Airway smooth muscle dysfunction in Pompe (Gaa-/-) mice.
Abstract Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) - an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing lysosomal glycogen. Deficiency of GAA leads to systemic glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of skeletal muscle, motor neurons and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle and motor neuron pathology are known to contribute to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease, but the role of airway pathology has not been evaluated. Here we propose that GAA enzyme deficiency disrupts the function of the trachea and bronchi, and this lower airway pathology contributes to respirato...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - March 23, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Keeler AM, Liu D, Zieger M, Xiong L, Salemi J, Bellve K, Byrne BJ, Fuller DD, ZhuGe R, ElMallah MK Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Characteristics of Pediatric Emergency Revisits After an Asthma-Related Hospitalization
Conclusion Asthma-related emergency revisit is common after hospitalization, with more than 40% of children returning within 12 months. Socioeconomic and exposure-related risk factors typically predictive of asthma morbidity were not independently associated with emergency revisit among children in this cohort. (Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine)
Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine - March 15, 2017 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Paradoxical bronchospasm from BenzalkoniumChloride (BAC) preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution in a patient with acute severe asthma. A case report and literature review of airway effects of BAC
We report a case of a 17 years old patient, who received 32 mg of BAC via nebulization over a period of 3.5 days that probably caused persistent bronchospasm evidenced by failure to improve clinically and to increase peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from 125l/minute (27% of predicted value) to 300l/minute (68% of predicted value) within 2 hours of withdrawing BAC. The patient's respiratory status and PEFR improved dramatically once the nebulization solution was switched to BAC free lev-albuterol solution. The pediatric providers, particularly the emergency department physicians, intensivists and pulmonologists need to be a...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - March 7, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Higher Mini-BAL Total Protein Concentration in Early ARDS Predicts Faster Resolution of Lung Injury Measured by More Ventilator Free Days.
Abstract The protein concentration of alveolar edema fluid in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is dynamic. It reflects alveolar flooding during acute injury as well as fluid and protein clearance over time. We hypothesized that among ARDS patients treated with low tidal volume ventilation, higher concentrations of protein in mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mBAL) samples would predict slower resolution of lung injury and worse clinical outcomes. Total protein and IgM concentrations in Day 0 mBAL samples from 79 subjects enrolled in the aerosolized albuterol (ALTA) ARDS Network Albuterol trial were measured b...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - February 17, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hendrickson CM, Abbott J, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Matthay MA Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Change in Oxygen Consumption Following Inhalation of Albuterol in Comparison with Levalbuterol in Healthy Adult Volunteers
We examined changes in oxygen consumption (V ’O2) and heart rate (HR) following administration of albuterol and levalbuterol.MethodsThis is a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, controlled study of healthy adult volunteers. Subjects separately received albuterol (5  mg) and levalbuterol (2.5 mg) aerosolized over 15 min. V’O2 and vital signs were measured before the medications and 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60  min after.ResultsWe enrolled 24 volunteers with a median age of 32 years. Compared to baseline, there was a significant maximum increase in V ’O2 following administration of both a...
Source: Lung - February 16, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Different Pediatric Drugs on the Color Stability of Various Restorative Materials Applicable in Pediatric Dentistry.
Ozen B Abstract Background. The chronic recommendation of pediatric drugs could exhibit erosive and cariogenic problems. Objective. To evaluate the effects of different pediatric drugs on the color stability of various restorative materials. Methods. Five specimens (1 mm × 3 mm) were prepared and immersed in ten different pediatric drugs and agitated every 8 hours daily for 2 min up to 1 week. Between immersion periods, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. After 1-week period, ΔE(⁎) values were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test were used for statistical an...
Source: Biomed Res - February 7, 2017 Category: Research Authors: Tüzüner T, Turgut S, Baygin O, Yilmaz N, Tuna EB, Ozen B Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Factors Determining In Vitro Lung Deposition of Albuterol Aerosol Delivered by Ventolin Metered-Dose Inhaler
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery - February 3, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rajoshi Biswas Nicola A. Hanania Ashutosh Sabharwal Source Type: research

