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Pancreatic cancer: Are "liquid biopsies" ready for prime-time?
Abstract Pancreatic cancer is a disease that carries a poor prognosis. Accurate tissue diagnosis is required. Tumours contain a high content of stromal tissue and therefore biopsies may be inconclusive. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have been investigated as a potential "liquid biopsy" in several malignancies and have proven to be of prognostic value in breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. They have been detected in patients with localised and metastatic pancreatic cancer with sensitivities ranging from 38%-100% using a variety of platforms. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has also been detected in pancreas c...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lewis AR, Valle JW, McNamara MG Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Modulation of microbiota as treatment for intestinal inflammatory disorders: An uptodate.
Abstract Alterations of intestinal microflora may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. There is emerging interest on the role of selective modulation of microflora in inducing benefits in inflammatory intestinal disorders, by as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). To summarize recent evidences on microflora modulation in main intestinal inflammatory disorders, PubMed was searched using terms microbiota, intestinal flora, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal transplantation. More than three hundred articles...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gallo A, Passaro G, Gasbarrini A, Landolfi R, Montalto M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Changes in cellular mechanical properties during onset or progression of colorectal cancer.
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) development represents a multistep process starting with specific mutations that affect proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. These mutations confer a selective growth advantage to colonic epithelial cells that form first dysplastic crypts, and then malignant tumours and metastases. All these steps are accompanied by deep mechanical changes at the cellular and the tissue level. A growing consensus is emerging that such modifications are not merely a by-product of the malignant progression, but they could play a relevant role in the cancer onset and accelerate its progression...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ciasca G, Papi M, Minelli E, Palmieri V, De Spirito M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Multisciplinary management of patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer.
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been till now the main therapeutic strategies for disease control and improvement of the overall survival. Twenty-five per cent (25%) of CRC patients have clinically detectable liver metastases at the initial diagnosis and approximately 50% develop liver metastases during their disease course. Twenty-thirty per cent (20%-30%) are CRC patients with metastases confined to the liver. Some years ago various studies showed a curative potential for liver metastases resection. For this reason...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: De Greef K, Rolfo C, Russo A, Chapelle T, Bronte G, Passiglia F, Coelho A, Papadimitriou K, Peeters M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Integrated approach to colorectal anastomotic leakage: Communication, infection and healing disturbances.
Abstract Colorectal anastomotic leakage (CAL) remains a major complication after colorectal surgery. Despite all efforts during the last decades, the incidence of CAL has not decreased. In this review, we summarize the available strategies regarding prevention, prediction and intervention of CAL and categorize them into three categories: communication, infection and healing disturbances. These three major factors actively interact during the onset of CAL. We aim to provide an integrated approach to CAL based on its etiology. The intraoperative air leak test, intraoperative endoscopy, radiological examinations and ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sparreboom CL, Wu ZQ, Ji JF, Lange JF Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Transient elastography (FibroScan( ®)) with controlled attenuation parameter in the assessment of liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Where do we stand?
Transient elastography (FibroScan(®)) with controlled attenuation parameter in the assessment of liver steatosis and fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Where do we stand? World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Aug 28;22(32):7236-51 Authors: Mikolasevic I, Orlic L, Franjic N, Hauser G, Stimac D, Milic S Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, the routinely used modalities are unable to adequately determine the levels of steatosis and fibrosis (laboratory tests and ultrasonography) or cannot be applied as ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mikolasevic I, Orlic L, Franjic N, Hauser G, Stimac D, Milic S Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Supportive therapies for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and preservation of liver function.
In this study, from the perspective of supportive therapy for the prevention of HCC recurrence and preservation of liver function in HCC patients, we surveyed a variety of different therapeutic agents. We show that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation and late evening snack with BCAA, strategies that address issues of protein-energy malnutrition, are important for liver cirrhotic patients with HCC. For chemoprevention of HCC recurrence, we show that viral control after radical treatment is important. We also reviewed the therapeutic potential of antiviral drugs, sorafenib, peretinoin, iron chelators. Sorafenib...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Takami T, Yamasaki T, Saeki I, Matsumoto T, Suehiro Y, Sakaida I Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Current hepatitis B virus infection situation in Indonesia and its genetic diversity.
