From genetics to bariatric surgery and soda taxes: Using all the tools to curb the rising tide of obesity
by Adya Misra, Sanjay Basu (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - July 31, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Adya Misra Source Type: research

Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost From Excessive Alcohol Use - United States, 2011-2015.
This study found an average of 93,296 alcohol-attributable deaths (255 deaths per day) and 2.7 million YPLL (29 years of life lost per death, on average) in the United States each year. Of all alcohol-attributable deaths, 51,078 (54.7%) were caused by chronic conditions, and 52,361 (56.0%) involved adults aged 35-64 years. Age-adjusted alcohol-attributable deaths per 100,000 population ranged from 20.3 in New Jersey and New York to 52.3 in New Mexico. YPLL per 100,000 population ranged from 613.8 in New York to 1,651.7 in New Mexico. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing excessive drinking, including those ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - July 31, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Esser MB, Sherk A, Liu Y, Naimi TS, Stockwell T, Stahre M, Kanny D, Landen M, Saitz R, Brewer RD Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

State Tobacco Excise Taxation, Comprehensive Smoke-free Air Laws, and Tobacco Control Appropriations as Predictors of Smoking Cessation Success in the United States
The purpose of the present study was (1) to examine demographic differences between smokers who successfully quit (n = 1809), who relapsed (n = 6548), and who did not attempt to quit (n = 11 102) within the last year, and (2) to examine state-level tobacco policies/programs as predictors of quit success. Data were utilized from the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, which were paired with 2014 data on taxation, appropriations, and smoke-free air laws. As compared with smokers who relapsed, those who successfully quit were more likely to be white, married, more highly educated, of higher inco...
Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice - July 30, 2020 Category: Health Management Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

The ethics of excise taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages
Publication date: Available online 24 July 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Jennifer Falbe (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Impact of tobacco industry pricing and marketing strategy on brand choice, loyalty and cessation in global south countries: a systematic review
ConclusionsAbsorption of excise tax and differential taxation are the common pricing strategies adopted by tobacco industries in Global South. These strategies together with external determinants impact the price-related tobacco control interventions. (Source: International Journal of Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Public Health - July 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

MHS Genesis Implementation: Strategies in Support of Successful EHR Conversion.
CONCLUSIONS: By operationalizing pre-identified CSFs and CBIs, leaders of the MHS are able to streamline future waves of MHS Genesis rollouts utilizing Kurt Lewin's Change Theory and the newly crafted Conceptual Framework of MHS Genesis Implementation presented in Figure 1. Through full acceptance and use of CSFs, adapting to feedback and barriers, and dynamically adjusting strategies, the challenges associated with a large-scale phased EHR implementation can be minimized. The results and implications of this literature review are significant as the MHS Genesis rollout is still in its infancy and evidence-based best practi...
Source: Military Medicine - July 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research

Suboptimal Rates of Return of Spontaneous Circulation with Prehospital CPR in the COVID-19 Era
The COVID-19 pandemic – caused by the virus SARS-COV-2 – has significantly taxed all levels of the modern healthcare system.1 The virulence of SARS-COV-2 has led to substantial increases in the usage of personal protective equipment – including masks, gowns, face shields, and gloves – in a variety of healthcare s ettings.2 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one of the most important and lifesaving interventions performed by healthcare providers of all levels, and favorable outcomes are heavily contingent on proper form and performance based on published standards. (Source: Resuscitation)
Source: Resuscitation - July 16, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Aditya C. Shekhar, Christopher Mercer, Ira Blumen, Jagat Narula Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Raising Tobacco Taxes: The Philippine Experience.
This article presents the Philippine experience as a case study in pursuing bold reforms in tobacco taxation and tobacco control amidst strong opposition by the tobacco industry. It considers: 1) the key events and factors that led to successful reform of the Philippine tobacco tax system; 2) the impact of higher tobacco taxes on health and the economy; and 3) the emerging challenges in tobacco taxation in the Philippines.. PMID: 32649168 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention)
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - July 12, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research

