Seroepidemiology of seasonal influenza virus among unvaccinated pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria.
This study revealed that seasonal influenza circulates with co-morbidities in pregnant women in Lagos. This may exacerbate their immunosuppressed state and lead to complication in pregnancy. Apt treatment of influenza-like illness should be considered in such women. Furthermore, there is need for enhanced surveillance including monitoring of the potential transmissibility of influenza to the foetus and newborns. We therefore recommend sturdy advocacy on preventing exposure to influenza virus, its optimal early diagnosis, vaccination and disease management in pregnancy. PMID: 32920577 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - September 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research

The sixth revolution in pediatric vaccinology: immunoengineering and delivery systems.
Abstract Infection is the predominant cause of mortality in early life, and immunization is the most promising biomedical intervention to reduce this burden. However, very young infants fail to respond optimally to most vaccines currently in use, especially neonates. In 2005, Stanley Plotkin proposed that new delivery systems would spur a new revolution in pediatric vaccinology, just as attenuation, inactivation, cell culture of viruses, genetic engineering, and adjuvantation had done in preceding decades. Recent advances in the field of immunoengineering, which is evolving alongside vaccinology, have begun to inc...
Source: Pediatric Research - September 14, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Soni D, Bobbala S, Li S, Scott EA, Dowling DJ Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research

[Travel vaccinations in rheumatic diseases : Specific considerations in children and adults].
r U Abstract Children and adults with rheumatic diseases (RD) have a higher risk to contract infections due to the underlying disease and the frequently necessary immunosuppressive treatment (IT). The quality of life of the majority of patients with RD has remarkably improved due to IT-related reduction of inflammation. Therefore, RD patients usually have an international travel behavior similar to healthy individuals. An investigation indicated that patients with RD and IT have lower travel vaccination rates and are often less well-prepared for their trip in comparison to healthy travelers, even when visitin...
Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie - August 26, 2020 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Welzel T, Wörner A, Heininger U Tags: Z Rheumatol Source Type: research

Protection conferred by typhoid fever against recurrent typhoid fever in urban Kolkata
This study takes advantage of multi-year follow-up of a population with endemic typhoid participating in a cluster-randomized control trial of Vi capsular polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in Kolkata, India. A population of 70,566 individuals, of whom 37,673 were vaccinated with one dose of either Vi vaccine or a control (Hepatitis A) vaccine, were observed for four years. Surveillance detected 315 first typhoid visits, among whom 4 developed su bsequent typhoid, 3 due to reinfection, defined using genomic criteria and corresponding to -124% (95% CI: -599, 28) protection by the initial illness. Point estimates of protection c...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - August 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Justin Im Source Type: research

Transcutaneous Vaccination with Conjugate Typhoid Vaccine Vi-DT Induces Systemic, Mucosal, and Memory Anti-Polysaccharide Responses.
Abstract Transcutaneous vaccination can induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses. However, there are few data on anti-polysaccharide responses following transcutaneous vaccination of polysaccharides, despite the role that anti-polysaccharide responses play in protecting against intestinal mucosal and respiratory pathogens. Whether transcutaneous vaccination with a conjugate polysaccharide vaccine would be able to induce memory responses is also unknown. To address this, we transcutaneously vaccinated mice with virulence (Vi) polysaccharide of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (the cause of typhoid fever),...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - July 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Bhuiyan MS, Kalsy A, Arifuzzaman M, Charles RC, Harris JB, Calderwood SB, Qadri F, Ryan ET Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Paediatrics in Theresienstadt ghetto.
Authors: Horáčková K, Ševčovičová A, Hrstka Z, Wichsová J, Zaviš M Abstract The main objective of this study is to describe the most common childhood diseases occurring in the Theresienstadt ghetto during the Second World War as well as applied anti-epidemic measures. A partial objective is to describe medical and nursing care of sick child prisoners. The data was obtained by the method of synthesis of primary and secondary data with the highest importance after adequate external source criticism using selected monographs, memoirs, survivor diaries, Orders of the day by ...
Source: Central European Journal of Public Health - June 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Cent Eur J Public Health Source Type: research

