[Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].
r M Abstract Pharmacotherapy is a central component in the context of an overall therapeutic concept in the treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this concept psychosocial interventions with psychoeducation or specific psychotherapy measures also play an important role. In adults three compounds are currently approved for the pharmacological treatment of ADHD in Germany. The long-acting stimulants retarded methylphenidate preparations and lisdexamfetamine can be prescribed. Alternatively, the adrenergic uptake inhibitor atomoxetine can be used. In several meta-analyses g...
Source: Der Nervenarzt - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Retz W, Retz-Junginger P, Davydenko S, Rösler M Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

Spontaneous Ejaculation Induced with Atomoxetine.
Authors: Yaylacı F, Şahbudak B, Küçük Ö Abstract Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood, characterized by attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The most effective treatment in ADHD is drug treatment. Stimulant and nonstimulant drug treatments are preferentially used. Atomoxetine is one of the nonstimulant treatments. Although sexual side effects of atomoxetine in adults are reported, there is limited knowledge about sexual side effects in children and adolescents. In this case report, we aimed to describe an adolescen...
Source: Psychopharmacology Bulletin - March 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Psychopharmacol Bull Source Type: research

Atomoxetine Does Not Improve Complex Attention in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease Patients with Cognitive Deficits: A Meta-Analysis.
Conclusion: In idiopathic PD with MCI, atomoxetine does not improve complex attention. Also, a deteriorative trend in the executive function was noted. PMID: 32211146 [PubMed] (Source: Parkinsons Disease)
Source: Parkinsons Disease - March 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Parkinsons Dis Source Type: research

Effects of 5-HT2C receptor modulation and the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine in tests of compulsive and impulsive behaviour.
Abstract Drug repositioning has gained strategic value as a reaction to high attrition rates of new drugs as they pass through the clinical development process. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin (Belviq®), and the selective NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine (Strattera®) represent two drugs FDA approved for obesity and ADHD respectively. Although both drugs are of differing pharmacological class, each share a property of regulating impulsive behaviours in preclinical studies, and thus represent candidates for consideration in clinical conditions labelled as 'impulsive-compulsive disorders'. The present...
Source: Neuropharmacology - March 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Higgins GA, Brown M, St John J, MacMillan C, Silenieks LB, Thevarkunnel S Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research

Novel Phenethylamines and Their Potential Interactions With Prescription Drugs: A Systematic Critical Review
Conclusions: A drug–drug (phenethylamine-prescription drug) interaction potential is anticipated, mainly involving monoamine oxidases for 2C-B and 4-FA, with monoamine transporters being more specific to 4-FA. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - March 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Simple pharmacokinetic models accounting for drug monitoring results of atomoxetine and its 4-hydroxylated metabolites in Japanese pediatric patients genotyped for cytochrome P450 2D6.
Authors: Notsu Y, Shimizu M, Sasaki T, Nakano A, Ota M, Yoshida S, Yamazaki H Abstract Atomoxetine is an approved medicine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) probe substrate. Simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and compartment models were set up to account for drug monitoring results of 33 Japanese patients (6-15 years of age) to help establish the correct dosage for the evaluation of clinical outcomes. The steady-state one-point drug monitoring data for the most participants indicated the extensive biotransformation of atomoxetine to 4-hydroxyatom...
Source: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics - March 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Metab Pharmacokinet Source Type: research

Taste masking of water ‐soluble drug by solid lipid microspheres: a child‐friendly system established by reversed lipid‐based nanoparticle technique
ConclusionsAtomoxetine hydrochloride ‐reversed lipid‐based nanoparticle‐solid lipid microsphere exhibited excellent taste‐masking effect with negligible leakage in the oral cavity environment and thorough collapse upon lipase stimulation, simultaneously enhancing the bioavailability of ATX. The study paves a new way to efficien tly mask the undesirable taste of some water‐soluble drugs. (Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - March 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yadan Zhang, Liao Shen, Tao Wang, Haiyan Li, Ri Huang, Zhen Zhang, Yongan Wang, Dongqin Quan Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Genetic Influence on Efficacy of Pharmacotherapy for Pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Overview and Current Status of Research
This article reviews childhood ADHD pharmacogenomics efficacy studies published during the last decade (2009 –2019), which have largely focused on pharmacodynamic candidate gene investigations of methylphenidate and atomoxetine response, with a smaller number investigating pharmacokinetic candidate genes and genome-wide approaches. Findings from studies which have advanced the field of ADHD pharmacogenom ics through investigation of meta-analytic approaches and gene–gene interactions are also overviewed. Despite recent progress, no one genetic variant or currently available pharmacogenomics test has demonstrate...
Source: CNS Drugs - March 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Atomoxetine Induced Skin Picking: A Case Report
“Skin picking disorder,” also known as “dermatillomania” or “psychogenic excoriation,” is classified in the “Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders” category in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and characterized by repetitive skin picking behaviors resulting in skin lesions. Atomoxetine (ATX) is a selective norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor commonly used in the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Atomoxetine is considered to increase levels of noradrenaline and dopamine by inhibiting norepinephrine tr...
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - March 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