Sweetened beverage taxes and changes in beverage price, imports and manufacturing: interrupted time series analysis in a middle-income country
The Pacific Island nation of Tonga (a middle-income country) introduced a sweetened beverage tax of T$0.50/L in 2013, with this increasing further in 2016 (to T$1.00/L), and in 2017 (T$1.50/L; US$0.02/oz). Giv... (Source: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity)
Source: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity - July 9, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Andrea Teng, Viliami Puloka, Murat Gen ç, Ofeina Filimoehala, Catherine Latu, Mohulamu Lolomana’ia, Sutayut Osornprasop, Louise Signal and Nick Wilson Tags: Research Source Type: research

Session 4: Advertising and Taxation
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Evan Reister, Frances Fleming-Milici, Anna Grummon, Jennifer Falbe (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

One-year changes in sugar-sweetened beverage consumers' purchases following implementation of a beverage tax: a longitudinal quasi-experiment.
CONCLUSIONS: A sweetened beverage tax was not associated with reduced taxed beverage purchases among SSB consumers 12 mo posttax in the full sample. Both secondary analyses excluding holiday purchasing or aggregating posttax time periods found reductions in taxed beverage purchases ranging from -4.9 to -12.5 ounces per day. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to further understand tax effects. PMID: 32619214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition)
Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition - July 3, 2020 Category: Nutrition Authors: Lawman HG, Bleich SN, Yan J, Hua SV, Lowery CM, Peterhans A, LeVasseur MT, Mitra N, Gibson LA, Roberto CA Tags: Am J Clin Nutr Source Type: research

The Multiple Casualty Scenario: Role of the Anesthesiologist
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMass casualty disasters (natural and man-made) present an acute, critical situation that taxes healthcare resources and clinician acumen. This review summarizes the characteristics and management skill sets that anesthesiologists possess that make them valuable clinicians during mass casualty events and why we as anesthesiologists must continually educate ourselves on this important topic.Recent FindingsAnesthesiologists should be involved in all aspects of emergency preparedness —mitigation, planning, response, and recovery. The anesthesia department should have a plan for how it will deal w...
Source: Current Anesthesiology Reports - June 29, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Tobacco taxes and illicit cigarette trade in Colombia.
ute;guez-Lesmes P Abstract This paper estimates the short-term impact of a twofold increase of the tobacco excise tax on consumption of illicit cigarette trade in Colombia. Using data collected before and after the tax increase from a novel smoker survey (DEICS-Col), the impact is estimated as the change in the probability that a smoker has illicit cigarettes. The methodology follows a difference-in-differences strategy, measuring the year-to-year variation of the proportion of illicit cigarettes between smokers who report buying low-priced cigarettes (the highest treatment intensity) and those who bought high-pri...
Source: Economics and Human Biology - June 28, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Gallego JM, Llorente B, Maldonado N, Otálvaro-Ramírez S, Rodríguez-Lesmes P Tags: Econ Hum Biol Source Type: research

Price impact of taxes on sugary drinks in Brazil.
Abstract Sugary drink consumption is an important contributor to the current global epidemic of obesity. In recent years, 50 countries or jurisdictions have implemented taxes on sugary drinks as an instrument to discourage consumption. Against the tide, Brazil reduced taxes on these beverages in 2017 and 2018. However, a recent debate - raised by the federal government - has started over taxation of sugary and alcoholic beverages (sin taxes). The effectiveness of this policy will depend on how the taxes are transferred to prices. In this sense, this paper we aim to quantify the impacts of the tax reduction on pric...
Source: Economics and Human Biology - June 26, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Pereda P, Garcia CP Tags: Econ Hum Biol Source Type: research

