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Dimethyl carbonate: a versatile reagent for a sustainable valorization of renewables
Green Chem., 2018,20,288-322 DOI: 10.1039/C7GC02118F, Critical ReviewG. Fiorani, A. Perosa, M. Selva Green upgrading of renewablesvia methylations and carboxymethylations with non-toxic dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Green Chem. latest articles)
Source: RSC - Green Chem. latest articles - January 22, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: G. Fiorani Source Type: research

Successful treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia in pregnancy with single-agent all-trans retinoic acid
ConclusionsDiagnosis and treatment of APL during pregnancy continues to be a challenge requiring interdisciplinary team work. Single-agent ATRA therapy may evolve as a safe and less-toxic treatment modality. (Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics)
Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics - January 22, 2018 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Current status and issues of the artificial pancreas: abridged English translation of a special issue in Japanese
AbstractSurgical stress induces hyperglycemia and gives rise to glucose toxicity, which causes infectious diseases, resulting in unfavorable surgical outcomes. Intensive insulin treatment can control short- and long-term complications in patients with not only diabetes mellitus, but also surgical diabetes; however, it is associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia. The wearable artificial pancreas was originally developed to control glucose levels in patients with type 1 diabetes, progressing to a device with enhanced stability and safety for these patients. Its usability has further progressed to include patients wi...
Source: Journal of Artificial Organs - January 22, 2018 Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

Matrine reversed multidrug resistance of breast cancer MCF ‐7/ADR cells through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway
Abstract Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from a Chinese herb Sophora flavescens Ait, and has been used clinically for breast cancer with marked therapeutic efficacy in China. However, the mechanism has not been well known. Thus, the present study was to explore whether Matrine reverses multidrug resistance for breast cancer cells through the regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to detect the inhibitory action; Annexin V to detect apoptosis; fluorospectrophotometry to examine intracellular adriamycin (ADR) accumulation; and Western blot to label the proteins of P‐gly...
Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - January 22, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bing ‐Gang Zhou, Chang‐Sheng Wei, Song Zhang, Zhi Zhang, Huan‐min Gao Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The reluctant visitor: an alkaloid in toxic nectar can reduce olfactory learning and memory in Asian honey bees [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Junjun Zhang, Zhengwei Wang, Ping Wen, Yufeng Qu, Ken Tan, and James C. Nieh The nectar of the thunder god vine, Tripterygium hypoglaucum, contains a terpenoid, triptolide (TRP), that may be toxic to the sympatric Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, because honey produced from this nectar is toxic to bees. However, these bees will forage on, recruit for, and pollinate this plant during a seasonal dearth of preferred food sources. Olfactory learning plays a key role in forager constancy and pollination, and we therefore tested the effects of acute and chronic TRP feeding on forager olfactory learning, using proboscis extension re...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Wen, P., Qu, Y., Tan, K., Nieh, J. C. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Copper bioaccumulation and biokinetic modeling in marine herbivorous fish Siganus oramin
In this study, the kinetics of Cu bioaccumulation in a widespread marine herbivorous fish, Siganus oramin, were investigated, and biokinetic modeling was applied to estimate the Cu levels in the fish sampled from different sites and seasons. The results showed that Cu accumulation in the fish was linearly correlated to the dietary Cu levels in the different prey species, which were proportional to the waterborne Cu concentrations. The Cu found in the subcellular trophically available metal fraction (TAM) in the prey contributed the largest proportion of accumulated Cu in S. oramin. The dietary assimilation efficiencies (AE...
Source: Aquatic Toxicology - January 22, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Toxicity assessment of pyriproxyfen in vertebrate model zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio): A multi biomarker study
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018 Source:Aquatic Toxicology Author(s): Kannan Maharajan, Sellamani Muthulakshmi, Bojan Nataraj, Mathan Ramesh, Krishna Kadirvelu Pyriproxyfen (2-[1-methyl-2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy) ethoxy] pyridine) (PPF), is a pyridine-based pesticide widely used to control agricultural insect pests and mosquitoes in drinking water sources. However, its ecotoxicological data is limited in aquatic vertebrates particularly in fish. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of PPF in zebrafish embryo development (Danio rerio). In order to investigate the impact of PPF, embryos ...
Source: Aquatic Toxicology - January 22, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