A Severe Adverse Effect of Atomoxetine: Hypertensive Crisis
Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor, is an effective medication in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with a generally well-tolerated adverse effect profile. However, unusual side effects may occur during treatment. Here we report a case of hypertensive crisis in an 8-year-old male patient with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder receiving atomoxetine treatment. We plan to discuss the clinical picture of the subject and importance of close monitoring during atomoxetine treatment. (Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology)
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - March 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Atomoxetine-related bruxism in a 7-year-old boy: A case report.
Authors: Bilac Ö, Percinel I, Kavurma C PMID: 32001942 [PubMed] (Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry - February 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Indian J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of the Combination of Atomoxetine and Oxybutynin on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Endotypic Traits.
Abstract BACKGROUND: We recently showed that the administration of the combination of the noradrenergic drug atomoxetine plus the antimuscarinic oxybutynin (ato-oxy) before sleep greatly reduced obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity, likely by increasing upper airway dilator muscle activity during sleep. RESEARCH QUESTION: In patients with OSA who performed the ato-oxy trial with an esophageal pressure catheter to estimate ventilatory drive, we measured the effect of the drug combination (n=17) and of the single drugs (n=6) on the endotypic traits (listed below) over a 1-night administration and compared it ...
Source: Chest - January 29, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Taranto-Montemurro L, Messineo L, Azarbarzin A, Vena D, Hess L, Calianese N, White DP, Wellman A, Sands S Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Synthetic Cathinones and Their Potential Interactions with Prescription Drugs
Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of possible interactions between synthetic cathinones and prescription drugs, which may increase the risk of drug toxicity or reduce the therapeutic efficacy of the drugs. Qualitative drug screening for cathinones using mass spectrometry methods may aid the early detection of these agents. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - January 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Estimation of an Appropriate Dose of Trazodone for Pediatric Insomnia and the Potential for a Trazodone –Atomoxetine Interaction
This study was designed to predict the doses of trazodone to guide dosing in a clinical trial for pediatric insomnia using physiologically ‐based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Data on the pharmacokinetics of trazodone in children are currently lacking. The interaction potential between trazodone and atomoxetine was also predicted. Doses predicted in the following age groups, with exposures corresponding to adult dosages of 30, 75, and 150 mg once a day (q.d.), respectively, were: (i) 2‐ to 6‐year‐old group, doses of 0.35, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/kg q.d.; (ii)>6 ‐ to 12‐year‐old group, doses of 0.4, 1....
Source: CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology - January 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Laura Oggianu, Alice B. Ke, Manoranjenni Chetty, Rossella Picollo, Vanessa Petrucci, Fabrizio Calisti, Fabio Garofolo, Serena Tongiani Tags: Article Source Type: research

Drugs for ADHD
Date: January 27, 2020 Issue #:  1590Summary:  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder that has been diagnosed in up to 10% of school-age children in the US and frequently persists into adulthood. A study in a large Danish cohort found that ADHD was associated with higher mortality rates in children, adolescents, and adults, mainly due to accidents. Pharmacologic treatment of ADHD in children has been reported to decrease the risk of substance abuse in adolescents, and use of ADHD medications in adults has been associated with a reduced risk of s...
Source: The Medical Letter - January 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Adderall Adhansia ADHD Adzenys Amphetamine Aptensio Atomoxetine Biphentin Clonidine Concerta Cotempla daytrana Dexedrine Dexmethylphenidate Dextroamphetamine Dyanavel Evekeo Focalin Foquest Guanfacine Intuniv Jorn Source Type: research

