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Levodopa (L-DOPA) attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress response and cell death signaling through DRD2 in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells under α-synuclein-induced toxicity
In conclusion, we suggest that L-DOPA may attenuate the neuropathology of PD by regulating signaling related to DRD2 in neuronal cells under α-syn-induced toxicity. Our study, therefore, indicates an additional role for L-DOPA in the treatment of PD. (Source: Neuroscience)
Source: Neuroscience - July 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dual-targeted anti-TB/anti-HIV heterodimers
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Liudmila Alexandrova, Sonia Zicari, Elena Matyugina, Anastasia Khandazhinskaya, Tatiana Smirnova, Sofia Andreevskaya, Larisa Chernousova, Christophe Vanpouille, Sergei Kochetkov, Leonid Margolis HIV and M. tuberculosis are two intersecting epidemics making the search for new dual action drugs against both pathogens extremely important. Here, we report on the synthesis and suppressive activities of five dual-targeted HIV/TB compounds. These compounds constitute heterodimers of AZT, as anti-HIV molecules, and 5-arylaminouracil derivatives o...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - July 23, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Effects of subchronic exposure to waterborne cadmium on H-P-I axis hormones and related genes in rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus)
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017 Source:Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology Author(s): Xiao-Hong Liu, Zhi-Jian Wang, Li Jin, Jing Huang, De-Yong Pu, De-Shou Wang, Yao-Guang Zhang The H (hypothalamic)-P (pituitary)-I (interrenal) axis is critical in the stress response and other activities of fish. To further investigate cadmium (Cd) toxicity on the H-P-I axis and to identify its potential regulatory genes in fish, the adult female rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to subchronic (5weeks) levels of waterborne Cd in the present study. This kind of treat...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 23, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Long-term effect of dietary overload lithium on the glucose metabolism in broiler chickens
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Shiping Bai, Shuqin Pan, Keying Zhang, Xuemei Ding, Jianping Wang, Qiufeng Zeng, Yue Xuan, Zuowei Su Lithium, like insulin, activates glycogen synthase and stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes. To investigate the effect of dietary overload lithium on glucose metabolism in broiler chickens, one-day-old chicks were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg (overload lithium) for 35 days. Compared to controls, glucose disappearance rates were lower (p =0.035) 15 to 120min after glucos...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 23, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

X-ray irradiation has positive effects for the recovery of peripheral nerve injury maybe through the vascular smooth muscle contraction signaling pathway
Discussion Pathways involved in cell-substrate adhesion, vascular smooth muscle contraction and cell adhesion molecule signaling may be involved in recovery from peripheral nerve injury. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 23, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Prognostic factors for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients with brain metastases receiving targeted therapy.
Authors: Yildiz I, Bilici A, Karadurmuş N, Ozer L, Tural D, Kaplan MA, Akman T, Bayoglu IV, Uysal M, Yildiz Y, Tanriverdi Ö, Yazici O, Sürmeli Z, Turhal NS, Bavbek S, Selçukbiricik F, Koca D, Basaran M Abstract BACKGROUND: The primary objective of our study was to examine the clinical outcomes and prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) with brain metastases (BMs) receiving targeted therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients from 16 oncology centers for whom complete clinical data were available were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The median age was 5...
Source: Tumori - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Tumori Source Type: research

Phosphorylation of Bcl-2 plays an important role in glycochenodeoxycholate-induced survival and chemoresistance in HCC.
Authors: Zhou M, Zhang Q, Zhao J, Liao M, Wen S, Yang M Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant tumor and can evolve rapidly to resistance to chemotherapies. Glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDA), which is toxic and hydrophobic, is the main ingredient in the bile and associated with carcinogenesis of gastrointenstinal tumors. Bcl-2 is the most important anti-apoptotic protein and overexpressed in various human tumors. In the present study, we found that GCDA can induce the chemoresistance of human liver cancer cells and specific depletion of Bcl-2 by RNA interference blocks GCDA-stimulated chemoresist...
Source: Oncology Reports - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research