Explaining the Consumption of Illicit Cigarettes
ConclusionsThe geographic concentration of illicit consumption and smuggling calls for the creation of anti-illicit-trade units in most densely populated areas or custom task forces at the most sensitive borders. The disproportionate relevance of illicit flows from eastern non-EU countries suggests to increase the political pressure on these source countries. Finally, given the importance of the demand side in determining the size of the illicit market, price increases should be matched with consumer awareness campaigns. These campaigns should focus on the societal consequences of purchasing illicit cigarettes together wit...
Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology - June 25, 2020 Category: Criminology Source Type: research

A Comparison of Strategies to Improve Population Diets: Government Policy versus Education and Advice.
Authors: Temple NJ Abstract Different strategies have been utilized in order to improve the healthiness of the population diet. Many interventions employ education, advice, and encouragement (EAE). Those interventions have been carried out in diverse settings and may achieve modest success; the estimated risk of cardiovascular disease is lowered by about 5-15%. An alternative strategy is action policies carried out by the governments. The removal of trans-fatty acids from food is a model for a successful action policy. Other action policies include requiring a substantial reduction in the amount of salt added to pr...
Source: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - June 24, 2020 Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Metab Source Type: research

Areca Nut and Betel Quid Control Interventions: Halting the Epidemic.
Conclusions: We have assessed published interventions that reduce AN/BQ use and identified future research priorities. These findings can be used to develop evidence-based interventions and help guide policymakers in implementing evidence-based policy to regulate these products. PMID: 32569544 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - June 24, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research

Will Voters Support Higher Taxes to Fund Universal Health Care? Oregon, 2019
(Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine)
Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine - June 24, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 4476: Examining the Moderation Effect of Political Trust on the Linkage between Civic Morality and Support for Environmental Taxation
oon Climate change and pollution are threatening sustainable environments and human life. To mitigate and adapt to the effects of such threats, governments around the world need significant financial resources. Accordingly, this study focuses on which factors are associated with individuals’ support for taxation to protect the environment and pays special attention to the direct effects of civic morality and political trust, as well as their joint effects on support for environmental taxation. Ordered probit results with a sample size of 760 demonstrate that civic morality is positively associated with in...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - June 22, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Jae Young Lim Kuk-Kyoung Moon Tags: Article Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 4425: Patterns of Interdependence between Financial Development, Fiscal Instruments, and Environmental Degradation in Developed and Converging EU Countries
This study assessed the interdependence between environmental degradation and public expenditure, financial sector development, environmental taxes, and related socioeconomic policies. The aim was to diagnose and define the relationship between environmental degradation and sustainable fiscal instruments used in the financial system. The original research approach adopted in the study is the inclusion of variables representing a sustainable approach to assessment of the financial system. Two groups of European Union countries were analyzed for the period 2008–2017, namely, converging economies from Central an...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - June 19, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Zio ło Kluza Kozuba Kelemen Niedzielski Zinczak Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

The Rise and Fall of Alcohol Excise Taxes in U.S. States, 1933-2018.
CONCLUSIONS: The value of alcohol excise taxes has declined since 1970 from both insufficient tax increases and later infrequent tax increases. Laws that index rates to inflation could sustain the public health benefit of reduced morbidity and mortality resulting from higher alcohol tax rates. PMID: 32527385 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs)
Source: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs - June 14, 2020 Category: Addiction Tags: J Stud Alcohol Drugs Source Type: research

How many alcohol-attributable deaths and hospital admissions could be prevented by alternative pricing and taxation policies? Modelling impacts on alcohol consumption, revenues and related harms in Canada.
CONCLUSION: Improved public health outcomes would be made possible by (1) increasing alcohol excise tax rates across all beverages to compensate for past failures to index rates, and (2) setting a MUP of at least $1.75 per standard drink. While reducing alcohol-caused harms, these tax policies would have the added benefit of increasing federal government revenues. PMID: 32529975 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada)
Source: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada - June 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can Source Type: research

