Inflammation Inflammation RSS feedThis is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.

This page shows you the latest items in this publication.

Enhanced p62 Is Responsible for Mitochondrial Pathway-Dependent Apoptosis and Interleukin-1 β Production at the Early Phase by Monosodium Urate Crystals in Murine Macrophage
AbstractThe aim of this study was to clarify the role of p62-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in the initiation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in macrophages. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by MSU crystals was measured using western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, or PARP1, and by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting was applied to detect ubiquitination of p62, TRAF6, and caspase-9. Mitochondrial apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell proliferat...
Source: Inflammation - September 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Dexamethasone and L -NAME on Acute Lung Injury in Rats with Lung Contusion
AbstractThe therapeutic efficiency of an anti-inflammatory agent, dexamethasone (DXM), and a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), in lung tissue injury after lung contusion was investigated. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), YKL-40, an inflammatory peptide, inducible NOS (iNOS), and Clara cell protein 16 (CC-16) were evaluated. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed, and the lung tissue was examined histopathologically. The study consisted of eight groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group), weighing 250–300 g:...
Source: Inflammation - September 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-142-3p Inhibits Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Inflammation in Osteoarthritis by Targeting HMGB1
In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of miR-142-3p in OA and the underlying molecular mechanism. We showed that miR-142-3p was significantly reduced in the articular cartilage tissues from experimental OA mice. The expression of miR-142-3p was also decreased in chondrocytes treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)in vitro. Moreover, the overexpression of miR-142-3p significantly inhibited cell apoptosis, nuclear factor (NF)-kB, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α induced by LPS. Interestingly, bioinformatics analysis demo...
Source: Inflammation - September 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidative Effects of Dexpanthenol  on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
AbstractThe aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dexpanthenol in a model of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Lung injury was induced by exposure to atomized LPS. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group; Dxp (500  mg/kg) group; LPS group; LPS + Dxp (500 mg/kg) group. The effects of dexpanthenol on LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment, cytokine levels, total protein concentration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) contents were examined. Additional ly, lung tissue was examined by histology to investigat...
Source: Inflammation - September 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Molecular Hydrogen and Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid on Paraquat-Induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and TNF- α in Macrophages
AbstractThe aim of this study is to investigate the effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on paraquat (PQ)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) in macrophages. First, the PQ optimal concentration was determined in RAW264.7 macrophage by treating serum-starved cells with PQ at 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mM. We evaluated at 1, 2 and 8 h (1) cell viability (by means of trypan blue exclusion method), (2) intracellular ROS levels (with a fluorescent DCFH-DA probe), and (3) TNF-α level in t...
Source: Inflammation - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Paeonol Suppresses Neuroinflammatory Responses in LPS-Activated Microglia Cells
AbstractIn this work, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of paeonol (PAE) in LPS-activated N9 microglia cells, as well as its underlying molecular mechanisms. PAE had no adverse effect on the viability of murine microglia N9 cell line within a broad range (0.12 ∼75 μM). When N9 cell line was activated by LPS, PAE (0.6, 3, 15 μM) significantly suppressed the release of proinflammatory products, such as nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), demonstrated by the ELISA assay. Moreover, the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (CO X-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were signifi...
Source: Inflammation - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Novel Piperazino-Enaminones Suppress Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Inhibit Chemokine Receptor CCR2
AbstractPro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-alpha, IL-6, and nitric oxide are important for the regulation of the immune response when an infection is present, but when overproduced, it can be responsible for the development of tissue and organ injury seen in sepsis, as well as severe asthma, and autoimmune diseases such as Crohn ’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Data from our lab to characterize the novel compound enaminone E121 have suggested that macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release significantly decreased levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as ...