Adipose ‑derived stem cells and hyaluronic acid based gel compatibility, studied in vitro.
Adipose‑derived stem cells and hyaluronic acid based gel compatibility, studied in vitro. Mol Med Rep. 2017 Jul 21;: Authors: Guo J, Guo S, Wang Y, Yu Y Abstract Minimally invasive aesthetic and cosmetic procedures have increased in popularity. Injectable dermal fillers provide soft tissue augmentation, improve facial rejuvenation and wrinkles, and correct tissue defects. To investigate the use of adipose‑derived stem cells integrated with a hyaluronic acid based gel as a dermal filler, the present study used cytotoxicity studies, proliferation studies, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, ap...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - July 22, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Hypotonic contrast media is more toxic than isotonic contrast media on endothelial cells in vivo and in vitro.
Authors: Ren L, Wang P, Wang Z, Liu Y, Lv S Abstract The aim of the current study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of hypotonic (iopamidol) and isotonic (iodixanol) contract media (CMs) in vitro and in vivo. A total of 60 Wistar rats were included and were randomly divided into three groups (20 rats per group). Iodixanol (4 g iodine/kg), iopamidol (4 g iodine/kg) or equal volume of normal saline was injected via tail vein. HUVEC and H5V cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit‑8 agents. Western blotting was performed to detect ATP‑binding cassette subfamily G member 1 ...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - July 22, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy and Identification of Unique Severity Groups in Colorectal Cancer
Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) is a dose limiting toxicity of oxaliplatin and affects most colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. OIPN is commonly evaluated by patient symptom report, using scales to reflect impairment. They do not discriminate between unique grouping of symptoms and signs, which impedes prompt identification of OIPN. (Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management)
Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management - July 22, 2017 Category: Palliative Care Authors: Kathleen A. Griffith, Shijun Zhu, Meg Johantgen, Michael D. Kessler, Cynthia Renn, Andreas. S. Beutler, Rahul Kanwar, Nicholas Ambulos, Guido Cavaletti, Jordi Bruna, Chiara Briani, Andreas A. Argyriou, Haralabos P. Kalofonos, Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong, Su Source Type: research

Radiation therapy for optic pathway and hypothalamic low-grade gliomas in children
Radiation therapy for pediatric optic pathway or hypothalamic low-grade glioma establishes long-term disease control in most patients, with 10-year event-free survival (EFS) of greater than 60% and 10-year overall survival (OS) of greater than 90%. The presence of NF-1 did not affect EFS or OS. No child older than 10 years developed vasculopathy after receiving RT. Radiation is thus an effective treatment for optic-hypothalamic LGG, and older children without NF-1 have a low risk of late toxicity. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - July 22, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Derek S. Tsang, Erin S. Murphy, Thomas E. Merchant Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

Multicenter randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial GORTEC 2009-01 evaluating the effect of the regenerating agent RGTA on radiodermatitis of head and neck cancer patients
Pre-clinical studies showed that topical OTD70DERM ®, a Regenerating Agent functional analogue of glycosaminoglycans could markedly reduce radiation-induced mucosal and cutaneous toxicities. This hypothesis was tested in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial performed in 76 HNC patients receiving radiotherapy plus cetuximab. No significant differe nce was observed concerning the incidence or duration of grade ≥2 radiodermatitis between the arms. Despite a good pre-clinical rationale, OTD70DERM® did not reduce the incidence and severity of radiodermatitis. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - July 22, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Yungan Tao, Anne Auperin, Christian Sire, Michel Martin, Marie-Gabrielle Saliou, Etienne Bardet, Xu Shan Sun, Thierry Chatellier, Clotilde Morand, Alexandre Cornely, Moussa Angokai, Alessia Di Rito, Ketty Kichenin, Pierre Blanchard, Ida D'Onofrio, Jean Bo Tags: Clinical Investigation Source Type: research

The American Academy of Oral Medicine Clinical Practice Statement: medication-induced oral reactions
The American Academy of Oral Medicine (AAOM) affirms that medication-induced oral reactions are associated with several classes of pharmacologic agents and that clinical presentations of this condition are variable. It is important to obtain a detailed medical history to identify a temporal relationship between use of a medication and onset of the condition(s). An appropriate physical examination should be performed to detect clinical conditions associated with medication-induced oral reactions, such as xerostomia, candidiasis, mucosal ulceration, gingival overgrowth, lichenoid reactions, taste alterations, angioedema, pet...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - July 22, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Eric T. Stoopler Tags: Oral medicine Source Type: research