Management of status asthmaticus in children.
CONCLUSIONS: Supplemental oxygen should be given to maintain an oxygen saturation of ≥92% in room air. Mainstay of pharmacologic treatment of status asthmaticus includes short-acting, β2 agonists such as salbutamol (albuterol) administered by metered-dose inhaler with spacer or, preferably, by nebulizer and oral corticosteroids. There is no advantage to intravenous corticosteroids unless the child cannot tolerate oral corticosteroids (e.g., protracted vomiting), or unable to take oral corticosteroid (e.g., intubated or unconscious). Inhaled ipratropium bromide and intravenous magnesium sulfate should be considered ...
Source: Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery - February 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov Source Type: research

Management of Hospitalized Asthmatic Children Before Transport
The objectives were to find out if the Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines for asthma treatment were followed in the emergency department (ED); to determine if additional treatment during transport or within the first 2 hours of admission was needed; and to compare the management of intubated asthmatics by the ED, transport team, and the intensive care unit (ICU) physician. The records for children diagnosed with acute asthma over 7 years who were transported by the intensive care transport team were reviewed. The use of albuterol, steroids, oxygen, heliox, continuous positive airway pressure or bilevel positive air...
Source: Air Medical Journal - January 13, 2017 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of ventilator settings, nebulizer and exhalation port position on albuterol delivery during non-invasive ventilation: an in-vitro study
Few studies have investigated the factors affecting aerosol delivery during non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Our aim was to investigate, using a bench-top model, the effect of different ventilator settings and ... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - January 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yuda Sutherasan, Lorenzo Ball, Pasquale Raimondo, Valentina Caratto, Elisa Sanguineti, Federico Costantino, Maurizio Ferretti, Robert M. Kacmarek and Paolo Pelosi Source Type: research

Effects of bronchoscopy on lung function in asthmatics.
Authors: Bellinger C, Bleecker ER, Peters SP, Pascual RM, Krings J, Smith RV, Hasties A, Moore WC Abstract BACKGROUND: To better understand changes in pulmonary physiology related to asthma severity following bronchoscopy, we performed scheduled pre- and post-procedure spirometry on all subjects undergoing bronchoscopy in our research program. METHODS: Control subjects and asthma subjects of all severity were recruited for bronchoscopy. On the day of bronchoscopy, subjects underwent spirometry when they arrived, after pre-bronchoscopy treatment with albuterol and then up to three sets within two hours following...
Source: Journal of Asthma - January 7, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Dextrose, hypokalemia and torsade de pointes
A 72-year-old female presented to emergency room with generalized weakness predominantly in lower limbs. She was apparently normal until 1 week ago after which she developed watery diarrhea, four to six times a day. Stool was non-bloody. There were no associated symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fever or abdominal pain. Patient denied history of sick contacts, travel and use of laxatives. She had a past medical history of mild persistent bronchial asthma and uses albuterol (inhaler and nebulizer) as needed. Patient looked dehydrated. Her heart rate was 96 beats per minute and blood pressure was 136/76  mm of Hg. Ne...
Source: QJM - January 6, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Use of a Low Literacy Written Action Plan to Improve Parent Understanding of Pediatric Asthma Management: A Randomized Controlled Study.
Authors: Yin HS, Gupta R, Mendelsohn AL, Dreyer BP, van Schaick L, Brown CR, Encalada K, Sanchez D, Warren C, Tomopoulos S Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine whether parents who use a low literacy, pictogram- and photograph-based written asthma action plan have a better understanding of child asthma management compared to parents using a standard plan. METHODS: Randomized controlled study in 2 urban pediatric outpatient clinics. INCLUSION CRITERIA: English/Spanish-speaking parents of 2-12 year old asthmatic children. Parents were randomized to receive a low literacy or standard asthma action plan (American A...
Source: Journal of Asthma - January 5, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Clinical Examination Does Not Predict Response to Albuterol in Ventilated Infants With Bronchiolitis
This study was conducted in a PICU of a children’s hospital. Patients: Seventy-five paired clinical assessments were made in 25 infants who were intubated and mechanically ventilated for severe bronchiolitis. Interventions: Pulmonary function measurements and clinical assessments before and after administration of albuterol. Measurements and Main Results: Response to albuterol was defined using a threshold of improvement in respiratory system resistance from baseline. Nine children (36%) had greater than 20% change and were deemed responders. Providers’ discrimination of response was poor. The positive predi...
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - January 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Outcomes Following the Use of Nebulized Heparin for Inhalation Injury (HIHI Study)
Inhalation injury (IHI) causes significant morbidity and mortality in burn victims due to both local and systemic effects. Nebulized heparin promotes improvement in lung function and decreased mortality in IHI by reducing the inflammatory response and fibrin cast formation. The study objective was to determine if nebulized heparin 10,000 units improves lung function and decreases mechanical ventilation duration, mortality, and hospitalization length in IHI with minimal systemic adverse events. This retrospective, case–control study evaluated efficacy and safety of nebulized heparin administered to mechanically ventil...
Source: Journal of Burn Care and Research - December 23, 2016 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Articles: 2016 ABA Papers Source Type: research

