (Source: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods)
Source: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods - November 29, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Advances in acute asthma
Purpose of reviewThe purpose of this study is to highlight some of the recent findings related with the management of acute exacerbations in the context of the emergency department setting. Recent findingsβ2-agonist heliox-driven nebulization significantly increased by 17% [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2–29.4] peak expiratory flow, and decreased the rate of hospital admissions (risk ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.98), compared with oxygen-driven nebulization. Other findings indicate that there is no robust evidence to support the use of intravenous or nebulized magnesium sulphate in adults with severe acute a...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - November 28, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: ASTHMA: Edited by Nicola A. Hanania and Zuzana Diamant Source Type: research

The Use of Albuterol in Young Infants Hospitalized with Acute RSV Bronchiolitis.
Conclusions. The use of albuterol does not appear to be useful in the treatment of young infants with RSV bronchiolitis and may actually be harmful, in regards to increased supplemental oxygen need. PMID: 22966227 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The effects of inhaled albuterol in transient tachypnea of the newborn.
CONCLUSIONS: Inhalational salbutamol therapy reduced the duration of supplemental oxygen therapy and the duration of empiric antibiotic treatment, with no adverse effects. However, the time between salbutamol therapy and clinical improvement was too long to allow definitive conclusions to be drawn. Further studies examining a larger number of patients with strict control over dosage and frequency of salbutamol inhalations are necessary to better direct the treatment of TTN. PMID: 24587948 [PubMed] (Source: Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Research)
Source: Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Research - November 16, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Allergy Asthma Immunol Res Source Type: research

Reply
We thank Chiarella et al1 for their interest in our article. The authors made some interesting observations related to the role of environmental pollution and β-agonists. They showed that exposure of animals to inhaled particulate matter induced airway inflammation and an increase in IL-6 levels, which was further augmented by formeterol.2,3 Albuterol caused heightened IL-6 production by particulate matter–stimulated macrophages.4 (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - November 11, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rafeul Alam Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Plp1 gene duplication inhibits airway responsiveness and induces lung inflammation
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Elena Rodriguez , Lauren Sakowski , Grace M. Hobson , Milena Hirata Armani , Portia A. Kreiger , Yan Zhu , Scott A. Waldman , Thomas H. Shaffer Mice with Plp1gene duplication model the most common form of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), a CNS disease in which patients may suffer respiratory complications. We hypothesized that affected mice would lack airway responsiveness compared to wild-type and carrier mice during methacholine challenge. Wild-type (n=10), carrier female (n=6) and affected male (n=8) m...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The orl rat is more responsive to methacholine challenge than wild type
Conclusion orl rats had greater AHR than wild type rats during methacholine challenge, with higher IL-4 levels in diaphragmatic tissue homogenates. Positive immunostaining for IL-4 was detected in lung and diaphragmatic tissue in both strains. This model offers advantages over other pre-clinical murine models for studying potential mechanistic links between cryptorchidism and asthma. This animal model may be useful for further testing of compounds/therapeutics options for treating AHR. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Daily variation in lung function in COPD patients with combined albuterol and ipratropium: Results from a 4-week, randomized, crossover study
Conclusions The free combination of albuterol and ipratropium resulted in greater improvements and lower day-to-day variability in FEV1 compared with either monotherapy or no bronchodilator therapy. The reduced daily variability may be an important therapeutic advantage of using different classes of bronchodilators in COPD. Trial registration NCT01691482. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Replacing nebulizers by MDI-spacers for bronchodilator and inhaled corticosteroid administration: Impact on the utilization of hospital resources
Conclusions Conversion to metered dose inhalers plus spacer for bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids administration in hospitalized children improve hospital resource utilization by decreasing treatment session time, cost, and the need for respiratory therapist assistance. (Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine - November 3, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Increase in Oxygen Consumption After Albuterol Inhalation in Ventilated Infants and Children
Conclusion: There is a large increase in V′O2 after albuterol inhalation. This effect lasts up to 3 hours. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Brief Report Source Type: research