Lead Poisoning Due to Herbal Medications
AbstractMany herbal products are harmless or possess minimal toxicity, whereas, some contain toxic ingredients that may not be identified due to lack of quality control or not listed on the label. Over the years, several case reports and studies have documented that herbal medications may contain ingredients that are toxic. Several studies have documented that some herbal medications contained high concentrations of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury, and arsenic. Publications of such case reports and studies have repeatedly reminded us that we have failed in our legal and civic duties of educating users of herbal medicat...
Source: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry - July 22, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Embryotoxic effects of dissolved okadaic acid on the development of Longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana
This study investigated the impact of dissolved DSP toxin (OA and Dinophysistoxin 1, DTX-1) exposure on embryo development of Longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana. Eggs were exposed to different concentrations of dissolved DSP toxins (low treatment: at 120μgl−1 OA eq; high treatment 175μgl−1 OA eq.). The first objective was to study the global toxic effect of DSP toxins with hatching percentages. Secondly, the effect of these toxins was investigated at molecular and functional level by measuring expression of responsible genes for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PC...
Source: Aquatic Toxicology - July 22, 2017 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy –Induced Gitelman-like Syndrome
We present a case of PRRT-induced kidney toxicity manifesting as a severe Gitelman-like tubulopathy with preserved kidney function. Because profound hypokalemia and hypocalcemia can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias, we highlight the necessity for careful monitoring of serum and urine electrolytes in patients receiving PRRT. (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)
Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases - July 22, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Inhibitory effects of andrographolide on activated macrophages and adjuvant-induced arthritis
AbstractAndrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone obtained from plantAndrographis paniculata, is used in South Asian countries to relieve various inflammatory symptoms. To study the effects of this agent, the impact of andrographolide on production of inflammatory mediators were delineated in mouse peritoneal macrophages (PM ϕ). Inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 and related molecular mechanisms of andrographolide-mediated inhibition of enzymes/transcription factors were studied. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide was evaluate ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - July 22, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dual antibiotherapy of tuberculosis mediated by inhalable locust bean gum microparticles
Publication date: 30 August 2017 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 529, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Susana Rodrigues, Ana D. Alves, Joana S. Cavaco, Jorge F. Pontes, Filipa Guerreiro, Ana M. Rosa da Costa, Francesca Buttini, Ana Grenha Despite the existence of effective oral therapy, tuberculosis remains a deadly pathology, namely because of bacterial resistance and incompliance with treatments. Establishing alternative therapeutic approaches is urgently needed and inhalable therapy has a great potential in this regard. As pathogenic bacteria are hosted by alveolar macrophages, the co-localisation of a...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - July 22, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Recent advances in TPGS-based nanoparticles of docetaxel for improved chemotherapy
Publication date: 30 August 2017 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 529, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Hira Choudhury, Bapi Gorain, Manisha Pandey, Santosh Ashok Kumbhar, Rakesh Kumar Tekade, Arun K. Iyer, Prashant Kesharwani Docetaxel (DTX) is one of the important antitumor drugs, being used in several common chemotherapies to control leading cancer types. Severe toxicities of the DTX are prominent due to sudden parenteral exposure of desired loading dose to maintain the therapeutic concentration. Field of nanotechnology is leading to resist sudden systemic exposure of DTX with more specific delivery to ...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - July 22, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Formulations and toxicologic in vivo studies of aqueous cyclosporin A eye drops with cyclodextrin nanoparticles
Publication date: 30 August 2017 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 529, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Sunna Jóhannsdóttir, Johannes K. Kristinsson, Zoltán Fülöp, Gudrún Ásgrímsdóttir, Einar Stefánsson, Thorsteinn Loftsson Cyclosporin A (CyA) is an immunosuppressive drug used topically to treat ocular inflammatory disorder such as dry eye disease (DES). It is a lipophilic cyclic peptide with molecular weight of 1202.6Da. The aim of this study was to develop surfactant free aqueous 0.2% (w/v) CyA eye drops where the drug is present in an aqu...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - July 22, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The efficacy of lapatinib and nilotinib in combination with radiation therapy in a model of NF2 associated peripheral schwannoma
AbstractNeurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), a neurogenetic condition manifest by peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) throughout the neuroaxis for which there are no approved therapies. In vitro and in vivo studies presented here examine agents targeting signaling pathways, angiogenesis, and DNA repair mechanisms. In vitro dose response assays demonstrated potent activity of lapatinib and nilotinib against the mouse schwannoma SC4 (Nf2−/−) cell line. We then examined the efficacy of everolimus, nilotinib, lapatinib, bevacizumab and radiation (RT) as mono- and combination therapies in flank and sciatic nerve in viv...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