Pre-school attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: 12 weeks prospective study.
Authors: Vaidyanathan S, Rajan TM, Chandrasekaran V, Kandasamy P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Extant literature lack studies on behavioural training or pharmacotherapy in Indian preschool children. With adverse long term outcomes, effective, safe and affordable early interventions for ADHD are a priority. Aim of this prospective study is to report on short term outcome of preschool ADHD with specific focus on safety and tolerability of medications. METHODS: Children with ADHD aged 2.5-6 years were assessed for severity and adverse events at baseline and follow-up using Conner's abbreviated rating scale and Clinical G...
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - December 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research

SNRIs May Be More Tolerable Than SSRIs for Some Youth With Anxiety, OCD
Youth who are taking antidepressants in the class of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for anxiety or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are more likely to experience side effects that cause them to discontinue the medication than those taking serotonin-norepinephrine inhibitors (SNRIs), according to a report in theJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.SSRIs also appear to be more commonly associated with “activation syndrome”—a cluster of symptoms including restlessness, anxiety, and agitation.Both classes of antidepressants are commonly prescribed for young people with ...
Source: Psychiatr News - December 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Journal of the American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry medications for youth with anxiety and OCD selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor side effects SNRIs treatment discontinuation Source Type: research

Estimation of an appropriate dose of trazodone for paediatric insomnia, and the potential for a trazodone ‐atomoxetine interaction
This study was designed to predict doses of trazodone to guide dosing in a clinical trial for paediatric insomnia, using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. Data on the pharmacokinetics of trazodone in children is currently lacking. The interaction potential between trazodone and atomoxetine was also predicted. Doses predicted in the following age groups, with exposures corresponding to adult dosages of 30 mg, 75 mg and 150 mg once ‐a‐day (QD) respectively were:2 ‐6 yr old group: doses of 0.35, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/kg QD.>6 ‐12 yr old group: doses of 0.4, 1.0 and 1.9 mg/kg QD.>12 ‐17 yr old gr...
Source: CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology - December 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Laura Oggianu, Alice B Ke, Manoranjenni Chetty, Rossella Picollo, Vanessa Petrucci, Fabrizio Calisti, Fabio Garofolo, Serena Tongiani Tags: Article Source Type: research

Atomoxetine Reestablishes Long Term Potentiation in a Mouse Model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
We examined the effects of ATX on behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the murine prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) model of ADHD. ADHD symptoms were measured using behavioral tests, open field for hyperactivity and the Y-maze for spatial working memory. Further, ATX effects on long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices at the CA3–CA1 synapse were assessed. PNE mice exhibited the behavioral deficits of ADHD, hyperactivity and spatial memory impairment. Intraperitoneal injection of ATX (2 mg/kg/day) normalized these behaviors significantly after 7 days. In PNE mice LTP was reduced (110.6 &plusm...
Source: Neuroscience - December 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparative Efficacy of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine on Social Adjustment in Youths with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology - December 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chi-Yung Shang Hsien-Hsueh Shih Yi-Lei Pan Hsiang-Yuan Lin Susan Shur-Fen Gau Source Type: research

Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse) Withdrawal in Children with Orofacial Cleft and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Stimulants are the first line of therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children 6 years and older. Vyvanse is a long acting prodrug stimulant with well-established safety, tolerability and efficacy, when compared to other stimulants such as amphetamine and methylphenidate, and non-stimulants such as atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine. Treatment related adverse events for stimulant drugs in all age groups have been reported in great detail, but there is limited data available in the literature regarding withdrawal symptoms from acute cessation or dose reduction in children. (Source: The British ...
Source: The British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - December 1, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Stavan Patel, Curtis Schmidt, Adam Blancher, G.E. Ghali Tags: P58 Source Type: research

Atomoxetine Efficacy in Methamphetamine Dependence during Methadone Maintenance Therapy.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Co-occurring methamphetamine (METH) use during methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is a highly prevalent and progressive problem in Iran. There are no registered pharmacological treatments for treating METH use disorder. The present study investigates the potential efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of these patients. METHODS: In a double-blind, controlled clinical trial, 86 METH-dependents on MMT randomly received either atomoxetine (40 mg/d) or placebo. We measured the craving scores with visual analog scale (VAS) on a weekly basis, and evaluated depression, anxiety and stress wit...
Source: Archives of Iranian Medicine - December 1, 2019 Category: Middle East Health Authors: Rabiey A, Hassani-Abharian P, Farhad M, Moravveji AR, Akasheh G, Banafshe HR Tags: Arch Iran Med Source Type: research