Use of Typhoid Vi-Polysaccharide Vaccine as a Vaccine Probe to Delineate Clinical Criteria for Typhoid Fever.
Abstract Blood cultures (BCs) detect an estimated 50% of typhoid fever cases. There is need for validated clinical criteria to define cases that are BC negative, both to help direct empiric antibiotic treatment and to better evaluate the magnitude of protection conferred by typhoid vaccines. To derive and validate a clinical rule for defining BC-negative typhoid fever, we assessed, in a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of Vi-polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine in Kolkata, India, 14,797 episodes of fever lasting at least 3 days during 4 years of comprehensive, BC-based surveillance of 70,865 persons. A recu...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - June 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Islam T, Im J, Ahmmed F, Kim DR, Khan AI, Zaman K, Ali M, Marks F, Qadri F, Kim J, Clemens JD Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Evaluation of a standardised Vi poly-l-lysine ELISA for serology of Vi capsular polysaccharide antibodies.
Abstract Typhoid vaccines based on protein-conjugated capsular Vi polysaccharide (TCVs) prevent typhoid in infants and young children. Analysis of the serum anti-Vi IgG response following immunisation against typhoid confirms the immunogenicity of TCVs and forms an important part of the pathway to licensing. Comparative studies could expedite the licencing process, and the availability of a standardised ELISA method alongside the 1st International Standard (IS) 16/138 for anti-typhoid capsular Vi polysaccharide IgG (human) will facilitate this process. To this end, a non-commercial ELISA based on a coat of Vi and ...
Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization - June 20, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rigsby P, Beamish E, Hockley J, Atkinson E, Hitri K, Jones E, Yang JS, Qadri F, Bachtiar NS, Elias SC, Goel A, Mishra R, Dugyala R, Pasetti MF, Meiring JE, Mbewe M, Gordon MA, Pollard AJ, Logan A, Rijpkema S, anti-Vi IgG working group Tags: Biologicals Source Type: research

Identification of novel vaccine candidate against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi by reverse vaccinology method and evaluation of its immunization.
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is an essential enteric fever causing bacterium worldwide. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, urgently attention is needed to prevent the global spread of them. Vaccination is an alternative approach to control these kinds of infections. Currently available commercial vaccines have significant limitations such as non-recommendation for children below six years of age and poor long-term efficacy. Thus, the development of a new vaccine overcoming these limitations is immediately required. Reverse Vaccinology (RV) is one of the most robust approa...
Source: Genomics - June 18, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Esmailnia E, Amani J, Gargari SLM Tags: Genomics Source Type: research

Accessibility of O Antigens Shared between Salmonella Serovars Determines Antibody-Mediated Cross-Protection.
Abstract Pathogenic Salmonella serovars produce clinical manifestations ranging from systemic infection typhoid to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in humans. These serovars share a high degree of homology at the genome and the proteome level. However, whether infection or immunization with one serovar provides protection against other serovars has not been well studied. We show in this study that immunization of mice with live typhoidal serovar, Salmonella Typhi, generates cross-reactive immune responses, which provide far greater resistance against challenge with nontyphoidal serovar Salmonella Enteritid...
Source: Journal of Immunology - June 15, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ahmed A, Akhade AS, Qadri A Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research