New Hypofractionation Radiation Strategies for Glioblastoma
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGlioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults, with a median survival of less than 2  years despite the standard of care treatment of 6 weeks of chemoradiotherapy. We review the data investigating hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) in the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM.Recent FindingsInvestigators have explored alternative radiotherapy strategies that shorten treatment duration with the goal of similar or improved survival while minimizing toxicity. HFRT over 1 –3 weeks is already a standard of care for patients with advanced age or poor per...
Source: Current Oncology Reports - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Assessment and management of radiotherapy induced toxicity in older patients
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017 Source:Journal of Geriatric Oncology Author(s): Anita O'Donovan, Michelle Leech, Charles Gillham Radiotherapy is an attractive treatment option for older adults, especially where surgery and chemotherapy pose too great a risk. Radiotherapy toxicity may be divided into acute/early and late effects of treatment. The latter may have limited relevance to an older patient with competing causes of mortality due to significant comorbidity. Altered fractionation regimes have been employed in numerous sites, with no significant toxicity impact. These offer greater convenience in the ...
Source: Journal of Geriatric Oncology - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A phase I/II trial and pharmacokinetic study of mithramycin in children and adults with refractory Ewing sarcoma and EWS –FLI1 fusion transcript
ConclusionsHepatotoxicity precluded the administration of a mithramycin at a dose required to inhibit EWS –FLI1. Evaluation of mithramycin in patients selected for decreased susceptibility to elevated transaminases may allow for improved drug exposure. (Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology)
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer in the very elderly ( ≥80years old): Extremely safe and effective
Conclusions Lung SBRT with a BED of ≥100Gy10 for very elderly patients with NSCLC is extremely safe and effective, with inordinately low toxicity rates (zero grade 2–5 toxicities). With stringent dosimetric parameters and planning guidelines, patients ≥80years remain excellent candidates for full-dose SBRT. Summary SBRT for early-stage NSCLC is the accepted standard of care in medically inoperable patients, though in many very elderly patients, dose is either de-intensified or withheld for concern of toxicity in the setting of advanced age and competing risks. In this study of our very elderly (≥80years old)...
Source: Journal of Geriatric Oncology - July 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Vernonia amygdalina: a folkloric herb with anthelminthic properties
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017 Source:Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Author(s): Ifeoluwa T. Oyeyemi, Akinbiyi A. Akinlabi, Aderiike Adewumi, Abimbola O. Aleshinloye, Oyetunde T. Oyeyemi Vernonia amygdalina is a widely grown shrub plant in Africa consumed as vegetable and has high medicinal value. It has gained wide application in the treatment and management of various diseases. The leaves are useful components for herbal medicine constitution. The plant’s activities is a result of diverse bioactive compounds isolated from the different parts of the plant. These metabolit...
Source: Beni Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences - July 22, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 825: Effect of Patulin from Penicillium vulpinum on the Activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase and Selected Antioxidative Enzymes in Maize
ock The mycotoxin patulin (PAT) was purified from Penicillium vulpinum CM1 culture that has been isolated from a soil cultivated with maize. The effect of PAT and of a fungal culture filtrate on the activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and some antioxidant enzymes viz. ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) was investigated in roots and shoots of 8-day-old maize seedlings. PAT and culture filtrate caused significant reduction effects in a dose-related manner on the total GST activity. Upon application of the high PAT ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - July 22, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ahmed Ismaiel Jutta Papenbrock Tags: Article Source Type: research

Low-Level Prenatal Toxin Exposures and Breastfeeding Duration: A Prospective Cohort Study
Conclusions Passive exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy was associated with shortened duration of any breastfeeding. (Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal)
Source: Maternal and Child Health Journal - July 22, 2017 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

A Review of the Active Treatments for Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Abstract Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe adverse drug reaction associated with the separation of skin and mucous membranes at the dermal-epidermal junction. Although it is rare, many treatments have been trialed because of its high mortality rate. Active interventions performed to date include the use of systemic corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg), cyclosporine, plasmapheresis, anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs and N-acetylcysteine, but none has been established as the most effective therapy. IVIg and short-term high-dose corticosteroids were regarded as the most promising treatments f...
Source: Journal of Nippon Medical School - July 21, 2017 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Kinoshita Y, Saeki H Tags: J Nippon Med Sch Source Type: research