LONG TERM EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSE NEUROTOXIC PESTICIDES AFFECTS HATCHING, VIABILITY AND CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF ARTEMIA sp.
In conclusion, the brine shrimp is a good model to test the environmental toxicity of long term exposure to cholinergic pesticides, since changes in hatching speed, viability and ChE activity were observed. (Source: Aquatic Toxicology)
Source: Aquatic Toxicology - January 22, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Vitamin C attenuates biochemical and genotoxic damage in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon joint exposure to combined toxic doses of fipronil and buprofezin insecticides
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 196 Author(s): Madiha Ghazanfar, Sana Shahid, Irfan Zia Qureshi In the present study, potential protective role of Vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid) was investigated in aquaria acclimated common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following exposure for 96 h to combined toxic doses of fipronil (FP) and buprofezin (BPFN) insecticides in combination (FP: 200 μg/L; 4.57 × 10−7 mol/L and BPFN: 50 mg/L; 1.64 × 10−4 mol/L). At end of 96 h exposure, fish were supplemented with low (25 mg/L) and high (50 mg/L) doses of Vitamin C, added ...
Source: Aquatic Toxicology - January 22, 2018 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Addition of platinum derivatives to neoadjuvant single-agent fluoropyrimidine chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage II/III rectal cancer: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO CRD42017073064)
DiscussionThe findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis will provide novel insights into the efficacy and safety of combined neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy including a platinum derivative and may form a basis for future clinical decision-making, guideline evaluation, and research prioritization.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42017073064 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - January 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

High flux isothermal assays on pathogenic, virulent and toxic genetics from various pathogens
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Microbial Pathogenesis, Volume 116 Author(s): Yanmei Li, Caiying Bai, Ling Yang, Jie Fu, Muxia Yan, Dingqiang Chen, Li Zhang Toxins, encoding by virulence factors, are significant cause of food-borne illnesses and death in the worldwide. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is one of the widely used methodologies because of the high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity. Nowadays, LAMP has been regarded as an innovative gene amplification technology and emerged as an alternative to PCR-based methodologies in identification of the pathogenic virulent and toxic genetics. The high...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - January 22, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Doxorubicin, mesenchymal stem cell toxicity and antitumour activity: implications for clinical use
Abstract ObjectivesThe use of doxorubicin, an antineoplastic medication used for the treatment of cancers via mechanisms that prevent replication of cells or lead to their death, can result in damage to healthy cells as well as malignant. Among the affected cells are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are involved in the maintenance and repair of tissues in the body. This review explores the mechanisms of biological effects and damage attributed to doxorubicin on MSCs. The PubMed database was used as a source of literature for this review. Key findingsDoxorubicin has the potential to lead to significant and irreversible ...
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - January 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mia Baxter ‐Holland, Crispin R. Dass Tags: Review Source Type: research

Comparison of indirubin concentrations in indigo naturalis ointment for psoriasis treatment: a randomized, double ‐blind, dosage‐controlled trial
Summary Corticosteroids are commonly used topical (applied to the skin) therapies in psoriasis; although beneficial, there are concerns about their prolonged use and there is a need for effective alternatives. Many herbal remedies have been used topically, although evidence for their benefit is often limited. Indigo naturalis has been used for several years in Chinese traditional medicine; unfortunately, when taken by mouth it can cause gastro‐intestinal side effects or liver damage. Previous studies have shown it may be effective, as a crude ointment or a refined preparation, containing the active ingredient indirubin, ...
Source: British Journal of Dermatology - January 22, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: Y. ‐K. Lin, L.‐C. See, Y.‐H. Huang, C.‐C. Chi, R.C.‐Y. Hui Tags: Plain Language Summary Source Type: research

Radiotherapy regimens in patients with nonmelanoma head and neck skin cancers
Abstract BackgroundTo assess the effectiveness and outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy regimens for nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC) of the head and neck, particularly for elderly patients. MethodsA retrospective review of patients with head and neck NMSC was conducted. Radiotherapy dose per fraction regimens included ≤200, 240–250, 300–400, and 500–600 cGy. Demographics, tumor characteristics, local control (LC), regional control (RC), and survival outcomes were analyzed. ResultsOf the 90 patients with 140 disease sites, 76.6% were squamous cell carcinoma, 15.5% were basal cell carcinoma, and 7.7% were o...
Source: International Journal of Dermatology - January 22, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: Yusuf Dundar, Richard B. Cannon, Jason P. Hunt, Marcus Monroe, Gita Suneja, Ying J. Hitchcock Tags: Report Source Type: research