Airway and Pulmonary β2-adrenergic Vasodilatory Function in Current-smokers and Never-smokers.
Airway and Pulmonary β2-adrenergic Vasodilatory Function in Current-smokers and Never-smokers. Chest. 2016 Dec 21;: Authors: Hurwitz BE, Mendes ES, Schmid A, Parker M, Arana J, Gonzalez A, Wanner A Abstract BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has been associated with diminished vasodilatory function in the airway circulation. It is possible that cigarette smoking similarly affects the pulmonary circulation before resting pulmonary circulatory abnormalities manifest. OBJECTIVES: To compare in smokers and never-smokers the acute effect of inhaled albuterol on airway and pulmonary hemodynamic functio...
Source: Chest - December 21, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hurwitz BE, Mendes ES, Schmid A, Parker M, Arana J, Gonzalez A, Wanner A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Improved Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Asthma through Guideline Based Management.
Authors: Sheikh SI, Pitts J, Ryan-Wenger NA, Kotha K, McCoy KS, Stukus DR Abstract OBJECTIVE: The quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of children with asthma may be related to children's responses to asthma management. AIM: To evaluate change in QOL over time of caregivers of children with asthma through guideline-based management. DESIGN: This was a 3-year prospective cohort study of children with asthma referred to our pediatric asthma center. Families completed Pediatric Asthma Caregiver's Quality of Life Questionnaire (PACQLQ), the Asthma Control Test™ (ACT), and reported the number of days/month ...
Source: Journal of Asthma - November 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Once-daily indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) reduces use of rescue medication versus twice-daily salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD: results from the FLAME study
Conclusion IND/GLY treatment resulted in a significant reduction in mean daily RM use and an increase in days without RM use compared with SFC in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD during 52 week treatment period.Reference 1. Jenkins CR et al. BMC Pulm Med. 2015; doi: 10.1186/s12890-015-0077-0. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fogel, R., Chapman, K. R., Vogelmeier, C. F., FowlerTaylor, A., Ayers, T., Thach, C., Whelan, S., Clerkin, K., Patalano, F., Banerji, D. Tags: 5.1 Airway Pharmacology and Treatment Source Type: research

Inhaled glucocorticosteroid treatment effects on pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac function in healthy smokers
Conclusion: The study findings suggest that ICS treatment of persons, who by virtue of their smoking history are at greater cardiovascular risk, may receive a cardiovascular benefit of ICS treatment evidenced by improved resting cardiac function and an enhanced hemodynamic response to vasodilatory challenge.Supported by a grant from Glaxo-Smith-Kline. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mendes, E., Wanner, A., Parker, M., Schmid, A., Arana, J., Hurwitz, B. Tags: 4.3 Pulmonary Circulation and Pulmonary Vascular Diseases Source Type: research

Effect of interval between actuations of albuterol HFA inhalers on their aerosol characteristics
Conclusions: Decreasing the interval between actuations of albuterol HFA attached to a VHC from 60s to either 30s or 15s did not change their aerosol characteristics. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Berlinski, A., Pennington, D. Tags: 7.2 Paediatric Asthma and Allergy Source Type: research