Weekly Personal Ozone Exposure and Respiratory Health in a Panel of Greek Schoolchildren
Conclusions: The study provides evidence that airway inflammation and the frequency of respiratory symptoms increase, whereas lung function decreases with increased ozone exposure in schoolchildren. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP635 Received: 09 June 2016 Revised: 08 March 2017 Accepted: 13 March 2017 Published: 21 July 2017 Please address correspondence to A. Karakatsani, 2nd Pulmonary Department, ATTIKON University Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 1, Rimini St., 124 62 Haidari, Greece. Telephone: 30-210-5831184. Email: annakara@otenet.gr, akarakats@med.uoa.gr The authors de...
Source: EHP Research - July 21, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Daniil Lyalko Tags: Research Source Type: research

Targeting nano drug delivery to cancer cells using tunable, multi ‐layer, silver‐decorated gold nanorods
In this study, silver‐decorated gold nanorods (AuNR\Ag) have been successfully used to deliver specific, targeted chemotherapy against breast cancer (MCF7) and prostate carcinoma (PC3) cell lines. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapy, and anti‐Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti‐EpCAM) antibodies were covalently bonded to thiolated polyethylene glycol‐coated AuNR\Ag, and the resultant system was used to deliver the drugs to cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, these nanoparticles have a unique spectral signature by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which enables reliable detection and monitoring o...
Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zeid A. Nima, Ahmed M. Alwbari, Vijayalakshmi Dantuluri, Rabab N. Hamzah, Natasha Sra, Pooja Motwani, Konstantinos Arnaoutakis, Rebecca A. Levy, Amani F. Bohliqa, Dmitry Nedosekin, Vladimir P. Zharov, Issam Makhoul, Alexandru S. Biris Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Two years results of electronic brachytherapy for basal cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: This work is special, since the equipment's treatment voltage was 69.5 kV, and this is the first prospective study with long term follow-up with Esteya(®). These preliminary report show excellent results with less toxicity and excellent cosmesis. While surgery has been the treatment of choice, certain patients might benefit from eBT treatment. These are elderly patients with comorbidities or undergoing anticoagulant treatment as well as those who simply refuse surgery or might have other contraindications. PMID: 28725249 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy)
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - July 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research

Outcomes of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy with or without external beam radiotherapy for isolated vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer.
This study was designed to retrospectively analyze outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, with or without external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), in patients with vaginal recurrence of endometrial carcinoma, and to identify factors prognostic of patient outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of all patients who underwent HDR brachytherapy for initial recurrence in the vagina of endometrial cancer after definitive surgery between 1992 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent either intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) or interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT) with or without EBRT. Late to...
Source: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy - July 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Contemp Brachytherapy Source Type: research

NRG Oncology-Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study 1014: 1-Year Toxicity Report From a Phase 2 Study of Repeat Breast-Preserving Surgery and 3-Dimensional Conformal Partial-Breast Reirradiation for In-Breast Recurrence.
Abstract PURPOSE: To determine the associated toxicity, tolerance, and safety of partial-breast reirradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligibility criteria included in-breast recurrence occurring>1 year after whole-breast irradiation, 1 to ≤2 cm, and 1 >2 cm. All patients were clinically node negative. Systemic therapy was delivered in 51%. All treatment plans underwent quality review for contouring accuracy and dosimetric compliance. All treatment plans scored acceptable for tumor volume contouring and tumor volume dose-volume analysis. Only 4 (7%) scored unacceptable for org...
Source: Ann Oncol - July 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Arthur DW, Winter KA, Kuerer HM, Haffty BG, Cuttino LW, Todor DA, Simone NL, Hayes SB, Woodward WA, McCormick B, Cohen RJ, Sahijdak WM, Canaday DJ, Brown DR, Currey AD, Fisher CM, Jagsi R, White J Tags: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys Source Type: research