Optimal duration of allergen immunotherapy
A 15-year-old boy who lives in Richmond, Virginia (northeastern United States), presents to you in February with a history of debilitating sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritus; stuffiness; and redness and tearing of his conjunctiva that has occurred for the last 4 summers. Treatment with over-the-counter and intranasal antihistamines have failed, and he has experienced nosebleeds with intranasal glucocorticoids. Additionally, during the summer, he needs an albuterol inhaler for wheezing and coughing associated with exercise. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - November 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Efren Rael, Richard F. Lockey Tags: Maintenance of Certification clinical management series Source Type: research

Economic Impact of Levalbuterol Versus Albuterol in Low-Income Population
The objective of this study is, therefore, to examine the economic impact of levalbuterol versus albuterol on total health care expenditure in a high-risk, low income asthma population. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - November 1, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Authors: J. Yuan, K. Lu Source Type: research

Childhood obesity and in‐hospital asthma resource utilization
CONCLUSIONSAlthough BMI decile for age is inversely associated with LOS for in‐hospital pediatric status asthmaticus, the effect likely is not clinically meaningful. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine (Source: Journal of Hospital Medicine)
Source: Journal of Hospital Medicine - November 1, 2014 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Jessica Bettenhausen, Henry Puls, Mary Ann Queen, Christina Peacock, Stephanie Burrus, Christopher Miller, Ashley Daly, Jeffrey D. Colvin Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Calcium and Hyperkalemia
“Calcium Chloride/Gluconate are used during Hyperkalemia induced ECG changes to reduce Serum Potassium.” The answer is:    False! The majority of Potassium in our body is found intracellular. Only a very small percentage (about 2%) is found extracellular, ranging between 3.5- 5.5 mEq/L. As extracellular Potassium levels increase, the action potential threshold decreases, for example, instead of -90mV, now its -80mV. Remember, the Sodium-Potassium ATPase pump controls these ions, so as Hyperkalemia worsens, the amount of Sodium influx also decreases. All of these factors lead to decreased ven...
Source: EMS 12-Lead - October 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ivan Rios Tags: Hyperkalemia Pharmacology Source Type: research

When two trials conflict: bronchiolitis and hypertonic saline
The editors of JAMA Pediatrics must have been flummoxed when they received two papers at the same time describing the same interventional trial, with completely different results. Both were trials comparing 3% with 0.9% nebulised saline in bronchiolitis, and both were conducted in the emergency departments (EDs) of US children's hospitals. The editors took the brave decision to publish them simultaneously with an accompanying editorial. Both trials recruited infants under two years presenting to ED with a first episode of clinically diagnosed bronchiolitis, and both excluded those with pre-existing cardio-respiratory condi...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - October 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research

Nonprescription Racemic Epinephrine for Asthma
Conclusion RE provides less bronchoprotection from methacholine than does albuterol and may be less effective in treating acute bronchospasm. (Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice)
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - October 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Safety and Effectiveness of Continuous Aerosolized Albuterol in the Non-Intensive Care Setting
Continuously aerosolized albuterol been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of severe status asthmaticus in the emergency department and ICU. Little evidence supports its use in the non–intensive care setting. With the appropriate resources and support, continuous albuterol may be administered in the non–ICU setting with a low incidence of clinical deterioration and adverse effects. Certain clinical factors may help identify which patients may benefit from higher acuity care. (Read the full article) (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - October 1, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Pediatrics Digest Summary Source Type: research

Safety and Effectiveness of Continuous Aerosolized Albuterol in the Non-Intensive Care Setting
OBJECTIVE: To describe the design features, utilization, and outcomes of a protocol treating children with status asthmaticus with continuous albuterol in the inpatient setting. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of children ages 2 to 18 treated in the non–intensive care, inpatient setting on a standardized treatment protocol for status asthmaticus from July 2011 to June 2013. We assessed characteristics associated with continuous albuterol therapy and, for those treated, duration of therapy and the proportion who clinically deteriorated (ICU transfer or progression to enhanced respiratory support...
Source: PEDIATRICS - October 1, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kenyon, C. C., Fieldston, E. S., Luan, X., Keren, R., Zorc, J. J. Tags: Article Source Type: research

Medicines management.
Abstract I have heard that schools will soon be able to have a supply of Ventolin inhalers for emergency situations. Is this correct? PMID: 25270468 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)
Source: Nursing Standard - October 1, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Griffiths M Tags: Nurs Stand Source Type: research