Abstract Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children. Although limited information is available for an analysis of occult HBV inf...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lusida MI, Juniastuti, Yano Y Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Perspectives on the combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy with DNA repair inhibitors in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Abstract Pancreatic cancer is highly lethal. Current research that combines radiation with targeted therapy may dramatically improve prognosis. Cancerous cells are characterized by unstable genomes and activation of DNA repair pathways, which are indicated by increased phosphorylation of numerous factors, including H2AX, ATM, ATR, Chk1, Chk2, DNA-PKcs, Rad51, and Ku70/Ku80 heterodimers. Radiotherapy causes DNA damage. Cancer cells can be made more sensitive to the effects of radiation (radiosensitization) through inhibition of DNA repair pathways. The synergistic effects, of two or more combined non-lethal treatme...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yang SH, Kuo TC, Wu H, Guo JC, Hsu C, Hsu CH, Tien YW, Yeh KH, Cheng AL, Kuo SH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Management of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis: Review and update at 2016.
Abstract Portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is a common phenomenon in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Compared to HCC without PVTT, HCC with PVTT is characterized by an aggressive disease course, worse hepatic function, a higher chance of complications related to portal hypertension and poorer tolerance to treatment. Conventionally, HCC with PVTT is grouped together with metastatic HCC during the planning of its management, and most patients are offered palliative treatment with sorafenib or other systemic agents. As a result, most data on the management of HCC with PVTT comes from subgroup analyses or retrospect...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chan SL, Chong CC, Chan AW, Poon DM, Chok KS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Pancreatic cancer: Open or minimally invasive surgery?
Abstract Pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma is one of the most fatal malignancies, with R0 resection remaining the most important part of treatment of this malignancy. However, pancreatectomy is believed to be one of the most challenging procedures and R0 resection remains the only chance for patients with pancreatic cancer to have a good prognosis. Some surgeons have tried minimally invasive pancreatic surgery, but the short- and long-term outcomes of pancreatic malignancy remain controversial between open and minimally invasive procedures. We collected comparative data about minimally invasive and open pancreatic su...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhang YH, Zhang CW, Hu ZM, Hong DF Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Technical advances in external radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract Radiotherapy techniques have substantially improved in the last two decades. After the introduction of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, radiotherapy has been increasingly used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Currently, more advanced techniques, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR), and charged particle therapy, are used for the treatment of HCC. IMRT can escalate the tumor dose while sparing the normal tissue even though the tumor is large or located near critical organs. SABR can deliver a very high radiation dose to s...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Park SH, Kim JC, Kang MK Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Protein and gene expression characteristics of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: The different alternative transcript variants of HNRNPH1 exhibited different expression changes during tumorigenesis. Its mRNA and protein were overexpressed in ESCC and associated with poorer differentiation of tumor cells. These findings highlight the potential of HNRNPH1 in the therapy and diagnosis of ESCC. PMID: 27621578 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sun YL, Liu F, Liu F, Zhao XH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Effects of sleeve gastrectomy with jejuno-jejunal or jejuno-ileal loop on glycolipid metabolism in diabetic rats.
CONCLUSION: SG combined with intestinal loop induces better glycolipid metabolism than simple SG, with the lipid metabolism being more improved with SG-JI compared to SG-JJ. PMID: 27621579 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zhong MW, Liu SZ, Zhang GY, Zhang X, Hu SY Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Synergistic anticancer effect of exogenous wild-type p53 gene combined with 5-FU in human colon cancer resistant to 5-FU in vivo.
CONCLUSION: 5-FU combined with rAd-p53 has a synergistic anticancer effect in SW480/5-FU (5-FU resistance), which contributes to reversal of 5-FU resistance. PMID: 27621580 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xie Q, Wu MY, Zhang DX, Yang YM, Wang BS, Zhang J, Xu J, Zhong WD, Hu JN Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Effects of different diets on intestinal microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development.