Adverse reactions in leprosy patients who underwent dapsone multidrug therapy: a retrospective study.
CONCLUSION: The common dapsone ADRs present in leprosy patients were jaundice, exfoliative dermatitis and hemolytic anemia in MDT-treated patients. Patients could be cured by managing the dapsone ADRs effectively on time. Some patients may die of dapsone ADRs if clinicians fail to manage the side effects on time. PMID: 28721106 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications)
Source: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications - July 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Neurotoxic effects of subchronic intratracheal Mn nanoparticle exposure alone and in combination with other welding fume metals in rats.
Authors: Máté Z, Horváth E, Papp A, Kovács K, Tombácz E, Nesztor D, Szabó T, Szabó A, Paulik E Abstract Manganese (Mn) is a toxic heavy metal exposing workers in various occupational settings and causing, among others, nervous system damage. Metal fumes of welding, a typical source of Mn exposure, contain a complex mixture of metal oxides partly in nanoparticle form. As toxic effects of complex substances cannot be sufficiently understood by examining its components separately, general toxicity and functional neurotoxicity of a main pathogenic welding fume metal, Mn,...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - July 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

DCK expression, a potential predictive biomarker in the adjuvant gemcitabine chemotherapy for biliary tract cancer after surgical resection: results from a phase II study.
This study enrolled 72 patients with BTC (26 with gallbladder cancer, 33 with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 13 with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma). The 2-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was 43% (95% CI, 33-57%). Multivariable analysis showed that DCK expression, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with RFS. Twenty-one (31.8%) were positive for DCK immunoreactivity. The median RFS was 34.95 months for DCK-positive patients, compared with 11.41 months for DCK-negative patients. Although the primary hypothesis of this study, defined as a 2-year RFS of 60%, was not met, ...
Source: Oncotarget - July 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Optimal adjuvant chemotherapy for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
Authors: Xu JB, Jiang B, Chen Y, Qi FZ, Zhang JH, Yuan H Abstract Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer but the optimal regimen remains unclear. We aim to compare all possible adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of overall survival and toxic effects. Pubmed, Trial registries and Cochrane library databases for randomized controlled trials were searched until November 2016. Thirteen trials were included for network analysis and the hazard ratios (HRs) for survival and odds ratios for toxic effects were assessed via Aggregate Data Drug Information System software. Only S-1 chem...
Source: Oncotarget - July 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Usefulness of cardiotoxicity assessment using calcium transient in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.
In conclusion, we believe that peak analysis of calcium transient and determination of D/R ratio are reliable methods for assessing compounds' cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenic potential, respectively. Using these approaches would allow selection of compounds with low cardiotoxic potential at the early stage of drug discovery. PMID: 28717111 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences)
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Mercury and selenium levels, and their molar ratios in several species of commercial shrimp in Japan regarding the health risk of methylmercury exposure.
Authors: Hoang VAT, Sakamoto M, Yamamoto M Abstract The Japanese shrimp industry depends on importing shrimp from other countries. However, little information is available on mercury speciation and selenium (Se) concentrations in commercial shrimp available in Japan. The present study determined the concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in the muscles (wet weight) of imported and domestic commercial shrimp from Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures to obtain information for assessing the risk of MeHg exposure. The median concentrations of T-Hg, MeHg and Se in shrimp imported from three d...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Human plasma and urinary metabolic profiles of trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide extrapolated using a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.
This study provides important information to help simulate human plasma levels of trimethylamine and trimethylamine N-oxide in trimethylamine loading tests and during treatment with prescribed medicinal l-carnitine, showing the similar range as that resulting from daily dietary foodstuff consumption along with little toxicological impacts. The present models could estimate relationship between plasma and urine concentrations of trimethylamine or trimethylamine N-oxide and the daily oral doses by both forward and reverse dosimetry from viewpoint of human risk assessment. PMID: 28717107 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Jou...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