Errors of epinephrine administration during severe allergic-like contrast reactions: lessons learned from a bi-institutional study using high-fidelity simulation testing
Conclusion Epinephrine administration errors are common. Many radiologists fail to administer albuterol as the first-line treatment for mild bronchospasm and fail to flush the IV catheter when administering IV epinephrine. High-fidelity contrast reaction scenarios can be used to identify areas for training improvement. (Source: Abdominal Imaging)
Source: Abdominal Imaging - September 26, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Detection and pharmacokinetics of salbutamol in thoroughbred racehorses following inhaled administration
Salbutamol sulphate (Ventolin Evohaler) was administrated via the inhalation route to six horses at a dose of 0.5 mg every 4 h during the day for 2 days (total dose 4 mg). Urine and blood samples were taken up to 92 h postadministration. Hydrolyzed plasma and urine were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE). A sensitive tandem mass spectrometric method was developed in this study, achieving a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for salbutamol of 10 pg/mL in plasma and urine. The parent drug was identified using UPLC‐MS/MS. Most of the determined salbutamol plasma concentrations, post...
Source: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 17, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: M. E. Wieder, S. W. Paine, P. R. Hincks, C. M. Pearce, J. Scarth, L. Hillyer Tags: Scientific Paper Source Type: research

Pre-medications for cetuximab induced infusion reactions – Commentary
We read with great interest the recent work by Touma and colleagues evaluating the role of additional pre-medications to mitigate cetuximab-related hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) [1]. Their results suggest the addition of dexamethasone, albuterol and famotidine to diphenhydramine prior to cetuximab reduces the incidence of overall as well as high-grade HSR. This finding is in agreement with a retrospective analysis of the MABEL trial, which indicated that dexamethasone as a premedication reduced the rate of HSR [2]. (Source: Oral Oncology)
Source: Oral Oncology - September 14, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Trevor McKibbin, R. Donald Harvey, Nabil F. Saba Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

A 62-year-old women with persistent severe asthma, skin rash, and eosinophilia.
Abstract A 62-year-old white woman was admitted with shortness of breath, wheezing, and cough. While in the hospital a generalized pruritic skin rash developed on her trunk and upper and lower extremities. She did not have any fevers, chills, or night sweats. The patient was known to have chronic, difficult-to-control asthma despite being compliant with a treatment regimen consisting of inhaled albuterol, high-dose inhaled steroids, salmeterol, and montelukast. Her medical history was significant for hypertension and gout. She had no family history of asthma. The patient was a life-long nonsmoker and did not drink...
Source: Chest - August 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lataifeh AR, Deas S, Shalin SC, Khasawneh KR Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Lung Deposition of 99mTc-Radiolabeled Albuterol Delivered through a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler and Spacer with Facemask or Mouthpiece in Children with Asthma
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery Aug 2014, Vol. 27, No. S1: S-63-S-75. (Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery - July 23, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

UA-Led School Asthma Program Receives National Recognition
By allowing schools to stock albuterol and administer it to students who have asthma but who have not brought personal inhalers to school with them, the program is expected to reduce asthma-related absences. (Source: The University of Arizona: Health)
Source: The University of Arizona: Health - July 21, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Gerri Kelly, UA Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health Source Type: research

Osteoporosis in the at‐risk asthmatic
This study discuses factors that contribute to an increased risk of osteoporosis/osteopenia in patients with asthma and suggests recommendations based on the current literature. (Source: Allergy)
Source: Allergy - July 21, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: S. A. Aljubran, G. J. Whelan, M. C. Glaum, R. F. Lockey Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Variation in the Management of Infants Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis Persists after the 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics Bronchiolitis Guidelines
Conclusions: Substantial use and variation in 5 resources not recommended for routine use by the American Academy of Pediatrics bronchiolitis guideline persists with increased utilization associated with increased LOS without the benefit of decreased readmission. Future work should focus on developing processes that can be widely disseminated and easily implemented to minimize unwarranted practice variation when evidence and guidelines exist. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 11, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Todd A. Florin, Terri Byczkowski, Richard M. Ruddy, Joseph J. Zorc, Matthew Test, Samir S. Shah Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Use of a novel one-nostril mask-spacer device to evaluate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in horses after chronic administration of albuterol.
Abstract Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is very common in stabled horses. Short-acting beta agonist (SABA) drugs are often used to relieve clinical signs, although long-term exposure to these drugs may result in rebound bronchoconstriction. The purpose of this study was twofold: i) to describe the deposition of radiolabeled drugs using a novel one-nostril design mask-spacer combination with a breath-activated inhaler (BAI), and ii) to determine whether treatment for 10 d with inhaled albuterol using this device would impair the ability of albuterol to prevent bronchospasm during a histamine challenge test. The ...
Source: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - July 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mazan MR, Lascola K, Bruns SJ, Hoffman AM Tags: Can J Vet Res Source Type: research