CONCLUSION: Compared with the high-protein diet, the NAFLD-inducing effects of high-fat and high-sugar diets are independent from calories, and may be associated with changed intestinal microbiota. PMID: 27621581 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Liu JP, Zou WL, Chen SJ, Wei HY, Yin YN, Zou YY, Lu FG Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in young, average risk individuals: A turning tide between East and West.
CONCLUSION: The higher rate of colorectal neoplasia in Asian populations requires further investigation and reconsideration as to the starting age of screening in that population. PMID: 27621582 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Leshno A, Moshkowitz M, David M, Galazan L, Neugut AI, Arber N, Santo E Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Carbon dioxide insufflation in esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection reduces mediastinal emphysema: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.
CONCLUSION: CO2 insufflation during esophageal ESD significantly reduced postprocedural ME. CO2 insufflation also reduced the volume of residual gas in the digestive tract immediately after ESD, but not the VAS scores of pain and distention. PMID: 27621583 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maeda Y, Hirasawa D, Fujita N, Ohira T, Harada Y, Yamagata T, Koike Y, Suzuki K Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Does massive intraabdominal free gas require surgical intervention?
We describe a rare case of an 81-year-old man who presented with severe epigastralgia. A chest radiograph showed massive free gas bilaterally in the diaphragmatic spaces. Computed tomography (CT) scan also showed massive free gas in the peritoneal cavity with portal venous gas. We used a wait-and-see approach and carefully considered surgery again when the time was appropriate. The patient received conservative therapy with fasting, an intravenous infusion of antibiotics, and nasogastric intubation. The patient soon recovered and was able to start eating meals 4 d after treatment; thus, surgical intervention was avoided. T...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 28, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Furihata T, Furihata M, Ishikawa K, Kosaka M, Satoh N, Kubota K Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA from hepatocytes as a ligand for TLR9: Drivers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis?
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide, affecting approximately one third of the Western world. It consists of a wide spectrum of liver disorders, ranging from fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which consists of steatosis, ballooning injury and inflammation. Despite an alarming growth in the statistics surrounding NAFLD, there are as yet no effective therapies for its treatment. Innate immune signaling has been thought to play a significant role in initiating and augmenting hepatic inflammation, contributing to the transition from nonalcoholic...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Handa P, Vemulakonda A, Kowdley KV, Uribe M, Méndez-Sánchez N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Endoscopic and non-endoscopic approaches for the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding.
Abstract Pelvic radiation is a commonly utilized treatment for malignancy of the genitourinary and lower gastrointestinal tract. Radiation proctitis and the resultant clinical picture varies from asymptomatic to potentially life threatening. Similarly, treatment options also vary greatly, from medical therapy to surgical intervention. Commonly utilized medical therapy includes sucralfate enemas, antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives, probiotics, antioxidants, short-chain fatty acids, formalin instillation and fractionated hyperbaric oxygen. More invasive treatments include endoscopic-based, focally ablati...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Weiner JP, Wong AT, Schwartz D, Martinez M, Aytaman A, Schreiber D Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

FOLFIRINOX and translational studies: Towards personalized therapy in pancreatic cancer.
Abstract Pancreatic cancer is an extremely aggressive disease; although progress has been made in the last few years, the prognosis of these patients remains dismal. FOLFIRINOX is now considered a standard treatment in first-line setting, since it demonstrated an improved overall and progression-free survival vs gemcitabine alone. However, the enthusiasm over the benefit of this three-drug regimen is tempered by the associated increased toxicity profile, and many efforts have been made to improve the feasibility of this schedule. After a more recent phase III trial showing an improved outcome over gemcitabine, the...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Caparello C, Meijer LL, Garajova I, Falcone A, Le Large TY, Funel N, Kazemier G, Peters GJ, Vasile E, Giovannetti E Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Abenavoli L, Milic N, Di Renzo L, Preveden T, Medić-Stojanoska M, De Lorenzo A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Roles of hepatocyte nuclear factors in hepatitis B virus infection.