Update on Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella Serotype Typhi Infections Among Travelers to or from Pakistan and Report of Ceftriaxone-Resistant Salmonella Serotype Typhi Infections Among Travelers to Iraq - United States, 2018-2019.
This report provides an update on U.S. cases of XDR typhoid fever linked to Pakistan and describes a new, unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq. Travelers to areas with endemic Typhi should receive typhoid vaccination before traveling and adhere to safe food and water precautions (4). Treatment of patients with typhoid fever should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing whenever possible (5), and clinicians should consider travel history when selecting empiric therapy. PMID: 32437343 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - May 22, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: François Watkins LK, Winstead A, Appiah GD, Friedman CR, Medalla F, Hughes MJ, Birhane MG, Schneider ZD, Marcenac P, Hanna SS, Godbole G, Walblay KA, Wiggington AE, Leeper M, Meservey EH, Tagg KA, Chen JC, Abubakar A, Lami F, Asaad AM, Sabaratnam V, Ikra Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Salmonella Typhoid Toxin PltB Subunit and Its Non-typhoidal Salmonella Ortholog Confer Differential Host Adaptation and Virulence.
Abstract Typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonelleae (NTS) cause typhoid fever and gastroenteritis, respectively, in humans. Salmonella typhoid toxin contributes to typhoid disease progression and chronic infection, but little is known about the role of its NTS ortholog. We found that typhoid toxin and its NTS ortholog induce different clinical presentations. The PltB subunit of each toxin exhibits different glycan-binding preferences that correlate with glycan expression profiles of host cells targeted by each bacterium at the primary infection or intoxication sites. Through co-crystal structures of PltB subunits bo...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - May 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lee S, Yang YA, Milano SK, Nguyen T, Ahn C, Sim JH, Thompson AJ, Hillpot EC, Yoo G, Paulson JC, Song J Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Reviving the "Moore swab": a classic environmental surveillance tool involving filtration of flowing surface water and sewage water to recover typhoidal Salmonella.
Reviving the "Moore swab": a classic environmental surveillance tool involving filtration of flowing surface water and sewage water to recover typhoidal Salmonella. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2020 Apr 24;: Authors: Sikorski MJ, Levine MM Abstract The Moore swab is a classic environmental surveillance tool whereby a gauze pad tied with string is suspended in flowing water or wastewater contaminated with human feces and harboring enteric pathogens that pose a human health threat. In contrast to single volume "grab" samples, Moore swabs act as continuous filters to "trap" micro...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - April 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sikorski MJ, Levine MM Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research

Typhoid Outbreaks, 1989-2018: Implications for Prevention and Control.
Abstract Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, with large outbreaks reported from Africa and Asia. Although the WHO recommends typhoid vaccination for control of confirmed outbreaks, there are limited data on the epidemiologic characteristics of outbreaks to inform vaccine use in outbreak settings. We conducted a literature review for typhoid outbreaks published since 1990. We found 47 publications describing 45,215 cases in outbreaks occurring in 25 countries from 1989 through 2018. Outbreak characteristics varied considerably by WHO region, with median outb...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Appiah GD, Chung A, Bentsi-Enchill AD, Kim S, Crump JA, Mogasale V, Pellegrino R, Slayton RB, Mintz ED Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Comparison of anti-Vi IgG responses between two clinical studies of typhoid Vi conjugate vaccines (Vi-DT vs Vi-TT)
by Eun Young Lee, Ju Yeon Park, Deok-Ryun Kim, Manki Song, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Hun Kim, Yun Chon, Jae Seung YangSalmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a causative agent for typhoid fever and especially critical in developing countries. Although clinical studies for various typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) have been performed, there are no comparative data on the immune responses of vaccines due to lack of harmonization of the serological assay. Recently, Typbar-TCV (Vi-TT) was prequalified by WHO and recommended for vaccination in endemic areas. Forty-eight serum samples were selected from a recent Vi-DT phas...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - March 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Eun Young Lee Source Type: research

Adverse events following immunization with typhoid conjugate vaccine in an outbreak setting in Hyderabad, Pakistan.
Abstract Pakistan is facing the world's largest outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhoid. Vaccination campaign for children aged 6 months to 10 years old with Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (Typbar-TCV®) was conducted in high-risk areas of Hyderabad during 2018. About 207,000 children were vaccinated. Here we report the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) during the campaign. The campaign was carried out using outreach and fixed centre strategy. Community mobilizers visited each household to perform line listing and mobilize parents with age-eligible children. Children were observed f...
Source: Vaccine - March 19, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Qamar FN, Yousafzai MT, Khaliq A, Karim S, Memon H, Junejo A, Baig I, Rahman N, Bhurgry S, Afroz H, Sami U Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Private sector vaccine share in overall immunization coverage in India: Evidence from private sector vaccine utilization data (2012-2015)
The objective of this research was to generate the evidence on the private sector's contribution to overall immunization coverage for selected pediatric vaccines in India. Using IMS Health's (now IQVIA) vaccine sales audit data and innovative methodological approach we estimated private-sector vaccine share in the total immunization coverage across selected pediatric vaccines in India. Our estimates suggest that private sector remains an important contributor to immunization services in India not only for Universal Immunization Program vaccines (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin [19.23%], HiB pentavalent [11....
Source: Indian Journal of Public Health - March 16, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Habib Hasan Farooqui Sanjay Zodpey Source Type: research