Skin depigmenting action of silkworm ( Bombyx mori L.) droppings in zebrafish
AbstractThe excrement of silkworms (Bombyx mori L.), referred to here as silkworm droppings (SDs), is used as a traditional drug in eastern medicine to treat skin diseases such as urticaria and atopy. However, the depigmentation effects of SDs have not previously been evaluated. We focused on the depigmentation effect of a methanol extract of SDs and isolated components of the extract using a zebrafish model system. (+)-Dehydrovomifoliol(M-1), (6R,7E,9R)-9-hydroxy-4,7-megastigmadien-3-one(M-2), (3S,5R,8R)-3,5-dihydroxymegastigma-6,7-dien-9-one(M-3), roseoside(M-4), and citroside A(M-5) were isolated from only SDs extract (...
Source: Archives of Dermatological Research - January 22, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions to antiepileptic drugs: 18 years of experience in a tertiary referral dermatology clinic in Turkey
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology)
Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology - January 22, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: E Özkaya, S Kılıç Tags: Letter to Editor Source Type: research

Stevens –Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme drug-related hospitalisations in a national administrative database
ConclusionsSJS/TEN in-hospital mortality is high, and its risk factors include advanced age, liver disease, and TEN diagnosis. The drug classes most frequently associated with these conditions include antivirals, hypouricaemic drugs and antineoplastic/immunosuppressive drugs. Administrative databases seem useful in the study of SJS/TEN drug-related hospitalisations, yielding results consistent with previous studies and on a nationwide basis. (Source: Clinical and Translational Allergy)
Source: Clinical and Translational Allergy - January 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Direct Assessment of the Toxicity of Molybdenum Disulfide Atomically Thin Film and Microparticles via Cytotoxicity and Patch Testing
Abstract The low toxicity of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) atomically thin film and microparticles is confirmed via cytotoxicity and patch testing in this report. The toxicity of MoS2 thin film and microparticles is extensively studied but is still inconclusive due to potential organic contamination in the preparations of samples. Such contamination is avoided here through preparing MoS2 atomically thin film via direct sulfurization of molybdenum thin film on quartz plate, which permits a direct assessment of its toxicity without any contamination. Six different types of cells, including normal, cancer, and immortal cells, a...
Source: Small - January 22, 2018 Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Weibing Chen, Wenjin Qi, Wei Lu, Nikhil Roy Chaudhury, Jiangtan Yuan, Lidong Qin, Jun Lou Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Effect of Nigella sativa Seed Extract for Hypertension in Elderly: a Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.
CONCLUSION: although a trend towards a slight decrease in blood pressure was observed, Nigella sativa has not been proven to be effective in reducing blood pressure in elderly patients with hypertension. PMID: 29348380 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta medica Indonesiana)
Source: Acta medica Indonesiana - January 21, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Acta Med Indones Source Type: research

Cutaneous drug reactions to antiepileptic drugs and relation with HLA alleles in the Turkish population.
Conclusion. Although our preliminary results did not indicate a strong allele association with AED hypersensitivity, HLA-B*35:02 appears to be a candidate allele for MPE / DRESS / DIHSS induced by AED's in Turkish population. Further studies with a larger sample size may result in more comprehensive data about the genetic tendency for AED hypersensitivity in the Turkish population. PMID: 29350020 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - January 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol Source Type: research