Abstract Approximately 350 million people are estimated to be persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. HBV maintains persistent infection by employing covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), a template for all HBV RNAs. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are currently treated with nucleos(t)ide analogs such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, and tenofovir. However, these treatments rarely cure CHB because they are unable to inhibit cccDNA transcription and inhibit only a late stage in the HBV life cycle (the reverse transcription step in the nucleocapsid). Therefore, an understanding of the ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kim DH, Kang HS, Kim KH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Hepatitis E: Discovery, global impact, control and cure.
Abstract Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations, transmitted through sullied water and happens most every now in young adults. The disease is particularly severe ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS, Khuroo NS Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of targeting acinar cell reprogramming in pancreatic cancer.
Abstract Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treating this life-threatening disease remains challenging due to the lack of effective prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Apart from pancreatic duct cells, acinar cells may also be the origin of PDAC. During pancreatitis or combined with activating KRas(G12D) mutation, acinar cells lose their cellular identity and undergo a transdifferentiation process called acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia (ADM), forming duct cells which may then transform into pancreatic intraepithelial ne...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wong CH, Li YJ, Chen YC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Research progress on chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals on colorectal cancer and their mechanisms.
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a type of cancer with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide and has become a global health problem. The conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimen for CRC not only has a low cure rate but also causes side effects. Many studies have shown that adequate intake of fruits and vegetables in the diet may have a protective effect on CRC occurrence, possibly due to the special biological protective effect of the phytochemicals in these foods. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that phytochemicals play strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-can...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yin TF, Wang M, Qing Y, Lin YM, Wu D Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Weight loss endoscopy: Development, applications, and current status.
Abstract Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to ach...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kumar N Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Nanovectors for anti-cancer drug delivery in the treatment of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Abstract Liposome, albumin and polymer polyethylene glycol are nanovector formulations successfully developed for anti-cancer drug delivery. There are significant differences in pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity between pre- and post-nanovector modification. The alteration in clinical pharmacology is instrumental for the future development of nanovector-based anticancer therapeutics. We have reviewed the results of clinical studies and translational research in nanovector-based anti-cancer therapeutics in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, including nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel and nanoliposomal ir...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hsueh CT, Selim JH, Tsai JY, Hsueh CT Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Application of stapling devices in liver surgery: Current status and future prospects.
Abstract The liver is a vascular-rich solid organ. Safe and effective dissection of the vessels and liver parenchyma, and control of intraoperative bleeding are the main concerns when performing liver resection. Several studies have confirmed that intraoperative blood loss and postoperative transfusion are predictors of postoperative morbidity and mortality in liver surgery. Various methods and instruments have been developed during hepatectomy. Stapling devices are crucial for safe and rapid anastomosis. They are used to divide hepatic veins and portal branches, and to transect liver parenchyma in open liver rese...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yao DB, Wu SD Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Current understanding concerning intestinal stem cells.
Abstract In mammals, the intestinal epithelium is a tissue that contains two distinct pools of stem cells: active intestinal stem cells and reserve intestinal stem cells. The former are located in the crypt basement membrane and are responsible for maintaining epithelial homeostasis under intact conditions, whereas the latter exhibit the capacity to facilitate epithelial regeneration after injury. These two pools of cells can convert into each other, maintaining their quantitative balance. In terms of the active intestinal stem cells, their development into functional epithelium is precisely controlled by the foll...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cui S, Chang PY Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Comparative effects of α2δ-1 ligands in mouse models of colonic hypersensitivity.
CONCLUSION: This preclinical study demonstrates α2δ-1 ligands efficacy on inflammation-associated CHS, highlighting their potential clinical interest in patients with chronic abdominal pain and moderate intestinal inflammation. PMID: 27610021 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Meleine M, Boudieu L, Gelot A, Muller E, Lashermes A, Matricon J, Silberberg C, Theodorou V, Eschalier A, Ardid D, Carvalho FA Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Computer-aided texture analysis combined with experts' knowledge: Improving endoscopic celiac disease diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: The overall classification performance of medical experts, especially less experienced experts, can be boosted significantly by integrating expert knowledge into computer-aided diagnosis systems. PMID: 27610022 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gadermayr M, Kogler H, Karla M, Merhof D, Uhl A, Vécsei A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Development of a human rotavirus induced diarrhea model in Chinese mini-pigs.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that we have established a mini-pig model of HRV induced diarrhea. Our findings are useful for the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of HRV infection. PMID: 27610023 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Li JT, Wei J, Guo HX, Han JB, Ye N, He HY, Yu TT, Wu YZ Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in esophagus: Early alteration during carcinogenesis and prognostic value.