Clinical pearls in pulmonary medicine (2013)
A 38-year-old female presents to your office for periodic follow-up of her mild to moderate persistent asthma. She has no active pulmonary complaints. Asthma Control Test (ACT) score is 24. Spirometry reveals FEV1 2.8L (68% predicted) and FEV1/FVC ratio is 65%. Chest x-ray was normal. She has had one acute exacerbation in the past year. She is on inhaled fluticasone/salmeterol 250/50L puff twice daily and albuterol inhaler 2 puffs every 6h as needed (uses ~once per month). (Source: Disease a Month)
Source: Disease a Month - June 19, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ashok M. Patel, Scott C. Litin, John B. Bundrick Source Type: research

Aerodynamic and Electrostatic Properties of Model Dry Powder Aerosols: a Comprehensive Study of Formulation Factors.
Abstract The impact of formulation variables on aerodynamic and electrostatic properties of dry powder aerosol particles is of great importance to the development of efficient and reproducible inhaler products. Systematic evaluation requires a well-designed series of experiments using appropriate methods. A factorial experimental design was employed. In broad terms, the conditions considered were two drugs, albuterol and budesonide, in combination with different excipients, drug concentrations, delivered doses, and metering system (capsule composition) and sampled under different flow conditions using standard ent...
Source: AAPS PharmSciTech - June 18, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Telko MJ, Hickey AJ Tags: AAPS PharmSciTech Source Type: research

Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Bronchodilators such as albuterol or salbutamol do not improve oxygen saturation, do not reduce hospital admission after outpatient treatment, do not shorten the duration of hospitalization and do not reduce the time to resolution of illness at home. Given the adverse side effects and the expense associated with these treatments, bronchodilators are not effective in the routine management of bronchiolitis. This meta-analysis continues to be limited by the small sample sizes and the lack of standardized study design and validated outcomes across the studies. Future trials with large sample sizes, standardized m...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - June 17, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Gadomski AM, Scribani MB Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

An explosive side effect of albuterol nebulizers
(Source: Surgery)
Source: Surgery - June 16, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Stanislas Ledochowski, Kayvan Mohkam, Philippe Rague, Olivier Glehen, Arnaud Friggeri Source Type: research

An explosive side effect of albuterol nebulizers
As a 74-year-old asthmatic patient was burning his leaves, he heard an explosion and immediately suffered a right thoracoabdominal penetrating trauma of unknown origin. He called for help and was taken to a level 1 trauma center. He was hemodynamically stable but was suffering from pain related to an irregular wound in the right eighth intercostal space, 10 cm lateral to the sternum. There was no exit wound. (Source: Surgery)
Source: Surgery - June 16, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Stanislas Ledochowski, Kayvan Mohkam, Philippe Rague, Olivier Glehen, Arnaud Friggeri Tags: Images in Surgery Source Type: research

Intermittent Aerosol Delivery to the Lungs During High-Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent aerosol delivery using realistic breathing profiles of submicrometer condensational growth aerosols was found to be efficient in delivering nasally administered drugs in an in vitro airway model. PMID: 24917454 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Golshahi L, Longest PW, Azimi M, Syed A, Hindle M Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Racial/Ethnic differences in the presentation and management of severe bronchiolitis
We examined if racial/ethnic differences exist in the presentation and management of severe bronchiolitis. METHODSWe performed a 16‐center, prospective cohort study from 2007 to 2010. Children
Source: Journal of Hospital Medicine - June 1, 2014 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Jonathan Santiago, Jonathan M. Mansbach, Shih‐Chuan Chou, Carlos Delgado, Pedro A. Piedra, Ashley F. Sullivan, Janice A. Espinola, Carlos A. Camargo Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Albuterol Administration is Commonly Associated with Increases in Serum Lactate in Patients with Asthma Treated for Acute Exacerbation of Asthma
(Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - May 1, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Marc Quinlan Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