Estimation of Incidence of Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.
Abstract Typhoid conjugate vaccines represent a new tool for typhoid control; however, incidence data are needed to inform decisions about introduction. We sought to estimate typhoid and paratyphoid fever incidence in Vientiane, the capital and largest city of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We did a representative cluster survey of health-seeking behavior for fever in Vientiane from January 15, 2019 through January 26, 2019. Multipliers derived from the survey were applied to data from Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A bloodstream infection surveillance from Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 2, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Chanthavilay P, Mayxay M, Xongmixay P, Roberts T, Rattanavong S, Vongsouvath M, Newton PN, Crump JA Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a elicits antigen-specific resident memory CD4+ T cells in the human terminal ileum lamina propria and epithelial compartments
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a highly invasive bacterium that infects the human intestinal mucosa and causes ~  11.9–20.6 million infections and ~ 130,000–223,000 deaths annually worldwide. Oral... (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - February 25, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Jayaum S. Booth, Eric Goldberg, Robin S. Barnes, Bruce D. Greenwald and Marcelo B. Sztein Tags: Research Source Type: research

Differential effects of BCG vaccine on immune responses induced by vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccination: an explorative randomized trial
AbstractThe Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccine (TFV) provides incomplete protection against typhoid fever. BCG, the vaccine against tuberculosis, can potentiate immune responses to other vaccines through induction of trained innate immunity and heterologous adaptive immunity. We performed an explorative, randomized, noncontrolled open trial to investigate whether BCG vaccination increases humoral and cellular response to TFV and whether BCG and TFV modulate nonspecific immune responses. Thirty volunteers were randomized to receive either TFV alone or BCG followed by TFV after 2  weeks. Ex vivo leukocyte responses...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever-co-infection in a child from an urban slum of Delhi
We report a case of co-infection with Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A confirmed by blood culture in a child aged 8 years 5 months with history of typhoid vaccination from an ongoing fever surveillance cohort in an urban slum of New Delhi. Co-infections such as these have important implications on diagnosis, treatment options including choice of antimicrobial(s), disease outcome and strategy for prevention. (Source: IDCases)
Source: IDCases - February 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

One-month follow up of a randomized clinical trial-phase II study in 6- < 24 months old Indonesian subjects: Safety and immunogenicity of Vi-DT Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bernie Endyarni Medise, Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko, Hartono Gunardi, Rini Sekartini, Hindra Irawan Satari, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Angga Wirahmadi, Mita Puspita, Rini Mulia Sari, Jae Seung Yang, Arijit Sil, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar Source Type: research

One-month follow up of a randomized clinical trial-phase II study in 6 to < 24 months old Indonesian subjects: Safety and immunogenicity of Vi-DT Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine
Typhoid fever, which is caused by enteric bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is an acute generalized infection. WHO estimates the annual global incidence of typhoid fever at 11-21 million cases and approximately 128000 to 161000 deaths (World Health Organization, 2018). Children are the most affected age group with a peak incidence known to occur in individuals aged 5 to (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bernie Endyarni Medise, Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko, Hartono Gunardi, Rini Sekartini, Hindra Irawan Satari, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Angga Wirahmadi, Mita Puspita, Rini Mulia Sari, Jae Seung Yang, Arijit Sil, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar Source Type: research