Clinically Significant Drug –Drug Interactions with Agents for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
This article provides an overview of the pharmacokinetic drug –drug interactions (DDIs) for agents prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polypharmacy in the treatment of patients with ADHD leads to high exposures to DDIs and possibly adverse safety outcomes. We performed a systematic search of DDI reports for ADHD agents in Embase a nd Medline. We also searched for agents in the pharmacological pipeline, which include (1) mazindol, molindone and viloxazine, which were previously prescribed for other indications; (2) centanafadine and AR-08, never before approved; and (3) two extracts (Polyga...
Source: CNS Drugs - November 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Quantitative prediction of the bitterness of atomoxetine hydrochloride and taste-masked using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: A biosensor evaluation and interaction study
In this study, the taste-masking efficiency of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) was assessed by Euclidean distances on a principle component analysis (PCA) map with the SA402B Taste Sensing System, and the host-guest interactions were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biosensor evaluation and characterization of the inclusion complex indicated that atomoxetine HCl could actively react with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.Graphical abstractThe quantitative bitter...
Source: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - November 26, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of drug interventions for the treatment of sleep disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.
Authors: Jenabi E, Ataei S, Bashirian S Abstract A structured review study of drug interventions on sleep disorders in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has not been published to date. This systematic review aimed to investigate drug interventions for the treatment of sleep disorders in children with ASD. The Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched until March 2019. Study quality was assessed using the Delphi checklist. Due to the heterogeneity of the findings, a meta-analysis was not possible. Drug interventions for the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with ASD included melat...
Source: Korean Journal of Pediatrics - November 26, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Korean J Pediatr Source Type: research

Psychostimulants/Atomoxetine and Serious Cardiovascular Events in Children with ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder
ConclusionUsing large US claims data, we found no evidence of increased SCV risk in children and adolescents with ADHD or ASD exposed to ADHD medications. (Source: CNS Drugs)
Source: CNS Drugs - November 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ADHD medication and the inverted U-shaped curve: A pharmacological study in female mice performing the rodent Continuous Performance Test (rCPT)
ConclusionThis study presents a novel method to analyse baseline-dependent effects. It shows that the rCPT can be successfully used in pharmacological studies in female mice and demonstrates that the effect of ADHD medication is in line with the inverted U-shape theory of performance-arousal relationship. (Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - November 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in nondementing mental health disorders 
.
Pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits in nondementing mental health disorders
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019 Sep;21(3):301-308 Authors: Robbins TW Abstract Evidence for pharmacological remediation of cognitive deficits in three major psychiatric disorders-attention deficit- hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and depression-is reviewed. ADHD is effectively treated with the stimulant medications methylphenidate and d-amphetamine, as well as nonstimulants such as atomoxetine, implicating cognitive enhancing effects mediated by noradrenaline and dopamine. However, the precise mechan...
Source: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Dialogues Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Understanding Chronic Aggression and Its Treatment in Children and Adolescents
AbstractPurpose of reviewYouth aggression is common and has a significant burden on individuals, families, and society. However, its treatment is often a challenge for clinicians. Thus, this review will examine the current understanding of youth aggression, conceptualize aggression as a symptom rather than its own disorder, and provide an overview of treatment strategies.Recent findingsYouth aggression is associated with complex genetic, neurobiological, and environmental risks. Prevention strategies are of the utmost importance for at-risk families and youth. Psychosocial interventions are the first line treatment. But if...
Source: Current Psychiatry Reports - November 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Methylphenidate-Induced Yawning Chasm in an Adolescent With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder That Resolved by Switching to Atomoxetine
No abstract available (Source: American Journal of Therapeutics)
Source: American Journal of Therapeutics - November 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