Noninvasive Ventilation in Severe Acute Asthma.
We report on a 35-year-old male asthma patient who presented to our emergency department via emergency medical services. The patient was responsive, diaphoretic, and breathing at 35 breaths/min on 100% oxygen with bag-mask assistance, with SpO2 88%, heart rate 110-120 beats/min, blood pressure 220/110 mm Hg, and temperature 35.8°C. NIV at 12/5 cm H2O and FIO2 0.40 was applied, and albuterol at 40 mg/h was initiated. Admission arterial blood gas revealed a pH of 6.95, PaCO2 126 mm Hg, and PaO2 316 mm Hg. After 90 min of therapy, PaCO2 was 63 mm Hg. Improvement continued, and NIV was stopped 4 h following presentation. N...
Source: Respiratory Care - April 29, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cappiello JL, Hocker MB Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Albuterol Administration is Commonly Associated with Increases in Serum Lactate in Patients with Asthma Treated for Acute Exacerbation of Asthma: Lewis L, Ferguson I, House S, et al. Chest 2014;145:53−9.
Varying reports have described hyperlactatemia in asthmatic patients who receive treatment for acute asthma exacerbations. Various etiologies have been postulated to explain this, namely: side effect of therapy, increased work of breathing, or increased production. To further examine this issue, a randomized controlled trial was fabricated to better assess the cause of the hyperlactatemia in this specific population. All patients in the study initially received standard-of-care treatment, including 5–15 mg nebulized albuterol, 0.5–1 mg nebulized ipratropium, and at least 50 mg oral prednisone or an equivalent. ...
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - April 24, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Marc Quinlan Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

A Neonatal Case of Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome with COLQ Mutation (P2.339)
CONCLUSION: COLQ is the collagenic tail that anchors a homotetramer of the catalytic subunit of AChE to the synaptic basal lamina. Over 30 mutations have been identified as a cause for COLQ deficiency (Engel). Absence of AChE from the endplate prolongs the life of ACh in the synaptic cleft so that each ACh can bind multiple AChRs before leaving the synaptic space. When the EPP outlasts the absolute refractory period of the muscle fiber, it generates a second MAP giving the characteristic EMG finding. Cholinergic over activity at the endplate results in cationic overloading and degeneration of the junctional folds with loss...
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Imperioli, M., Ionita, C., Acsadi, G., Engel, A. Tags: Child Neurology and Developmental Neurology II Source Type: research

Safety and Tolerability of Systemic Beta-2-Adrenergic AgonistAlbuterol as Pharmacological Therapy in Non-Invasive Ventilation NIV -supported Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisALSPatients with Chronic Respiratory Failure (P4.079)
CONCLUSIONS:Systemic albuterol is 94.2% tolerable when used in NIV-supported ALS patients.M NIV-supported ALS patients more commonly required albuterol.VC was maintained at 3 months without change but not at 6 months in albuterol-treated NIV-supported ALS patients.Further studies are required on pharmacologically enhancing the treatment of NIV-supported ALS patients.Study Supported by:Carolinas ALS Research Fund/Pinstripes Fund/Carolinas Garden of Hope/Carolinas Healthcare FoundationDisclosure: Dr. Brooks has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec, Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Acorda Therapeutics, Cytoki...
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Brooks, B., Kandinov, B., Langford, V., Lindblom, S., Sanjak, M., Wright, K., Ward, A., Holsten, S., Fischer, M., Lucas, N., Smith, N., Nichols, M., Lary, C., Nemeth, J., Russo, P., Bockenek, W., Bravver, E., Desai, U., Story, J. S., Pacicco, T. Tags: ALS: Trials and Biomarkers Source Type: research