CONCLUSION: Expression of CHRNs is homogeneous along healthy esophagus and deregulated in ESCC, suggesting a pathogenic role for these receptors in ESCC development and progression. PMID: 27610024 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Chianello Nicolau M, Pinto LF, Nicolau-Neto P, de Pinho PR, Rossini A, de Almeida Simão T, Soares Lima SC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Prognostic significance of computed tomography-detected extramural vascular invasion in colon cancer.
CONCLUSION: ctEMVI may be helpful when evaluating disease progression in colon cancer patients. PMID: 27610025 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yao X, Yang SX, Song XH, Cui YC, Ye YJ, Wang Y Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus related fatal duodenal diverticular bleeding: Case report and literature review.
Abstract Involvement of gastrointestinal tract by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is common. CMV infections mainly run their course without any clinical signs in immunocompetent hosts. In contrast, CMV can cause severe infections with serious consequences in a immunocompromised state typically associated with organ transplants, highly immunosuppressive cancer chemotherapy, advanced HIV infection or treatment with corticosteroids. The incidence and severity of these manifestations of CMV is directly proportional with the degree of cellular immune dysfunction, i.e., CD8+ Cytotoxic T-cell response. Clinical manifestations of C...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Makker J, Bajantri B, Sakam S, Chilimuri S Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of triglyceride metabolism in patients with bile acid diarrhea.
Abstract Bile acids (BAs) are essential for the absorption of lipids. BA synthesis is inhibited through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity. BA sequestration is known to influence BA metabolism and control serum lipid concentrations. Animal data has demonstrated a regulatory role for the FXR in triglyceride metabolism. FXR inhibits hepatic lipogenesis by inhibiting the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c via small heterodimer primer activity. Conversely, FXR promotes free fatty acids oxidation by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. FXR can red...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sagar NM, McFarlane M, Nwokolo C, Bardhan KD, Arasaradnam RP Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Systematic review of the old and new concepts in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer.
This article focuses on the IHC quantification of the EMT, the immunoprofile of tumor buds and on the relation between EMT, angiogenesis, and stem cells activation. The EMT-induced chemoresistance vs chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced EMT and cellular senescence was also synthesized for both conventional and targeted therapy. As a future perspective, the EMT-angiogenesis-stemness link could be used as a possible valuable parameter for clinical follow-up and targeted therapeutic oncologic management of patients with CRC. Association of dexamethasone and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors combined with conventional ...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gurzu S, Silveanu C, Fetyko A, Butiurca V, Kovacs Z, Jung I Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment.
Abstract Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processe...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Lazăr DC, Tăban S, Cornianu M, Faur A, Goldiş A Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma: Insights into cytokine gene polymorphisms.
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer, which is one of the most prevalent cancers among humans. Many factors are involved in the liver carcinogenesis as lifestyle and environmental factors. Hepatitis virus infections are now recognized as the chief etiology of HCC; however, the precise mechanism is still enigmatic till now. The inflammation triggered by the cytokine-mediated immune response, was reported to be the closest factor of HCC development. Cytokines are immunoregulatory proteins produced by immune cells, functioning as orchestrators of the immune response. Genes of cytokines an...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Dondeti MF, El-Maadawy EA, Talaat RM Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Management of gastric and duodenal neuroendocrine tumors.
Abstract Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, like all NETs. However, the incidence of GI-NETS has been increasing in recent years. Gastric NETs (G-NETs) and duodenal NETs (D-NETs) are the common types of upper GI-NETs based on tumor location. G-NETs are classified into three distinct subgroups: type I, II, and III. Type I G-NETs, which are the most common subtype (70%-80% of all G-NETs), are associated with chronic atrophic gastritis, including autoimmune gastritis and Helicobacter pylori associated atrophic gastritis. Type II G-NETs (5%-6%) are associated with multiple endoc...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sato Y, Hashimoto S, Mizuno K, Takeuchi M, Terai S Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer.