[Recommendations of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease as regards the use of drugs in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with a known heart disease, as well as in the general paediatric population: Position statement by the Spanish Paediatric Association].
Rotés A, Sarquella-Brugada G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Approved drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Spain are methylphenidate, lisdexamphetamine, atomoxetine and guanfacine. Due to adverse cardiovascular effects, mainly increased blood pressure and heart rate, its use in patients with known or undiagnosed heart disease may be controversial. OBJECTIVE: To obtain a consensus document from the Spanish Society of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Diseases (SECPCC) and experts from other Agencies and Societies as a guide for the paediatric cardiologist and physicians who treat...
Source: Anales de Pediatria - October 29, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pérez-Lescure Picarzo J, Centeno Malfaz F, Collell Hernández R, Crespo Marcos D, Fernández Soria T, Manso García B, Rojo Sombrero H, Sabaté Rotés A, Sarquella-Brugada G Tags: An Pediatr (Barc) Source Type: research

ADHD Medication May Reduce Risk of Injuries in Youth With Co-Occurring Developmental Disorders
ADHD medication may reduce the risk of unintentional injuries in youth with ADHD and co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, suggests astudy in theJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.While previous studies have found a negative association between ADHD medication use and risk of injuries in children and adolescents, this is the first observational study exploring risk in children with ADHD and a co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorder, wrote Laura Ghirardi, M.Sc., of the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm and colleagues.Ghirardi and colleagues used data from Sweden ’s Total Population Regis...
Source: Psychiatr News - October 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: ADHD amphetamine atomoxetine developmental disorders dexamphetamine Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry Laura Ghirardi lisdexamphetamine methylphenidate Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 3911: Remarkable Reduction of Cocaine Use in Dual Disorder (Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder/Cocaine Use Disorder) Patients Treated with Medications for ADHD
This study supports the validity of the SMH in ADHD patients with co-occurring CUD. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - October 15, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Corrado Manni Giada Cipollone Alessandro Pallucchini Angelo G. I. Maremmani Giulio Perugi Icro Maremmani Tags: Article Source Type: research

4.8 administration of yokukansan for adhd in 20 children: a retrospective analysis
Yokukansan (YKS) is one of the Japanese herbal traditional medicine formulas (Kampo), prescribed for irritation, irritability, mood swing, and agitation, and the third highest selling Kampo for children and adults in Japan. YKS is indicated for neurosis, insomnia, crying baby in the night, delirium of adults, and peripheral symptoms of dementia. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, atomoxetine, and guanfacine hydrochloride are the only current choices under the Japanese health insurance system for ADHD in children. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - October 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Akihito Iino Source Type: research

Dopamine and Norepinephrine Transporter Inhibition for Long-Term Fear Memory Enhancement.
We examined the effects of the high affinity NET inhibitors atomoxetine or nisoxetine and the low affinity DAT inhibitor bupropion, either alone or in combination, on short- and long-term memory of Pavlovian fear conditioning. We also examined the addiction-related effects of combined strong NET and weak DAT inhibition using conditioned place preference and a locomotor activity test. While atomoxetine or nisoxetine alone enhanced short-term fear memory, the addition of bupropion was required to significantly enhance long-term fear memory. Additionally, combined atomoxetine and bupropion did not produce substantial motor st...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - September 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Pantoni MM, Carmack SA, Hammam L, Anagnostaras SG Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Differential effects of d-amphetamine and atomoxetine on risk-based decision making of Lewis and Fischer 344 rats
In this study, we evaluated dose-dependent effects of d-amphetamine and atomoxetine on probabilistic discounting of Lewis and F344. Male Lewis and F344 chose between one food pellet delivered 100% of the time and three food pellets delivered following decreasing probabilities of delivery (i.e. 100%, 66.7%, 33.3%, 16.5%, and 8.25%). Saline, d-amphetamine (0.1–1.8 mg/kg), and atomoxetine (0.1–7.8 mg/kg) were tested acutely. Lewis and F344 did not differ in choice at baseline. d-Amphetamine increased risky choice for both rat strains at low-to-moderate doses, although it did so at a lower dose (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - September 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Methylphenidate-Associated Onychotillomania, Myoclonus, and Enuresis Reversed by Switching to Atomoxetine
No abstract available (Source: American Journal of Therapeutics)
Source: American Journal of Therapeutics - September 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Priapism With Methylphenidate Use in a Preschool-Aged Boy Resolved With Switching to Atomoxetine
Conclusions This case report suggests that ATX may be safely used in some children who experienced priapism with MPH. Future studies are needed to clarify the risk factors and etiologic mechanisms of this adverse reaction. (Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology)
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Cost of ADHD treatment using methylphenidate and atomoxetine in the South African private healthcare sector.
Authors: Munasur-Naidoo AP, Truter I Abstract Introduction: The prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has risen over the last two decades, with a corresponding increase in the cost of its medication. Drug utilisation studies in South Africa focusing on ADHD is limited. Areas covered: The primary aim was to determine the cost of methylphenidate and atomoxetine (used for ADHD). The Intercontinental Marketing Service (IMS) database which contains data of the private healthcare sector was interrogated from 2013 to 2016 (48-month period) focussing on methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Drug consumpt...
Source: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research - August 30, 2019 Category: Health Management Tags: Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res Source Type: research