Effect of Inhaled MgSO4 on FEV1 and PEF in Children with Asthma Induced by Acetylcholine: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trail of 330 Cases
Conclusion: Nebulized magnesium sulfate alone has a bronchodilatory effect in Ach-induced asthmatic children. The combination of MgSO4 and albuterol did not has a synergistic effect. (Source: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics)
Source: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics - March 27, 2014 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sun, Y. X., Gong, C. H., Liu, S., Yuan, X. P., Yin, L. J., Yan, L., Shi, T. T., Dai, J. H. Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research

Rosiglitazone is a superior bronchodilator compared to chloroquine and beta-adrenoceptor agonists in mouse lung slices
Conclusions: This study demonstrates the superior effectiveness of RGZ in comparison to CQ and beta-adrenoceptor agonists as a dilator of mouse small airways. Further investigation of the mechanisms underlying the relatively greater efficacy of RGZ under these conditions are warranted and should be extended to include studies in human asthmatic airways. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - March 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chantal DonovanMirjam SimoonsJames EspositoJean Ni CheongMeaghan FitzPatrickJane Bourke Source Type: research

Transient occult cardiotoxicity in children receiving continuous beta-agonist therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: In this small study, a significant proportion of children had elevated serum troponin-T and lactate levels while receiving inhaled continuous beta-agonist therapy, irrespective of intravenous therapy. However, these abnormal values all returned to normal within 48 hours of ICU admission and were not associated with increased duration of hospitalization. PMID: 24599614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: World Journal of Pediatrics : WJP)
Source: World Journal of Pediatrics : WJP - March 6, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Carroll CL, Coro M, Cowl A, Sala KA, Schramm CM Tags: World J Pediatr Source Type: research

Specialty Pediatric Transport in Primary Care or Urgent Care Settings
Conclusion: Our small cohort demonstrates infrequent application of advanced critical care interventions beyond those provided by the referring primary care office or urgent care centers. This supports the practice of SPCCT teams providing transport services for select critically ill children at primary care offices and urgent care centers, but not as a standard practice for most pediatric patients in these settings. (Source: Air Medical Journal)
Source: Air Medical Journal - March 1, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Crystal N. Joyce, John S. Giuliano, Michael D. Gothard, Hamilton P. Schwartz, Michael T. Bigham Tags: Features Source Type: research

Mechanical factors affecting nebulized albuterol aerosol particle sizes for asthma drug delivery
(Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - February 24, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Nathan K. Itoga, Christopher K. Kinoshita, Stephen M. Masutani, Loren G. Yamamoto Source Type: research

87 yom complaining of chest discomfort and dyspnea
 On a Thurday morning, approximately 02:15 hrs, in a small rural town, your EMS unit is dispatched to a residence for an 87 year old male with difficutly breathing.   You arrive on scene before the fire engine and enter the residence. Upon entering the bedroom, you find an elderly male, sitting on the edge of the bed, vomiting. He is alert and oriented x 4 (person, place, time, event) and with a GCS of 15. He appears to be in moderate respiratory distress, diaphoretic, with rapid and slightly labored breathing and muscle retraction, but yet, he's smiling at you and tries to ...
Source: EMS 12-Lead - January 29, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ivan Rios Tags: 12 lead ecg CHF LBBB 12-Lead ECG chest discomfort dyspnea IVAN RIOS sgarbossa\'s criteria STEMI Source Type: research

87 yom complaining of chest discomfort and dyspnea
 On a Thurday morning, approximately 02:15 hrs, in a small rural town, your EMS unit is dispatched to a residence for an 87 year old male with difficutly breathing.   You arrive on scene before the fire engine and enter the residence. Upon entering the bedroom, you find an elderly male, sitting on the edge of the bed, vomiting. He is alert and oriented x 4 (person, place, time, event) and with a GCS of 15. He appears to be in moderate respiratory distress, diaphoretic, with rapid and slightly labored breathing and muscle retraction, but yet, he's smiling at you and tries to...
Source: EMS 12-Lead - January 29, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ivan Rios Tags: 12 lead ecg CHF LBBB 12-Lead ECG chest discomfort dyspnea IVAN RIOS sgarbossa's criteria STEMI Source Type: research