LATE-BREAKING ABSTRACT: Corticosteroid responsiveness in COPD
Introduction: The mechanism of bronchodilator nonresponsiveness to corticosteroids in COPD is unclear; the levels of histone deacytylase (HDAC) and oxidative stress have been implicated (New Engl J Med, 2005;352:1967). Phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibition of glucocorticoid resistance in human alveolar macrophages has also been shown to reverse corticosteroid resistance (Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:535)Aims and objectives: We therefore studied the effects of theophylline which is believed to increase HDAC levels, as well as roflumilast, a PDE inhibitor, on steroid responsiveness in COPD.Methods: Eight COPD patients (4 Males, M...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Burki, N., Granger, M., Datta, D. Tags: 5.1 Airway Pharmacology and Treatment Source Type: research

Assessment of passive humidifier performance following on-ventilator aerosol therapy
Conclusions: AT with PHs can lead to an increase in RTF. All PH evaluated showed some increased RTF after AT but all met the 5 cm.H20. All types of PH's evaluated could be determined as the suitable for use in combination with AT.[1] ISO 9360-1992 anaesthetic and respiratory equipment (superseded). (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kelly, P., O'Sullivan, A., Sweeney, L., Mac Loughlin, R. Tags: 5.1 Airway Pharmacology and Treatment Source Type: research

Bronchodilator effects of ipratropium bromide and albuterol sulfate among subjects with tetraplegia.
Authors: Schilero GJ, Hobson JC, Singh K, Spungen AM, Bauman WA, Radulovic M Abstract OBJECTIVE: In addition to lung volume restriction, persons with chronic tetraplegia demonstrate obstructive airway physiology evinced by pharmacologically-induced bronchodilation. We previously found independent evidence that anticholinergic agents (ipratropium bromide; IB) and beta-2 adrenergic agonists (albuterol sulfate; AS) were associated with significant bronchodilation in subjects with tetraplegia as determined via spirometry or body plethysmography. Direct comparison of these two classes of agents has received little atten...
Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine - November 5, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Spinal Cord Med Source Type: research

University and public health system partnership: A real-life intervention to improve asthma management.
CONCLUSION: A systematic capacitating program was successful in changing asthma prescription profiles among non-specialist doctors, with increased delivery of inhaled albuterol and beclomethasone. PMID: 27715349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Asthma)
Source: Journal of Asthma - November 2, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Minimally important differences and risk levels for the Composite Asthma Severity Index
This report expands on the introduction of the CASI score in Wildfire et  al1 by determining risk levels, the minimally important difference (MID), and the suggested effect size for the score. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - October 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rebecca Z. Krouse, Christine A. Sorkness, Jeremy J. Wildfire, Agustin Calatroni, Rebecca Gruchalla, Gurjit K. Khurana Hershey, Meyer Kattan, Andrew H. Liu, Melanie Makhija, Stephen J. Teach, Joseph B. West, Robert A. Wood, Edward M. Zoratti, Peter J. Gerg Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Albuterol Improves Alveolar-Capillary Membrane Conductance in Healthy Humans
Conclusion: These data suggest that nebulized albuterol improves pulmonary function in healthy humans, while nebulization of both albuterol and saline results in an increase in DM/VC. (Source: Clinical Medicine Insights: Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: Clinical Medicine Insights: Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine - October 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Natalie E. Taylor Sarah E. Baker Thomas P. Olson Sophie Lalande Bruce D. Johnson Eric M. Snyder Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes of levalbuterol versus racemic albuterol in pediatric patients with asthma: Propensity score matching approach in a medicaid population
ConclusionThis observational study of children aged 2–18 demonstrated levalbuterol prescription fills were associated with reduced ED visits, but not hospitalizations. Additional research may be necessary to assess this association. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - October 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jing Yuan, Zhiqiang Kevin Lu, Yanjun Zhang, Jun Wu, Bryan L. Love, Richard M. Schulz Tags: Original Article: Outcomes Source Type: research