Adoptive immunotherapy shows encouraging benefit on non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Zhao B, Zhang W, Yu D, Xu J, Wei Y Abstract Although adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) is a novel emerging target treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), its actual efficacy remains controversial. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of AIT for NSCLC. We systematically searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Science for relevant parallel randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and high-quality observation studies of AIT without any language restrictions. Two investigators reviewed all the texts and extracted information regarding overall survival rate (OS), p...
Source: Oncotarget - January 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Gold nanoparticles as a potent radiosensitizer in neutron therapy.
Authors: Kim EH, Kim MS, Song HS, Yoo SH, Sai S, Chung K, Sung J, Jeong YK, Jo Y, Yoon M Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of gold nanoparticles as radiosensitizer for use in neutron therapy against hepatocellular carcinoma. The hepatocellular carcinoma cells lines Huh7 and HepG2 were irradiated with γ and neutron radiation in the presence or absence of gold nanoparticles. Effects were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, cell survival, cell cycle, DNA damage, migration, and invasiveness. Gold nanoparticles significantly enhanced the radiosensitivity of Huh7 and Hep...
Source: Oncotarget - January 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Actein induces autophagy and apoptosis in human bladder cancer by potentiating ROS/JNK and inhibiting AKT pathways.
Authors: Ji L, Zhong B, Jiang X, Mao F, Liu G, Song B, Wang CY, Jiao Y, Wang JP, Xu ZB, Li X, Zhan B Abstract Human bladder cancer is a common genitourinary malignant cancer worldwide. However, new therapeutic strategies are required to overcome its stagnated survival rate. Triterpene glycoside Actein (ACT), extracted from the herb black cohosh, suppresses the growth of human breast cancer cells. Our study attempted to explore the role of ACT in human bladder cancer cell growth and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that ACT significantly impeded the bladder cancer cell proliferation via induct...
Source: Oncotarget - January 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Radiation therapy for stage IVA uterine cervical cancer: treatment outcomes including prognostic factors and risk of vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistulas.
Conclusions: Radiation therapy is safe and effective for treatment of stage IVA uterine cervical cancer. The reduced radiation dose per fraction may contribute to the prevention of vesicovaginal fistula formation. PMID: 29348871 [PubMed] (Source: Oncotarget)
Source: Oncotarget - January 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Dose escalation by image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy leads to an increase in pain relief for spinal metastases: a comparison study with a regimen of 30 Gy in 10 fractions.
Authors: He J, Xiao J, Peng X, Duan B, Li Y, Ai P, Yao M, Chen N Abstract Purpose: Under the existing condition that the optimum radiotherapy regimen for spinal metastases is controversial, this study investigates the benefits of dose escalation by image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) with 60-66 Gy in 20-30 fractions for spinal metastases. Results: In the dose-escalation group, each D50 of planning gross tumor volume (PGTV) was above 60 Gy and each Dmax of spinal cord planning organ at risk volume (PRV) was below 48 Gy. The median biological effective dose (BED) of Dmax of spinal cord was low...
Source: Oncotarget - January 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