Abstract Peritoneal dissemination represents a devastating form of gastric cancer (GC) progression with a dismal prognosis. There is no effective therapy for this condition. The 5-year survival rate of patients with peritoneal dissemination is 2%, even including patients with only microscopic free cancer cells without macroscopic peritoneal nodules. The mechanism of peritoneal dissemination of GC involves several steps: detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor, survival in the free abdominal cavity, attachment to the distant peritoneum, invasion into the subperitoneal space and proliferation with angiogen...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kanda M, Kodera Y Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Cancer-associated fibroblasts in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Abstract The hepatic stellate cells in the liver are stimulated sustainably by chronic injury of the hepatocytes, activating myofibroblasts, which produce abundant collagen. Myofibroblasts are the major source of extracellular proteins during fibrogenesis, and may directly, or secreted products, contribute to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the components of the tumor microenvironment that promote the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells by secreting various growth factors and cytokines. CAFs crosstalk with cancer cells stimulates tumor progression by cre...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kubo N, Araki K, Kuwano H, Shirabe K Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Radiotherapy as valid modality for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis.
Abstract Although the current standard treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is sorafenib, many previous studies have established the need for a reliable local modality for PVTT control, which is a major cause of liver function deterioration and metastasis. Additionally, there is growing evidence for the prognostic significance of PVTT classification according to the location of tumor thrombosis. Favorable outcomes can be obtained by applying local modalities, including surgery or transarterial chemoembolization, especially in second-order or distal branch PVTT. Rapi...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yu JI, Park HC Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Childhood constipation as an emerging public health problem.
This article highlights the potential public health impact of FC and the possibility of overcoming this problem by concentrating on modifiable risk factors rather than expending resources on high cost investigations and therapeutic modalities. PMID: 27570423 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rajindrajith S, Devanarayana NM, Crispus Perera BJ, Benninga MA Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of drug resistance in colon cancer and its therapeutic strategies.
Abstract Drug resistance develops in nearly all patients with colon cancer, leading to a decrease in the therapeutic efficacies of anticancer agents. This review provides an up-to-date summary on over-expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and evasion of apoptosis, two representatives of transport-based and non-transport-based mechanisms of drug resistance, as well as their therapeutic strategies. Different ABC transporters were found to be up-regulated in colon cancer, which can facilitate the efflux of anticancer drugs out of cancer cells and decrease their therapeutic effects. Inhibition of ABC t...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hu T, Li Z, Gao CY, Cho CH Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent an...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Yao H, Qiao YJ, Zhao YL, Tao XF, Xu LN, Yin LH, Qi Y, Peng JY Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Chinese expert consensus on cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal malignancies.
Abstract Locoregional spread of abdominopelvic malignant tumors frequently results in peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). The prognosis of PC patients treated by conventional systemic chemotherapy is poor, with a median survival of < 6 mo. However, over the past three decades, an integrated treatment strategy of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) + hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed by the pioneering oncologists, with proved efficacy and safety in selected patients. Supported by several lines of clinical evidence from phases I, II and III clinical trials, CRS + HIPEC has been regarded a...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Li Y, Zhou YF, Liang H, Wang HQ, Hao JH, Zhu ZG, Wan DS, Qin LX, Cui SZ, Ji JF, Xu HM, Wei SZ, Xu HB, Suo T, Yang SJ, Xie CH, Yang XJ, Yang GL Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Evaluation of anti-migration properties of biliary covered self-expandable metal stents.
CONCLUSION: RF was an important anti-migration property when the C-SEMS did not fully expand. Once fully expanded, stent flare structure variables plays an important role in anti-migration. PMID: 27570427 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - August 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Minaga K, Kitano M, Imai H, Harwani Y, Yamao K, Kamata K, Miyata T, Omoto S, Kadosaka K, Sakurai T, Nishida N, Kudo M Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research