Typhoid in Laos: An 18-Year Perspective.
We describe the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) infection in Laos based on isolates accrued over 18 years at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane. All blood cultures collected from patients presenting with fever submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory at Mahosot Hospital (February 2000-December 2018) were included. This included patients from Vientiane and four provincial hospitals and one typhoid outbreak investigation. A total of 913 (1.5%) of 60,384 blood cultures were positive for S. Typhi. The majority of isolates with data available (712/898, 79.3%) were ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Roberts T, Rattanavong S, Phommasone K, Chansamouth V, Davong V, Keoluangkhot V, Hongsakhone S, Bounsavath N, Mayxay M, Vongsouvath M, Dance DAB, Newton PN Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 615: Travel-Related Typhoid Fever: Narrative Review of the Scientific Literature
a Saderi Andrea Piana Enteric fever is a foodborne infectious disease caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, B and C. The high incidence in low income countries can increase the risk of disease in travelers coming from high income countries. Pre-travel health advice on hygiene and sanitation practices and vaccines can significantly reduce the risk of acquiring infections. Although the majority of the cases are self-limiting, life-threatening complications can occur. Delayed diagnosis and cases of infections caused by multi-drug resistant strains can complicate the clinical management and affec...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - January 18, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Narcisa Muresu Giovanni Sotgiu Bianca Maria Are Andrea Cossu Clementina Cocuzza Marianna Martinelli Sergio Babudieri Riccardo Are Marco Dettori Antonio Azara Laura Saderi Andrea Piana Tags: Review Source Type: research

Under-detection of blood culture-positive enteric fever cases: The impact of missing data and methods for adjusting incidence estimates
ConclusionClinical opinion on the cause of the fever may play a large part in the decision to offer blood culture, regardless of study protocol. Crude typhoid incidence estimates should be adjusted for the proportion of cases that go undetected due to missing blood cultures while adjusting for the lower likelihood of culture-positivity in the group with missing data. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 16, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Merryn Voysey Source Type: research

Spectroscopic characterisation of a series of Salmonella Typhi Vi-diphtheria toxoid glycoconjugate antigens differing in polysaccharide-protein ratio
We describe here the further spectroscopic characterisation of this series of glycoconjugate immunogen bulks using NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism and absorption spectroscopy. We have used several mathematical approaches to extract information from the spectroscopic data not previously applied to glycoconjugates. These complementary approaches provide information on (i) the integrity of the carrier protein, (ii) consistency between batches of vaccine components, (iii) the polysaccharide: protein ratio (iv) the O-acetylation of the Vi in the conjugate (v) the stability of the O-acetylation of the Vi, and (vi) the prese...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - January 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Conservation of the OmpC Porin Among Typhoidal and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Serovars
Salmonella enterica infections remain a challenging health issue, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current vaccines against typhoid fever display moderate efficacy whilst no licensed vaccines are available for paratyphoid fever or invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop high efficacy broad-spectrum vaccines that can protect against typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella. The Salmonella outer membrane porins OmpC and OmpF, have been shown to be highly immunogenic antigens, efficiently eliciting protective antibody, and cellular immunity. Furthermore, enteroba...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - January 9, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A phase 1 randomized safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity study of Typhax: A novel protein capsular matrix vaccine candidate for the prevention of typhoid fever
ConclusionsCollectively, the results from this randomized phase 1 clinical trial indicate that Typhax is safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic. After a single dose, Typhax at the 2.5 and 10 μg dose levels elicited comparable anti-Vi IgG titers and seroconversion rates as a single dose of Typhim Vi (25 μg dose). A second dose of Typhax at Day 28 did not elicit a booster response. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT03926455. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Robert T. Cartee Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of using environmental surveillance to target the roll-out typhoid conjugate vaccine.
PMID: 31917040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - January 6, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hagedorn BL, Gauld J, Feasey N, Hu H Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

The need & the issues related to new-generation typhoid conjugate vaccines in India.
The need & the issues related to new-generation typhoid conjugate vaccines in India. Indian J Med Res. 2020 Jan;151(1):22-34 Authors: Vashishtha VM, Kalra A Abstract The low- and middle-income countries bear the highest burden of typhoid fever in the world. India, along with other South Asian countries, has a significant incidence of typhoid fever among young children though there is a paucity of published data on community burden. In spite of the availability of Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS) and conjugated Vi-PS vaccines, these are not adequately utilized in India and in the neighbouring countries. T...
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Vashishtha VM, Kalra A Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research