High CYP2E1 activity correlates with hepatofibrogenesis induced by nitrosamines.
Authors: Gao J, Wang GJ, Wang Z, Gao N, Li J, Zhang YF, Zhou J, Zhang HX, Wen Q, Jin H, Qiao HL Abstract Hepatofibrosis, which leads to cirrhosis and eventual hepatocellular carcinoma, is a common response to chronic toxin-mediated liver injury. Nitrosamines are potent hepatotoxic agents that cause necrosis and subsequent fibrosis in the liver as a result of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-dependent metabolism, which generates toxic metabolites that form adducts with nucleic acids, leading to hepatotoxicity and mutagenesis. Herein, CYP2E1 activity and content were determined in fibrotic liver tissue from patients with...
Source: Oncotarget - January 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Inflammasome in drug abuse.
Authors: Xu E, Liu J, Wang X, Xiong H Abstract Drug abuse disorders refer to a set of related negative health implications associated with compulsive drug seeking and use. Because almost all addictive drugs act on the brain, many of them cause neurological impairments after long-term abuse. Neuropathological studies have revealed a widespread impairment of the cellular elements. As the key components to limit the damage of neural cells, CNS immune system is also found affected by these drugs, directly or indirectly. It has been shown that drugs of abuse alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling. Growing studi...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ciclosporin for epidermal necrolysis: Absence of beneficial effect in a retrospective cohort of 174 patients - exposed/unexposed and propensity-score matched analyses
We present the results from a retrospective monocentric study including 174 patients with SJS/TEN during 2005-2016. Among them, 95 received ciclosporin (3 mg/kg/day) plus supportive care and 79 supportive care only. Both a traditional exposed/unexposed method and a propensity-score matching method were used to compare the progression of skin detachment between day 0 and day 5, the proportion of patients with cutaneous re-epithelialization starting on day 5 or mucosal re-epithelialization on day 10, the duration of progression, and the number of deaths between the two groups. (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology)
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - January 21, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: F. Poizeau, O. Gaudin, L. Le Cleach, T.A. Duong, C. Hua, C. Hotz, S. Ingen-Housz-Oro, E. Sbidian, O. Zehou, A. Colin, N. de Prost, B. Lebrun-Vignes, O. Chosidow, P. Wolkenstein, L. Fardet Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Phytoplankton defence mechanisms: traits and trade ‐offs
ABSTRACT In aquatic ecosystems, unicellular algae form the basis of the food webs. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that one of the mechanisms that maintain high diversity of phytoplankton is through predation and the consequent evolution of defence mechanisms. Proposed defence mechanisms in phytoplankton are diverse and include physiological (e.g. toxicity, bioluminescence), morphological (e.g. silica shell, colony formation), and behavioural (e.g. escape response) traits. However, the function of many of the proposed defence mechanisms remains elusive, and the costs and benefits (trade‐offs) are o...
Source: Biological Reviews - January 21, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: Marina Pan čić, Thomas Kiørboe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Production of lutein, and polyunsaturated fatty acids by the acidophilic eukaryotic microalga Coccomyxa onubensis under abiotic stress by salt or ultraviolet light
In this study, the effect of abiotic stress on the acidophilic eukaryotic microalga, Coccomyxa onubensis, was analyzed for the production of lutein and PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids). It grows autotrophically at a pH of 2.5. It showed a growth rate of 0.30 d−1, and produced approximately 122.50 mg.L−1.d−1 biomass, containing lipids (300.39 mg g−1dw), lutein (5.30 mg g−1dw), and β-carotene (1.20 mg g−1dw). The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fraction was 89.70 mg g−1dw with abundant palmitic acid (28.70%) and linoleic acid (37.80...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - January 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Influence of oriented CNT forest on thermoelectric properties of polymer-based materials
Publication date: 15 April 2018 Source:Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 741 Author(s): K. Yusupov, A. Zakhidov, S. You, S. Stumpf, P.M. Martinez, A. Ishteev, A. Vomiero, V. Khovaylo, U. Schubert Thermoelectric (TE) materials are highly important due to their ability to convert wasted heat energy into electricity. Among the different TE materials, organic-based or polymer-based TE systems are among the most promising due to their sustainability, non-toxicity and good electrical properties. In our research, we have investigated for the first time the application of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes forest (VA-CNTF)...
Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - January 21, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Invasion of the toxic pufferfish
Publication date: 13 January 2018 Source:New Scientist, Volume 237, Issue 3160 Author(s): Chris Baraniuk (Source: New Scientist)
Source: New Scientist - January 21, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Protective effects of flagellin A N/C against radiation-induced NLR pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis in intestinal cells
Radiation-induced enteropathy is among the most prevalent dose-limiting radiation toxicities. Despite its prevalence and burden, there are currently no effective treatments for radiation-induced intestinal injury, and understanding of this pathology remains poor. The present study aimed to investigate changes induced in mouse intestines after irradiation and to explore the potential radioprotective effects of flagellin A (FlaA) N/C. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - January 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Dongming Wu, Rong Han, Shihua Deng, Teng Liu, Ting Zhang, Hongxiang Xie, Ying Xu Tags: Biology Contribution Source Type: research

Effect of structural factors on release profiles of camptothecin from block copolymer conjugates with high load of drug
Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 538, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Andrzej Plichta, Sebastian Kowalczyk, Ewa Olędzka, Marcin Sobczak, Marcin Strawski The aim of the present work was the synthesis and study the kinetics and profiles of camptothecin (CPT) release form block co- and ter-polymer conjugates comprising polylactide (PLA) segments and CPT moieties, structurally diverse by degrees of branching, content of d-PLA units and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). Six PLA, non-toxic macroinitiators (MIs), terminated with α-bromoester were synth...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - January 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Diet and supplements in cancer prevention and treatment: Clinical evidences and future perspectives
In recent years, calorie-restricted dietary regimens and compounds such as vitamins, curcumin, green tea extracts and omega-3 fatty acids have attracted attention for their potential anticancer effects. While definitive conclusions cannot be drawn in this field, many patients adopt complementary antitumor therapies aiming to improve efficacy or reduce toxicity of chemotherapy, with uncertain benefits and the risk of additional toxicities or antagonistic interactions with standard therapies.In this manuscript, we review the different levels of available evidence to suggest or discourage specific dietary changes or supplemen...
Source: Critical Reviews in Oncology Hematology - January 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Claudio Vernieri, Federico Nichetti, Alessandra Raimondi, Sara Pusceddu, Marco Platania, Franco Berrino, Filippo de Braud Source Type: research