Atomoxetine modulates the relationship between perceptual abilities and response bias
AbstractElucidation of how neuromodulators influence motivated behaviors is a major challenge of neuroscience research. It has been proposed that the locus-c œruleus-norepinephrine system promotes behavioral flexibility and provides resources required to face challenges in a wide range of cognitive processes. Both theoretical models and computational models suggest that the locus-cœruleus-norepinephrine system tunes neural gain in brain circuits to opt imize behavior. However, to the best of our knowledge, empirical proof demonstrating the role of norepinephrine in performance optimization is scarce. Here, we m...
Source: Psychopharmacology - August 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The use of reaction time distributions to study attention in male rats: the effects of atomoxetine and guanfacine
ConclusionsIT devmode is a measure of distribution skew thought to reflect lapses of attention. The effects of ATX  on IT devmode suggest that increased synaptic NE reduces attentional lapses. These findings are consistent with human reports of reduced RTV after ATX administration. The same pattern of results with guanfacine suggests that the effects of increased NE are due in part to binding at α-2 noradrene rgic receptors. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Consumption of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in the private healthcare sector in South Africa: a longitudinal study
Conclusion Consumption showed an increase in use of methylphenidate in South Africa, with small changes observed over the study period. Further studies are required. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy)
Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy - July 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of Autonomic Dysfunction in Dementia Syndromes
AbstractPurpose of reviewAutonomic dysfunction is common in dementia, particularly in the Lewy body dementias. This review considers the evidence for autonomic dysfunction in dementia, common symptoms and potential management options.Recent findingsAutonomic dysfunction has been shown in Alzheimer ’s disease and Lewy body dementias. Common symptoms include orthostatic dizziness, syncope, falls, urinary tract symptoms and constipation. Non-pharmacological management of orthostatic hypotension should include bolus water drinking. Pharmacological management may include the use of midodrine or droxidopa although the latt...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Neurology - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gene-Based Dose Optimization in Children.
Abstract Pharmacogenetics is a key component of precision medicine. Genetic variation in drug metabolism enzymes can lead to variable exposure to drugs and metabolites, potentially leading to inefficacy and drug toxicity. Although the evidence for pharmacogenetic associations in children is not as extensive as for adults, there are several drugs across diverse therapeutic areas with robust pediatric data indicating important, and relatively common, drug-gene interactions. Guidelines to assist gene-based dose optimization are available for codeine, thiopurine drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, atomoxet...
Source: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology - July 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ramsey LB, Brown JT, Vear SI, Bishop JR, Van Driest SL Tags: Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Raynaud's Phenomenon Related with Atomoxetine Treatment in a Child with Autism and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology - July 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Zeynep Nur G ülle Ali Karayagmurlu Murat Coskun Source Type: research

Atomoxetine
(Source: Reactions Weekly)
Source: Reactions Weekly - July 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Adverse Drug Reactions Related to Mood and Emotion in Pediatric Patients Treated for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparative Analysis of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System Database
Conclusions We conclude that real-world data from the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System are consistent with previous evidence from meta-analyses. They support a hierarchy of drug safety for several ADRs (except self-injury/suicidality) with methylphenidate as safest, followed by atomoxetine, lisdexamfetamine, and amphetamine last. Self-injury and suicidality RORs were overall higher in children. (Source: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology - June 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Effective use of atomoxetine to treat six inpatient youths with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder without attention deficit disorder.
JM, Cohen D PMID: 31218979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - June 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Benarous X, Ferrafiat V, Zammit J, Consoli A, Gérardin P, Guilé JM, Cohen D Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research