A carcinogenicity study of diphenylarsinic acid in F344 rats in drinking water for 104 weeks.
In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that DPAA is not a complete carcinogen in male or female F344 rats. PMID: 28717106 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences)
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly and steatosis in larval zebrafish.
Authors: Yin G, Cao L, Du J, Jia R, Kitazawa T, Kubota A, Teraoka H Abstract Fish hepatobiliary syndrome, characterized by hepatomegaly and fatty liver, has been frequently reported in many cultured fish species and has caused a dramatic economic loss in China. Glucocorticoids are thought to be important non-nutritional factors for hepatomegaly and fatty liver development. In the present study, a dexamethasone-induced zebrafish model of fatty liver and hepatomegaly was established, and the role of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the development of hepatomegaly and fatty liver was investigated using developing zebra...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Metabolomics of an in vitro liver model containing primary hepatocytes assembling around an endothelial cell network: comparative study on the metabolic stability and the effect of acetaminophen treatment.
Authors: Toyoda Y, Kashikura K, Soga T, Tagawa YI Abstract Recently, a novel culture system consisting of primary hepatocytes structured over a network of endothelial cells on the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) gel has been reported. This in vitro liver model on the EHS gel (IVLEHS) has been shown to maintain the expression of hepatic genes and their functional activity. Moreover, the IVLEHS was more sensitive to xenobiotics than hepatocyte monocultures, suggesting the potential utility of this culture system for compound hepatotoxicity screening. However, the effect of this three-dimensional structure formation on th...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Human lung adenocarcinoma cells with an EGFR mutation are sensitive to non-autophagic cell death induced by zinc oxide and aluminium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles.
In conclusion, we have shown that human lung adenocarcinoma cells with an EGFR mutation are sensitive to ZnONP20 and Al-ZnONP20, which may have resulted in non-autophagic cell death. ZnONP20 and Al-ZnONP20 may have the potential for personalized therapeutics in NSCLC with an EGFR mutation. PMID: 28717102 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences)
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Inhibitory modulation of human estrogen receptor α and β activities by dicyclohexyl phthalate in human breast cancer cell lines.
Inhibitory modulation of human estrogen receptor α and β activities by dicyclohexyl phthalate in human breast cancer cell lines. J Toxicol Sci. 2017;42(4):417-425 Authors: Okazaki H, Takeda S, Matsuo S, Matsumoto M, Furuta E, Kohro-Ikeda E, Aramaki H Abstract Phthalate esters (PAEs) are man-made compounds that are used widely in industry, and the ubiquitous exposure of humans to PAEs has been reported. Although some PAEs have been suggested to function as xenoestrogens in in vitro systems, such as human estrogen receptors (ERs) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells, few studies h...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Differential neurotoxic effects of in utero and lactational exposure to hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB 106) on spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination in young adult male mice.
Authors: Haijima A, Lesmana R, Shimokawa N, Amano I, Takatsuru Y, Koibuchi N Abstract We investigated whether in utero or lactational exposure to 4-hydroxy-2',3,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (OH-PCB 106) affects spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination in young adult male mice. For in utero exposure, pregnant C57BL/6J mice received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second day from gestational day 10 to 18. For lactational exposure, the different groups of dams received 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 or corn oil vehicle via gavage every second d...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of drug-induced hematotoxicity using novel in vitro monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays.
In conclusion, monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays were established and considered useful tools to evaluate the differences in drug-induced hematotoxicity between species. PMID: 28717098 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences)
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Mechanism-based risk assessment strategy for drug-induced cholestasis using the transcriptional benchmark dose derived by toxicogenomics.
Authors: Kawamoto T, Ito Y, Morita O, Honda H Abstract Cholestasis is one of the major causes of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), which can result in withdrawal of approved drugs from the market. Early identification of cholestatic drugs is difficult due to the complex mechanisms involved. In order to develop a strategy for mechanism-based risk assessment of cholestatic drugs, we analyzed gene expression data obtained from the livers of rats that had been orally administered with 12 known cholestatic compounds repeatedly for 28 days at three dose levels. Qualitative analyses were performed using two statistical ap...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research

Utility of human hepatocyte spheroids without feeder cells for evaluation of hepatotoxicity.
Authors: Ogihara T, Arakawa H, Jomura T, Idota Y, Koyama S, Yano K, Kojima H Abstract We investigated the utility of three-dimensionally cultured hepatocytes (spheroids) without feeder cells (Sph(f-)) for the prediction of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in humans. Sph(f-) and spheroids cultured on feeder cells (Sph(f+)) were exposed to the hepatotoxic drugs flutamide, diclofenac, isoniazid and chlorpromazine at various concentrations for 14 days, and albumin secretion and cumulative leakages of toxicity marker enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) a...
Source: Journal of Toxicological Sciences - July 21, 2017 Category: Toxicology Tags: J Toxicol Sci Source Type: research