Investigating the Mechanisms of Action of Depside Salt from Salvia miltiorrhiza Using Bioinformatic Analysis.
This study aimed to reveal the mechanisms of action of DSSM. After searching for DSSM-associated genes in GeneCards, Search Tool for Interacting Chemicals, SuperTarget, PubChem, and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, they were subjected to enrichment analysis using Multifaceted Analysis Tool for Human Transcriptome. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualised; module analysis was conducted using the Cytoscape software. Finally, a transcriptional regulatory network was constructed using the TRRUST database and Cytoscape. Seventy-three DSSM-associated genes were identified. JUN, TNF, NFKB1, and FOS were hub ...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - January 20, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Study on the Clinical Safe and Effective Methods of Arsenic-Containing Compound-Qinghuang Powder in the Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome.
Authors: Zhu Q, Deng Z, Zhu S, Zhao P, Wang M, Hu X Abstract Objective: To establish the clinical safe and effective methods of arsenic-containing compound-Qinghuang Powder (compound-QHP) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Methods: 200 patients with MDS were treated with compound-QHP (daily dose of 0.1 g realgar). The blood arsenic concentrations (BACs) were detected by atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry (HF-AFS). After treatment for 1 month, the patients were randomly divided into group A and group B when the BACs were less than 20 μg/L. Daily dose of realgar was maintained...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - January 20, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Research and Development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. as a Promising Candidate for Cholangiocarcinoma Chemotherapeutics.
This article reviews steps of research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL) as potential candidate for CCA chemotherapy, with adoption of the reverse pharmacology approach. Major steps include (1) reviewing of existing information on its phytochemistry and pharmacological properties, (2) screening of its activities against CCA, (3) standardization of AL, (4) nonclinical studies to evaluate anti-CCA activities, (5) phytochemistry and standardization of AL extract, (6) development of oral pharmaceutical formulation of standardized AL extract, and (7) toxicity testing of oral pharmaceutical formulation of s...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - January 20, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Vitamin E-Mediated Modulation of Glutamate Receptor Expression in an Oxidative Stress Model of Neural Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cell Cultures.
Authors: Abd Jalil A, Khaza'ai H, Nordin N, Mansor N, Zaulkffali AS Abstract Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Excessive concentrations of glutamate in the brain can be excitotoxic and cause oxidative stress, which is associated with Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, the effects of vitamin E in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and alpha-tocopherol (α-TCP) in modulating the glutamate receptor and neuron injury markers in an in vitro model of oxidative stress in neural-derived embryonic stem (ES) cell cultures were elucidated. A transgenic mo...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - January 20, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Poly- ε-Caprolactone Microsphere Polymers Containing Usnic Acid: Acute Toxicity and Anti-Inflammatory Activity.
Poly-ε-Caprolactone Microsphere Polymers Containing Usnic Acid: Acute Toxicity and Anti-Inflammatory Activity. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:7392891 Authors: Barbosa JAP, Franco ES, Silva CVNS, Bezerra TO, Santana MAN, Júnior CHRC, Silva TG, Santos NPS, Maia MBS Abstract Usnic acid (UA) has been studied by its pharmacological properties; however, it presents moderate toxicity, low solubility, and absorption by biological membranes. The aim of this study was to develop poly-ε-caprolactone microsphere polymers containing UA (UA-micro) and evaluate their acute toxici...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - January 20, 2018 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Lenvatinib in Advanced Radioiodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer - A Retrospective Analysis of the Swiss Lenvatinib Named Patient Program.
Conclusions: Our results show that lenvatinib has reasonable clinical activity in unselected patients with RAI-refractory thyroid cancer with nearly two-third of patients showing clinical benefit. The toxicity profile of lenvatinib is manageable. PMID: 29344270 [PubMed] (Source: Nuklearmedizin)
Source: Nuklearmedizin - January 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Balmelli C, Railic N, Siano M, Feuerlein K, Cathomas R, Cristina V, Güthner C, Zimmermann S, Weidner S, Pless M, Stenner F, Rothschild SI Tags: J Cancer Source Type: research

Wide QRS alternans caused by propafenone toxicity.
Authors: Tomcsányi J, Tomcsányi K PMID: 29343177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Cardiologica)
Source: Acta Cardiologica - January 20, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Acta Cardiol Source Type: research