Treatment responses to Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin in uncomplicated Salmonella Typhi infection: A comparison of Clinical and Microbiological Data from a Controlled Human Infection Model
by Celina Jin, Malick M. Gibani, Shaun H. Pennington, Xinxue Liu, Alison Ardrey, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Maria Moore, Brian Angus, Christopher M. Parry, Giancarlo A. Biagini, Nicholas A. Feasey, Andrew J. Pollard BackgroundThe treatment of enteric fever is complicated by the emergence of antimicrobial resistantSalmonella Typhi. Azithromycin is commonly used for first-line treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever, but the response to treatment may be sub-optimal in some patient groups when compared with fluoroquinolones. MethodsWe performed an analysis of responses to treatment with azithromycin (500mg once-daily, 14 days) or c...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - December 26, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Celina Jin Source Type: research

Treatment responses to Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin in uncomplicated < i > Salmonella < /i > Typhi infection: A comparison of Clinical and Microbiological Data from a Controlled Human Infection Model
by Celina Jin, Malick M. Gibani, Shaun H. Pennington, Xinxue Liu, Alison Ardrey, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Maria Moore, Brian Angus, Christopher M. Parry, Giancarlo A. Biagini, Nicholas A. Feasey, Andrew J. Pollard BackgroundThe treatment of enteric fever is complicated by the emergence of antimicrobial resistantSalmonella Typhi. Azithromycin is commonly used for first-line treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever, but the response to treatment may be sub-optimal in some patient groups when compared with fluoroquinolones. MethodsWe performed an analysis of responses to treatment with azithromycin (500mg once-daily, 14 days) or c...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - December 26, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Celina Jin Source Type: research

Burden of the typhoid fever and cholera: similarities and differences. Prevention strategies for international travelers to endemic/epidemic areas.
The burden of diarrheal diseases is very high, accounting for 1.7 to 5 billion cases per year worldwide. Typhoid Fever (TF) and Cholerare potentially life-threatening infectious diseases mainly transmitted through the consumption of food, drink or water that have been contaminated by the feces or urine of subjects excreting the pathogen. TF is mainly caused bySalmonella typhi whereas Cholera is caused by intestinal infection by the toxin-producing bacteriumVibrio cholerae.These diseases typically affect low- and middle-income countries where housing is overcrowded and water and sanitation are poor, or where conflicts or na...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - December 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Burden of typhoid fever and cholera: similarities and differences. Prevention strategies for European travelers to endemic/epidemic areas
The burden of diarrheal diseases is very high, accounting for 1.7 to 5 billion cases per year worldwide. Typhoid Fever (TF) and Cholerare potentially life-threatening infectious diseases mainly transmitted through the consumption of food, drink or water that have been contaminated by the feces or urine of subjects excreting the pathogen. TF is mainly caused by Salmonella typhi whereas Cholera is caused by intestinal infection by the toxin-producing bacterium Vibrio cholerae. These diseases typically affect low- and middle-income countries where housing is overcrowded and wa...
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene - December 20, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Phase 3 Efficacy Analysis of a Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Trial in Nepal
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 381, Issue 23, Page 2209-2218, December 2019. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - December 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Mila Shakya Rachel Colin-Jones Katherine Theiss-Nyland Merryn Voysey Dikshya Pant Nicola Smith Xinxue Liu Susan Tonks Olga Mazur Yama G. Farooq Jenny Clarke Jennifer Hill Anup Adhikari Sabina Dongol Abhilasha Karkey Binod Bajracharya Sarah Kelly Meeru Gur Source Type: research

Parting the Clouds over Typhoid with a New Conjugate Vaccine
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 381, Issue 23, Page 2262-2264, December 2019. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - December 5, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Florian Marks Jerome H. Kim Source Type: research

[Travel vaccinations].
This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - December 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Rothe C, Boecken G, Ständiger Ausschuss Reisemedizin (StAR) der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Tropenmedizin und Globale Gesundheit (DTG) Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research