An exploration of the portrayal of the UK soft drinks industry levy in UK national newspapers.
CONCLUSIONS: Sugar and SSB taxes received considerable media attention between 2016 and 2019. All newspapers covered arguments in support of and opposition to taxation. Health impacts of excess sugar and the role of the soft drink industry in reducing sugar consumption were prevalent themes, suggesting a joined-up health advocacy approach. Industry arguments were more varied, suggesting a less collaborative argument. Further research should investigate how other media channels portray taxes such as the SDIL. PMID: 32498730 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Public Health Nutrition)
Source: Public Health Nutrition - June 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Bridge G, Flint SW, Tench R Tags: Public Health Nutr Source Type: research

Stigma and prejudice today: the experience of tuberculosis patients in occupational therapy workshops
Conclusion: It is necessary to demystify the social imaginary that excludes tuberculosis patients, and the development of public policies with health education, prevention, information and fight against stigma is pertinent. (Source: Physis: Revista de Saude Coletiva)
Source: Physis: Revista de Saude Coletiva - June 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sa1935 INDUCED HYPERINFLATION: USING AIR FOR UPWARD ADJUSTMENT IN THE SPATZ3 INTRAGASTRIC BALLOON AND CREATING A HYBRID DEVICE
Adjustable Intragastric Ballons (AIB) have been used for several years for treating obesity with well proven efficacy in several papers. Downward adjustabulity undoubtly mitigates intolerance that may lead to early removals. Upward adjustments seems to provide extra weight loss, however authors highlight higher taxes of gastric ulcers found after volume increment. Using air may improve results with fewer risks to patients. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - June 1, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anna C. Hoff, Sergio A. Barrichello, Manoel Galvao Neto, Eduardo Grecco, Ricardo J. Fittipaldi-Fernandez, Joao C. Hoff, Dilhana Badurdeen, Vivek Kumbhari Tags: Poster abstracts Source Type: research

An Assessment of Food Store Compliance With the Cook County Sweetened Beverage Tax
To examine the correct application of the $0.01/ounce Cook County, Illinois, Sweetened Beverage Tax on sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages, a total of 111 beverage products were purchased from 28 food stores in September and November 2017. Purchases were categorized by taxable (sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soda and juice drinks) and nontaxable (100% fruit juice and sparkling water) beverage type, store type (limited service vs supermarket/grocery), and area median household income (lower vs higher). Two-sample tests of proportions were conducted to compare correctly taxed purchases. The tax w...
Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice - May 27, 2020 Category: Health Management Tags: Research Reports: Research Brief Report Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to sugar sweetened beverages and taxation among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Caribbean island of Barbados – A cross sectional survey in primary care
Barbados, a small Caribbean island with a population of 280,000 [1] is classified as having a high income economy by the World Bank [2]. The diabetes mellitus prevalence in people 25 years of age and over is estimated to be 18.7% [3]. Management of this condition and its complications place a significant demand on the island's health care system with 42.5% of beds in the island's main hospital being occupied by people with diabetes [4]. A high lower limb amputation rate has been reported [5] and approximately 10% of the budget of the island's main hospital is spent on renal dialysis services [6]. (Source: Primary Care Diabetes)
Source: Primary Care Diabetes - May 26, 2020 Category: Primary Care Authors: Khatija A.S. Mangera, O. Peter Adams Tags: Original research Source Type: research