Methods for enhancing cyanobacterial stress tolerance to enable improved production of biofuels and industrially relevant chemicals.
Abstract Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that can fix atmospheric CO2 and can be engineered to produce industrially important compounds such as alcohols, free fatty acids, alkanes used in next-generation biofuels, and commodity chemicals such as ethylene or farnesene. They can be easily genetically manipulated, have minimal nutrient requirements, and are quite tolerant to abiotic stress making them an appealing alternative to other biofuel-producing microbes which require additional carbon sources and plants which compete with food crops for arable land. Many of the compounds produced in cyanobacteria...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kitchener RL, Grunden AM Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

S-nitrosated poly(propylene sulfide) nanoparticles for enhanced nitric oxide delivery to lymphatic tissues.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 29352735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomed Res)
Source: Biomed Res - January 20, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Schudel A, Sestito LF, Thomas SN Tags: J Biomed Mater Res A Source Type: research

New Strategies of ARV: the Road to Simplification
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSimplification of antiretroviral therapy is a strategy aiming to reduce pill burden, drug interactions, and toxicity. This review focuses on the most recent and important studies evaluating a reduction on the number of drugs for HIV treatment, both in naive and virologically suppressed patients.Recent FindingsInteresting studies have been performed in the past years testing dual therapy and monotherapy, with variable rates of virological control. Novel therapeutics like immunotherapy or long-acting antiretrovirals can also be considered for simplification.SummaryReducing the number of drugs for HIV...
Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports - January 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Determination of dolutegravir's unbound fraction in human plasma using validated equilibrium dialysis and LC-MS/MS methods
This study evaluated (i) dolutegravir's fu through equilibrium dialysis (ED), (ii) the pre-analytical parameters that influence fu, and (iii) fu's inter-individual variability in HIV patients. Validation of the LC-MS/MS method followed FDA guidelines. The results, based on coefficients of variation (results from nominal concentrations <15%), allowed accurate measurement of unbound and total dolutegravir concentrations. Equilibrium during ED was obtained in 4h. Sparse non-specific binding (9%) was observed, allowing results interpretation without interference. Steps before analysis (e.g., conservation at +4°C, fr...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - January 20, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 23, Pages 217: Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats
oo-Yong Lee Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the rep...
Source: Molecules - January 20, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jia Choi Su-Jung Ryu Kui-Jin Kim Hyung-Min Kim Hee-Chul Chung Boo-Yong Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

131 I-Induced Graves ’ disease in patients treated for toxic multinodular goitre: systematic review and descriptive analysis
AbstractBackgroundGraves ’ disease (GD) arising after the treatment of toxic multinodular goitre (TMNG) with radioiodine has long been described but it remained unclear whether GD was in fact iodine induced, its incidence, risk factors, natural history and treatment outcomes. Methods: A systematic search using The Cochran e Library, Medline and PubMed Central allowed the pooling of data from 3633 patients with thyroid autonomy, 1340 patients with TMNG, to fill gaps in knowledge, regarding the clinical expression of iodine-induced GD (131I-IGD) in adults.Results131I-IGD developed in 0 –5.3% of those with thyroid...
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - January 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 10, Pages 24: Contemporary Management of Localized Resectable Pancreatic Cancer
t Mahipal Pancreatic cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Surgical resection with negative margins still constitutes the cornerstone of potentially curative therapy, but is possible only in 15–20% of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the neoadjuvant approach may improve R0 resection rate in localized resectable and borderline resectable diseases, and potentially downstage locally advanced disease to achieve surgical resection, though the impact on survival is to be determined. Despite advancements in the last decade in developing...
Source: Cancers - January 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anuhya Kommalapati Sri Tella Gaurav Goyal Wen Ma Amit Mahipal Tags: Review Source Type: research

Protective effects of osthole against inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide in BV2 cells.
Authors: Bao Y, Meng X, Liu F, Wang F, Yang J, Wang H, Xie G Abstract Inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Osthole is a compound that is extracted from She Chuang Zi, which is a type of traditional Chinese medicine. Osthole has previously been demonstrated to exhibit anticancer activities and has a low toxicity. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti‑inflammatory effects of osthole in microglial cells have not been investigated extensively. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effects of osthole against infl...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - January 19, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research