Nature and consequences of interactions between Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin and host cells in cattle
AbstractSalmonella enterica is a veterinary and zoonotic pathogen of global importance. While murine and cell-based models of infection have provided considerable knowledge about the molecular basis of virulence ofSalmonella, relatively little is known about salmonellosis in naturally-affected large animal hosts such as cattle, which are a reservoir of human salmonellosis. As in humans,Salmonella causes bovine disease ranging from self-limiting enteritis to systemic typhoid-like disease and exerts significant economic and welfare costs. Understanding the nature and consequences ofSalmonella interactions with bovine cells w...
Source: Veterinary Research - November 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular mechanism of azithromycin resistance among typhoidal < i > Salmonella < /i > stains in Bangladesh identified through passive pediatric surveillance
ConclusionsThis report confirms 12 azithromycin-resistantSalmonella Typhi strains and one Paratyphi A strain. The molecular basis of this resistance is one mutation in the AcrB protein at position 717. This is the first report demonstrating the impact of this non-synonymous mutation in conferring macrolide resistance in a clinical setting. With increasing azithromycin use, strains with R717 mutations may spread and be acquired by XDR strains. An azithromycin-resistant XDR strain would shift enteric fever treatment from outpatient departments, where patients are currently treated with oral azithromycin, to inpatient departm...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - November 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Yogesh Hooda Source Type: research

[CME: Typhoid Fever - Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis, Therapy and Prevention].
Abstract CME: Typhoid Fever - Clinical Manifestation, Diagnosis, Therapy and Prevention Abstract. Thypoid fever is rare in Western countries. It is, however, among the most common etiologies for febrile illness in the traveller returning from tropical areas (especially South(east) Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa). There are several signs that have been described as classical findings in typhoid fever: i) febrile temperatures with relative bradycardia, ii) eosinopenia, iii) slow defervescence, and iv) systemic manifestations (e.g. hepatitis). Diagnosis is confirmed by positive blood cultures. Pretravel vaccination and ...
Source: Praxis - November 1, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Moser-van der Geest N, Schibli A, Huber LC Tags: Praxis (Bern 1994) Source Type: research

IgA and IgG1 Specific to Vi Polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi Correlate With Protection Status in a Typhoid Fever Controlled Human Infection Model
Vaccination against Salmonella Typhi using the Vi capsular polysaccharide, a T-cell independent antigen, can protect from the development of typhoid fever. This implies that antibodies to Vi alone can protect in the absence of a T cell-mediated immune response; however, protective Vi antibodies have not been well-characterized. We hypothesized that variability in the biophysical properties of vaccine-elicited antibodies, including subclass distribution and avidity, may impact protective outcomes. To interrogate the relationship between antibody properties and protection against typhoid fever, we analyzed humoral responses ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - November 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lassa Fever
Lassa fever outbreaks West Africa have caused up to 10,000 deaths annually. Primary infection occurs from contact with Lassa virus-infected rodents and exposure to their excreta, blood, or meat. Incubation takes 2 to 21  days. Symptoms are difficult to distinguish from malaria, typhoid, dengue, yellow fever, and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic, to mild, to severe fulminant disease. Ribavirin can improve outcomes. Overall mortality is between 1% and 15%. Lassa fever s hould be considered in the differential diagnosis with travel to West Africa. There is an urgent need for...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - October 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Danny A. Asogun, Stephan G ünther, George O. Akpede, Chikwe Ihekweazu, Alimuddin Zumla Source Type: research

Cardiometabolic risk in Algeria: past and present
AbstractAlgeria, like all emerging countries, has been going through a health transition over the past 30  years or so, characterized by a drop in mortality rates, an increase in life expectancy and a change in the causes of death in favor of chronic non-communicable diseases. In the past, the country mainly faced infectious diseases such as typhoid, cholera and malaria. The prevalence of the latter ha s been significantly reduced thanks to the many social health and vaccination programs undertaken by the health authorities. As a result of this epidemiological transition, we are witnessing a growing increase in the in...
Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine - October 18, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Differential functional patterns of memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells from volunteers immunized with Ty21a typhoid vaccine observed using a recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing S. Typhi proteins.
in MB Abstract It is widely accepted that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells play a significant role in protection against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of the typhoid fever. However, the antigen specificity of these T-cells remains largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system to uncover the antigen specificity of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Here, we expanded these studies to include the evaluation of 12 additional S. Typhi proteins: 4 outer membrane proteins (OmpH, OmpL, OmpR, OmpX), 3 Vi-polysaccharide biosynthe...
Source: Vaccine - October 16, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Salerno-Gonçalves R, Tettelin H, Luo D, Guo Q, Ardito MT, Martin WD, De Groot AS, Sztein MB Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