The asymmetric effects of oil price changes on environmental pollution: evidence from the top ten carbon emitters.
Abstract The basic purpose of this study is to scrutinize the asymmetric effect of oil price changes on environmental pollution in Canada, China, India, Iran, Germany, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, and the USA. The study uses time series annual data of selected courtiers from 1981 to 2018 and applies non-linear ARDL (NARDL) model to examine the long- and short-run asymmetries. The results show that positive shocks in diesel prices in the USA, India, Japan, Germany, South Korea, Iran, and Canada, while negative shocks in China and India reduce carbon emissions in the long run. However, an increase in ga...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - May 22, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ullah S, Chishti MZ, Majeed MT Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Addressing social attitudes toward lethal control of wildlife in national parks.
ño M Abstract The extraordinary population growth of certain ungulate species is increasingly a concern in agroforestry areas because overabundance may negatively affect natural environments and human livelihoods. However, society may have negative perceptions of killing wildlife to reduce their numbers and mitigate damage. We used an online survey that included a choice experiment to determine Spanish citizens' (n = 190) preferences toward wildlife population control measures related to negative effects of ungulate overabundance (negative impacts on vegetation and other wildlife species and disease transmi...
Source: Conservation Biology - May 14, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Martínez-Jauregui M, Delibes-Mateos M, Arroyo B, Soliño M Tags: Conserv Biol Source Type: research

Debriefing: A Place for Enthusiastic Teaching and Learning at a Distance
In the rush to address the educational constraints resulting from COVID-19, many nursing programs are turning to screen-based virtual simulations and other creative innovations as alternatives to traditional clinical course offerings. Yet, many educators are not prepared to implement these alternative methods. Additionally, because of the cessation of nursing students allowed to practice in hospitals and clinics and complete needed clinical hours, undergraduate and graduate nursing programs alike are taxed with satisfying these clinical requirements. (Source: Clinical Simulation in Nursing)
Source: Clinical Simulation in Nursing - May 12, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Cynthia Sherraden Bradley, Brandon Kyle Johnson, Kristina Thomas Dreifuerst Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

A social cost-benefit analysis of meat taxation and a fruit and vegetables subsidy for a healthy and sustainable food consumption in the Netherlands
This study estimates the effects of a tax (15% or 30%) on meat and a subsidy (10%) on fruit and vegetab... (Source: BMC Public Health)
Source: BMC Public Health - May 11, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Marlin J. Broeks, Sander Biesbroek, Eelco A. B. Over, Paul F. van Gils, Ido Toxopeus, Marja H. Beukers and Elisabeth H. M. Temme Tags: Research article Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 3327: The Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases on Regular Drinking Behavior: Evidence from China
Conclusions: Our research results not only give a deeper understanding of the impact of the cigarette excise tax, but also provide an important reference with which to guide future decisions concerning excise taxes imposed on cigarettes. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - May 11, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Zili Zhang Rong Zheng Tags: Article Source Type: research

Environmental taxes, energy consumption, and environmental quality: Theoretical survey with policy implications.
This article attempts to provide a detailed survey on the earlier literature for developed, developing, and emerging countries analysis by covering the literature up to 2020. The prime objective of this survey is the coverage of different level of economies, modeling, methodologies, time periods as well as empirical outcomes. The study mainly covers three types of causality direction: (i) environmental taxes, energy consumption, and energy efficiency; (ii) environmental taxes and environmental quality; (iii) energy consumption (renewables, non-renewable, and fossil fuels) and environment deterioration. Most of the empirica...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - May 5, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Shahzad U Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

The evolution of community-based primary health care, Slovenia.
Abstract Problem: Slovenia's model of primary health care relied on reactive, episodic care and was ill-equipped to address the country's burden of disease dominated by noncommunicable diseases. Approach: The government has developed a multidisciplinary, community-based, prevention-oriented service delivery model for primary health care. A compulsory family medicine residency programme was introduced in 2000, and from 2004 screening and control of chronic diseases were established in family medicine practices. Health promotion centres were established, providing group interventions to support healthy lifestyl...
Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization - May 1, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Johansen AS, Vracko P, West R Tags: Bull World Health Organ Source Type: research

Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Position Paper of the Global Federation of International Societies of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (FISPGHAN)
Global childhood obesity increased more than 8-fold over 40 years, inducing a very large personal, societal, and economic burden. Effects of available treatments are less than satisfactory; therefore, effective prevention is of high priority. In this narrative review, we explore preventive opportunities. The available evidence indicates large benefits of improving nutrition and lifestyle during early life, such as promoting breast-feeding and improving the quality of infant and early childhood feeding. Promoting healthy eating patterns and limiting sugar-containing beverage consumption from early childhood onwards are of g...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - April 27, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Society Papers Source Type: research

Cigarette excise taxes, clean indoor air laws, and use of smoking cessation treatments: A mediation analysis
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2020Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Ramin Mojtabai, Kira E. Riehm, Joanna E. Cohen, G. Caleb Alexander, Jon S. Vernick, Johannes Thrul (Source: Preventive Medicine)
Source: Preventive Medicine - April 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Impact of sugar taxes and front-of-package nutrition labels on purchases of protein, calcium and fibre
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2020Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Rachel B. Acton, David Hammond (Source: Preventive Medicine)
Source: Preventive Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Taxation of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods for reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: There was very limited evidence and the certainty of the evidence was very low. Despite the reported reduction in consumption of taxed sugar-added foods, we are uncertain whether taxing unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods has an effect on reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes. Further robustly conducted studies are required to draw concrete conclusions on the effectiveness of taxing unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods for reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes. PMID: 32270494 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cochr...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 9, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Pfinder M, Heise TL, Hilton Boon M, Pega F, Fenton C, Griebler U, Gartlehner G, Sommer I, Katikireddi SV, Lhachimi SK Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 2532: Organizational and Financial Analysis of Polish Tobacco Control Program in 2000 –2018
IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 2532: Organizational and Financial Analysis of Polish Tobacco Control Program in 2000–2018 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph17072532 Authors: Łukasz Balwicki Anna Tyrańska-Fobke Małgorzata Balwicka-Szczyrba Marlena Robakowska Michal Stoklosa In accordance with the provisions of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), each country shall promote and strengthen public awareness of tobacco control issues (Article 12). Many parties to the FCTC have adopted national tobacco control programs to organize their tobacc...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - April 7, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Łukasz Balwicki Anna Tyra ńska-Fobke Ma łgorzata Balwicka-Szczyrba Marlena Robakowska Michal Stoklosa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Analysis of asymmetries in the nexus among clean energy and environmental quality in Pakistan.
This study examines the short-run and long-run asymmetric effects of clean energy consumption on carbon emission in Pakistan, over the annual time period 1975-2018, by using a non-linear ARDL approach. The findings of the study confirm the existence of asymmetries, in the nexus between the clean energy consumption and carbon emission in the short and long run. The findings of non-linear model confirm that carbon emission responded contrary to positive shocks of energy variables as compared with their negative shocks. Asymmetric findings recommend that positive and negative shocks of the alternative and nuclear energy and c...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - April 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Usman A, Ullah S, Ozturk I, Chishti MZ, Zafar SM Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