Impact of Copayment Changes on Children's Albuterol Inhaler Use and Costs after the Clean Air Act Chlorofluorocarbon Ban
ObjectiveTo examine changes in children's albuterol use and out‐of‐pocket (OOP) costs in response to increased copayments after the Food and Drug Administration banned inhalers with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants. SettingFour health maintenance organizations (HMOs), two that increased copayments for albuterol inhalers that went from generic CFC‐containing to branded CFC‐free versions, and two that retained generic copayments for CFC‐free inhalers (controls). We included children with asthma aged 4–17 years with commercial coverage from 2007 to 2010. DesignInterrupted time series with comparison s...
Source: Health Services Research - October 1, 2016 Category: Health Management Authors: Alison A. Galbraith, Vicki Fung, Lingling Li, Melissa G. Butler, James D. Nordin, John Hsu, David Smith, William M. Vollmer, Tracy A. Lieu, Stephen B. Soumerai, Ann Chen Wu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Resolution of Allergic Rhinitis and Reactive Bronchospasm With Supplements and Food-specific Immunoglobulin G Elimination: A Case Report.
Conclusions • The case demonstrates the effectiveness of natural supplements and a diet eliminating IgG-reactive foods in the treatment and management of pediatric allergic rhinitis and reactive bronchospasm. PMID: 27866183 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine)
Source: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine - October 1, 2016 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Kwiatkowski L, Mitchell J, Langland J Tags: Altern Ther Health Med Source Type: research

Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI to Quantify the Pulmonary Ventilation Distribution
Conclusions Quantitative 129Xe MRI provides a robust and objective means to display and quantify the pulmonary ventilation distribution, even in subjects who have airway function impairment not appreciated by spirometry. (Source: Academic Radiology)
Source: Academic Radiology - September 9, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The effect of a holding chamber on albuterol metered-dose inhaler product differences
Three albuterol sulfate metered-dose inhaled (MDI) products (Ventolin HFA, Proventil HFA, and ProAir HFA) are marketed in the United States to provide the same total dose of albuterol sulfate. However, it is widely known that the fine particle dose ( (Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology)
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - September 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jennifer L.H. Johnson, Danielle Guthrie, Joel Hyde, Thomas Hanson, Kelly Karlage, Paul B. Myrdal Tags: Original article Source Type: research

The effect of a holding chamber on albuterol metered-dose inhaler product differences.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Three albuterol sulfate metered-dose inhaled (MDI) products (Ventolin HFA, Proventil HFA, and ProAir HFA) are marketed in the United States to provide the same total dose of albuterol sulfate. However, it is widely known that the fine particle dose (
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - September 1, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Johnson JL, Guthrie D, Hyde J, Hanson T, Karlage K, Myrdal PB Tags: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol Source Type: research

Historical cohort study examining comparative effectiveness of albuterol inhalers with and without integrated dose counter for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(Source: Journal of Asthma and Allergy)
Source: Journal of Asthma and Allergy - August 26, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Journal of Asthma and Allergy Source Type: research

Umeclidinium Plus Vilanterol Versus Placebo, Umeclidinium, or Vilanterol Monotherapies for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
AbstractBackgroundThe role of umeclidinium plus vilanterol as a combination therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been clearly defined.ObjectiveThe aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of umeclidinium plus vilanterol, in contrast to either monotherapy or placebo.MethodsSystematic searches were conducted in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). Randomized clinical trials pertaining to the treatment of COPD with the combination of umeclidinium and vilanterol, versus umeclidiniu...
Source: Clinical Drug Investigation - August 18, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Takotsubo syndrome due to peri-anesthesia anaphylaxis, bronchosmasm per se, albuterol, or epinephrine? Dissecting the triggers
The pathophysiology of takotsubo syndrome (TTS), is unknown, and we are striving to unravel the causes of this mysterious disease, we explore in details the physical and/or emotional triggers, which appear to precede the inception of the illness. Perusing the daily expanding literature of TTS [1] one is left with the impression that in many reported patient cases there are many plausible triggers (some apparent, and other unsuspected) which could have started either singly or in combination, the disease process. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - August 11, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: John E. Madias Source Type: research