S.Typhi derived OmpC peptide conjugated with Vi-polysaccharide evokes better immune response than free Vi-polysaccharide in mice
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Shabirul Haque, Sanjukta Sengupta, Dinesh Gupta, Maharaj Kishan Bhan, Ramesh Kumar, Azhar Khan, Bansilal JailkhaniAbstractSalmonella typhi is a causative organism for typhoid fever. Free Vi capsular polysaccharide (Vi) is licensed for use as vaccine for typhoid fever in individuals 2 years of age and older, which has limited memory response. There is dire need of protein or peptide as conjugate partner with Vi polysaccharide to improve shortcomings of Vi vaccine. Prediction of immunogenic peptide was deduced by program T sites. Carbodiimide medi...
Source: Biologicals - October 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

S.Typhi derived OmpC peptide conjugated with Vi-polysaccharide evokes better immune response than free Vi-polysaccharide in mice.
Abstract Salmonella typhi is a causative organism for typhoid fever. Free Vi capsular polysaccharide (Vi) is licensed for use as vaccine for typhoid fever in individuals 2 years of age and older, which has limited memory response. There is dire need of protein or peptide as conjugate partner with Vi polysaccharide to improve shortcomings of Vi vaccine. Prediction of immunogenic peptide was deduced by program T sites. Carbodiimide mediated conjugation of Vi polysaccharide with OmpCp was performed utilizing ADH as linker. Immune response of Vi-conjugates along with control group was tested in mice. Ig and IgG antibo...
Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization - October 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Haque S, Sengupta S, Gupta D, Bhan MK, Kumar R, Khan A, Jailkhani B Tags: Biologicals Source Type: research

No effect of fitness on brachial or forearm vascular function during acute inflammation in young adults.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acute inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and impaired vasodilatory capacity. Vasodilatory capacity can be measured in different segments of the arterial tree, however, it is unknown if the effects of acute inflammation are vascular segment specific or if inflammation-induced dysfunction can be attenuated by factors that modulate cardiovascular risk, such as high cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute inflammation and fitness on conduit artery, resistance artery, and microvascular function in healthy, youn...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - September 25, 2019 Category: Physiology Authors: Schroeder EC, Hilgenkamp TIM, Lefferts WK, Robinson N, Baynard T, Fernhall B Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research

Selective effects of acute low-grade inflammation on human visual attention
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Leonie JT. Balter, Jos A. Bosch, Sarah Aldred, Mark T. Drayson, Jet JCS. Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Suzanne Higgs, Jane E. Raymond, Ali MazaheriAbstractIllness is often accompanied by perceived cognitive sluggishness, a symptom that may stem from immune system activation. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess how inflammation affected three different distinct attentional processes: alerting, orienting and executive control. In a double-blinded placebo-controlled within-subjects design (20 healthy males, mean age = 24.5, S...
Source: NeuroImage - August 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stress-induced adaptations in Salmonella: a ground for shaping its Pathogenesis
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2019Source: Microbiological ResearchAuthor(s): Diana Pradhan, Vidya Devi NegiAbstractMicroorganisms are able to adapt to multiple adverse environmental conditions that facilitate their survival. These microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and protozoans are exposed to different abiotic and biotic challenges throughout their life. Adaptations help these organisms to overcome the challenges and evolve as successful pathogens which at the same time might lead to severe disease outcome. The intracellular gram-negative pathogen Salmonella, the causative agent of t...
Source: Microbiological Research - August 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research