The pass-through of alcohol excise taxes to prices in OECD countries
AbstractTax pass-through rates to prices measure how much prices increase when taxes are increased by one unit, which will in turn determine the effectiveness of taxation policies in reducing substance use. Using longitudinal data of alcohol prices and excise taxes from 27 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries from 2003 to 2016, we estimate the tax pass-through rates to prices for a variety of alcoholic beverages —beer (1.24; 95% CIs: [0.67, 1.81]), wine (2.4; 95% CIs: [1.7, 3.11]), Cognac (1.71; 95% CIs: [1.07, 2.35]), Gin (0.85; 95% CIs: [0.34, 1.35]), Scotch whisky (1.14; 95% CIs: ...
Source: The European Journal of Health Economics - March 31, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Signing at the beginning versus at the end does not decrease dishonesty [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Honest reporting is essential for society to function well. However, people frequently lie when asked to provide information, such as misrepresenting their income to save money on taxes. A landmark finding published in PNAS [L. L. Shu, N. Mazar, F. Gino, D. Ariely, M. H. Bazerman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - March 31, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ariella S. Kristal, Ashley V. Whillans, Max H. Bazerman, Francesca Gino, Lisa L. Shu, Nina Mazar, Dan Ariely Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Alcohol Use and Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Epidemiology and Preventive Implications
Discussion: There are a number of assumptions underlying these estimates, but overall all of them seem to be conservative. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 2070: Valuation Impacts of Environmental Protection Taxes and Regulatory Costs in Heavy-Polluting Industries
This study examines the market reaction to firms in heavy-polluting industries, and the effects of external legal institutional quality and internal environmental disclosure on firm value around the passage of Environmental Protection Tax Law. Using an event study approach coupled with ordinary least square regressions, the researchers find a significantly negative market reaction to firms in heavy-polluting industries, but this negative reaction varies depending on the expected increase in future regulatory costs. Specifically, the above negative reaction is stronger when the firm reveals that itself or its subsidiary bel...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - March 20, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Wen-Jun Tu Xiao-Guang Yue Wei Liu M. James C. Crabbe Tags: Article Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 17, Pages 2055: Legal Steps to Secure the Tobacco Supply Chain: A Case Study of Poland
Drope The threat of tobacco tax evasion and avoidance is the most commonly mentioned argument against tax hikes. Increasingly, the focus of legislators is on leaks in the tobacco crop supply chain, in which raw or cured tobacco that was never taxed finds its way to smokers. To study the process undertaken by Poland to secure the tobacco supply chain, we analyzed the 2013–2018 legislation around tobacco supply and interviewed a key stakeholder in the Government of Poland. We found that farmers and intermediary entities can trade tobacco only if registered with the government. Farmers are required to repor...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - March 20, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Łukasz Balwicki Michal Stoklosa Ma łgorzata Balwicka-Szczyrba Jeffrey Drope Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Revenue allocation from SSB taxes: making the case for oral health promotion
International Dental Journal, EarlyView. (Source: International Dental Journal)
Source: International Dental Journal - March 18, 2020 Category: Dentistry Authors: Gemma Bridge, Marta Lomazzi, Raman Bedi Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

A narrative review of the effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on human health: A key global health issue.
Authors: Haque M, McKimm J, Sartelli M, Samad N, Haque SZ, Bakar MA Abstract The provision of healthy and safe food is vital for human health, and the addition of unnecessary sugars in foodstuffs is an important global issue, leading to multiple long- and short-term health issues and spiraling costs for individuals and governments alike. The negative effect of excess sugar consumption contributes to adverse health conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and poor oral health in both high and low resource settings. A key plank of governmental and health promotion bodies' nutritional guidance is to raise publi...
Source: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology - March 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Food taxes and subsidies to protect health: relevance to Aotearoa New Zealand.
Authors: Wilson N, Morenga LT, Mackay S, Gerritsen S, Cleghorn C, Jones AC, Swinburn B Abstract The hazardous and obesogenic food environment are major contributors to health loss in Aotearoa New Zealand. Here we consider the potential use of food taxes and subsidies to protect health in this country. We find that each one of the 14 recent systematic reviews on the tax and/or subsidy topic since 2015 in the scientific literature report that such interventions have favourable impacts from a health perspective. The New Zealand evidence we considered (n=12 studies since January 2010) is less definitive, but the patter...
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - March 13, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research

Releasing the Net to Promote Minority Faculty Success in Academic Medicine
This article reviews five barriers to progress in achieving appropriate diversity among faculty and leadership of academic health centers, focusing on the multiplying effects of these barriers and potential steps forward. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - March 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Profitability of Large Pharmaceutical Companies vs Other Large Public Companies
This study uses data from annual financial reports to compare the profitability of large pharmaceutical companies vs other large companies in the S&P 500 Index from 2000 to 2018, measured via gross profit; earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization; and net income (earnings). (Source: JAMA)
Source: JAMA - March 3, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research