Risk of sensorineural hearing loss with macrolide antibiotics: A nested case ‐control study
ConclusionA significant association between SNHL and macrolide use was likely due to confounding by indication for antibiotic treatment because the risk was also observed with fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin, antibiotics with no known ototoxic potential. Therefore, there does not appear to be an increased risk of SNHL in patients treated with macrolide antibiotics. Level of Evidence3b. Laryngoscope, 2016 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - August 6, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Mahyar Etminan, Brian D. Westerberg, Frederick K. Kozak, Michael Y. Guo, Bruce C. Carleton Tags: Otology/Neurotology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical efficacy of albuterol RespiClick ™ dry-powder inhaler in the treatment of asthma
10.1080/17425255.2016.1209485 Michael J. Welch (Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology)
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology - July 28, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Michael J. Welch Source Type: research

Assessment of Airway Bronchodilation by Spirometry Compared to Airway Obstruction in Young Children with Asthma.
Abstract A reversibility test by an increase of greater than 12% in FEV1 can support a diagnosis of asthma and alter a patient's treatment plan but may not be applicable to the young ages. We retrospectively gathered spirometric data from 85/271 asthmatic children having mild obstruction (FEV1> 80% predicted), age 2.6-6.9 years. Spirometry was performed before and 20 min after inhalation of 200 mcg Albuterol. We defined a deviation below -1.64 z scores from control as obstruction and an increased above 1.64 scores from control as a positive response to bronchodilators. Sensitivity of the index was...
Source: Respiratory Care - July 25, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vilozni D, Hakim F, Livnat G, Ofek M, Bar-Yoseph R, Bentur L Tags: Can Respir J Source Type: research

Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma
This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolution computed tomography at baseline and after maximum bronchodilation with albuterol. Airway tone was defined as the percent difference in airway diameter after albuterol at total lung capacity compared with baseline. The amount of airway tone in each airway varied both within and between subjects. The average airway tone did not differ significantly between the two groups (P ...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - July 11, 2016 Category: Physiology Authors: Brown, R. H., Togias, A. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Multi-Disciplinary Intervention to Improve Albuterol Inhaler Utilization among Patients with Asthma.
CONCLUSIONS: A multi-disciplinary approach to increasing appropriate albuterol inhaler use was associated with a decrease in albuterol inhalers purchased PPPM while not increasing acute asthma exacerbations. Future study is needed to evaluate patient perspectives on this intervention and assess its economic impact. PMID: 27383130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Asthma)
Source: Journal of Asthma - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Diastolic Hypotension, Troponin Elevation, and Electrocardiographic Changes Associated With the Management of Moderate to Severe Asthma in Children
The objective was to determine the occurrence of, and the factors associated with, diastolic hypotension and troponin elevation or electrocardiogram (ECG) ST‐segment changes in a convenience sample of children with moderate to severe asthma receiving continuous albuterol nebulization. MethodsThis was a prospective, descriptive study in a pediatric emergency department and an intensive care unit of a tertiary academic center. Fifty children with moderate to severe asthma (clinical asthma score> 8) who received 10 to 15 mg/hour continuous albuterol for>2 hours between June 5, 2007, and February 4, 2008, were approach...
Source: Academic Emergency Medicine - July 1, 2016 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Daniel B. Fagbuyi, Shekhar Venkataraman, J. Carter Ralphe, Noel S. Zuckerbraun, Raymond D. Pitetti, Yan Lin, Kwonho Jeong, Richard A. Saladino, Mioara D. Manole Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Optimizing the use of intravenous magnesium sulfate for acute asthma treatment in children
Summary BackgroundAsthma is the most common pediatric chronic disease and currently affects 7.1 million children in the United States. Many children experience acute asthma exacerbations. Many children also require hospitalization despite treatment in an emergency department with current standard therapy (corticosteroids, albuterol, and ipratropium). These hospitalizations may be avoided if effective adjunctive therapies can be developed to adequately treat severe exacerbations. MethodsPublications were searched in the PubMed database using the following keywords: magnesium AND asthma AND children AND randomized controlled...
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - May 25, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Xiaoxi Liu, Tian Yu, Joseph E. Rower, Sarah C. Campbell, Catherine M.T. Sherwin, Michael D. Johnson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sympathetic neural signaling via the β2‐adrenergic receptor suppresses T‐cell receptor‐mediated human and mouse CD8+ T‐cell effector function
This study reveals a novel intrinsic role for ADRB2 signaling in CD8+ T‐cell function and underscores the novel role this pathway plays in adaptive T‐cell responses to infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: European Journal of Immunology)
Source: European Journal of Immunology - May 25, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Leonardo D. Estrada, Didem Ağaç, J. David Farrar Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Sympathetic neural signaling via the β2-adrenergic receptor suppresses T-cell receptor-mediated human and mouse CD8(+) T-cell effector function.
This study reveals a novel intrinsic role for ADRB2 signaling in CD8(+) T-cell function and underscores the novel role this pathway plays in adaptive T-cell responses to infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 27222010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Immunology)
Source: European Journal of Immunology - May 25, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Estrada LD, Ağaç D, Farrar JD Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research

Salbutamol for transient tachypnea of the newborn.
CONCLUSIONS: At present there is insufficient evidence to determine the efficacy and safety of salbutamol in the management of transient tachypnea of the newborn. The quality of evidence was low due to paucity of included trials, small sample sizes and overall poor methodologic quality. PMID: 27210618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 23, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Moresco L, Bruschettini M, Cohen A, Gaiero A, Calevo MG Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

A Regional Cohort Study of the Treatment of Critically Ill Children with Bronchiolitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Even within a close geographic region, there is significant variation in the treatment provided to critically ill children with RSV bronchiolitis. None of these treatments were associated with shorter durations of hospitalization in this population and some, such as mechanical ventilation, were associated with longer ICU lengths of stay. PMID: 27177013 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Asthma)
Source: Journal of Asthma - May 17, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Early Azithromycin Treatment to Prevent Severe LRTIs in Children
To the Editor The study by Dr Bacharier and colleagues found that using azithromycin in preschool children with a history of wheezing and respiratory tract infection (RTI) prevented progression to “severe” lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). The authors defined severe LRTI as needing intensive rescue albuterol treatments; it was not defined as pneumonia, the classic definition of severe LRTI. Although azithromycin limited the need for intensive rescue albuterol, it did not prevent urgent care or emergency visits, hospitalizations, or future RTI episodes, arguably the most important prevention outcomes. (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - May 17, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Albuterol via metered‐dose inhaler in children: Lower doses are effective, and higher doses are safe
ConclusionsHigher albuterol dosage regimens did not result in lower admission rate or shorter length of stay in the ER, but showed similar safety profile for children with moderate to severe acute asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - May 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fabio Pereira Muchão, Juliana Miguita e Souza, Hélida Conceição Cavalcante Torres, Isabella Batista De Lalibera, Andréa Vieira de Souza, Joaquim Carlos Rodrigues, Claudio Schvartsman, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho Tags: Original Article: Asthma Source Type: research

Shortness of breath: Patient history not always indicative of the cause
Publication date: Available online 12 May 2016 Source:Respiratory Medicine Case Reports Author(s): Tony S. Brar, Neeka Akhavan This is a 78 year old male with a past medical history of coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypertension (HTN), and gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) who presented to the emergency room with worsening shortness of breath (SOB) and low-grade fevers for one week prior to admission. He was originally diagnosed with healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP) and an acute on chronic COPD exacerbation and treated with prednisone, inhalers, ipratropium/albu...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - May 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Albuterol via metered ‐dose inhaler in children: Lower doses are effective, and higher doses are safe
ConclusionsHigher albuterol dosage regimens did not result in lower admission rate or shorter length of stay in the ER, but showed similar safety profile for children with moderate to severe acute asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - May 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fabio Pereira Much ão, Juliana Miguita e Souza, Hélida Conceição Cavalcante Torres, Isabella Batista De Lalibera, Andréa Vieira de Souza, Joaquim Carlos Rodrigues, Claudio Schvartsman, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho Tags: Original Article: Asthma Source Type: research