Source: Inflammation - September 10, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Eosinophilic and Non-eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps
In conclusion, NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway played a pro-inflammatory role in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP, especially in ECRSwNP. NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway was augmented by LPS, but suppressed by glyburide. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 10, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Caveolin-1 Promotes the Imbalance of Th17/Treg in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
We examined the expressions of plasma Cav-1 and circulating Th17, Treg cells, and the related cytokines in patients with COPD. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses showed a significant reduction of plasma Cav-1 levels in patients with stable COPD (SCOPD) and acutely exacerbated COPD (AECOPD) compared to smokers without COPD. This loss was associated with an increase in frequency of Treg and decreased in frequency of Th17 cells. To further identify the role of Cav-1, we studied the effects of Cav-1 overexpression or downregulation on frequencies of Treg and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM...
Source: Inflammation - September 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Maresin 1 Maintains the Permeability of Lung Epithelial Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
AbstractPrevious reports showed that Maresin 1 (MaR1) possessed organ protection effects and could attenuate acute lung injury. Here, we aim to figure out whether MaR1 can maintain the permeability of lung epithelial cells by regulating the expression of tight junction protein during lung injury. Monolayer of murine lung epithelial cells was stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without MaR1 and the permeability was evaluated. The expression of Claudin-1 and ZO-1 in lung epithelial cells was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. MaR1 was given to the mice after LPS induced acute lung injury...
Source: Inflammation - September 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Macrophage Depletion Impairs Skeletal Muscle Regeneration: the Roles of Pro-fibrotic Factors, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress
AbstractMuscle contusion is one of the most common muscle injuries in sports medicine. Macrophages play complex roles in the regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, the roles of macrophages, especially the mechanisms involved, in the regeneration of muscle contusion are still not fully understood. We hypothesize that the depletion of macrophages impairs skeletal muscle regeneration and that pro-fibrotic factors, inflammation, and oxidative stress may be involved in the process. To test these hypotheses, we constructed a muscle contusion injury and a macrophage depletion model and followed it up with morphological and gen...
Source: Inflammation - September 7, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Asiatic Acid Against Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats
AbstractThe biological effects of asiatic acid (AA) on spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) have not been investigated. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of AA on SCI-induced ALI. One-hundred and fifty Sprague –Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, SCI, SCI + dexamethasone (Dex, 2 mg/kg), SCI + AA (30 mg/kg), and SCI + AA (75 mg/kg). The influences of AA on histologic changes, pulmonary edema, neutrophil infiltration and activation, proinflammatory cytokine production, oxidative stress, and Nrf2 and NLRP3 inflammasome protein ex...
Source: Inflammation - September 7, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibiting HMGB1 Reduces Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Mice
We examined HMGB1 levels following cerebral I/R injury in DM and non-DM mice and evaluated the influence of altered HMGB1 levels on the severity of cerebral injury. Serum HMGB1 levels and the inflammatory factors IL-1 β, IL-6, and inflammation-related enzyme iNOS were significantly elevated in DM mice with brain I/R compared with non-DM mice with brain I/R. Blocking HMGB1 function by intraperitoneal injection of anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibodies reversed the inflammatory response and the extent of brain damage, suggesting that HMGB1 plays an important role in cerebral ischemic stroke in diabetic mice. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of Phospholipid Transfer Protein on Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced IL-8 Production in Human Pulmonary Epithelial Cells
AbstractTo investigate the effect of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) on the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human pulmonary epithelial cells, male Wistar rats were exposed to air and cigarette smoke (n = 10/exposure) for 6 h/day on three consecutive days. Their lungs were sectioned and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) examined. The expression of PLTP and IL-8 in the lung was detected immunohistochemically. Lung injury was accompanied by the upregulation of PLTP and IL-8 in the CSE-exposed rat model, and the number of white blood cells in the BALF was significantly in...
Source: Inflammation - September 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Activated CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Proportions in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
AbstractThe goal of this study was to trace the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) by evaluating the lymphocyte subpopulation counts and the levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell activation using flow cytometry. Samples obtained from healthy subjects (N = 40) and patients with MS (N = 290) were analyzed. Lymphocytes were labeled for the surface markers CD4+, CD8+, CD3+, CD16+, CD19+, CD45+, and CD53+ and the activation marker HLA-DR+. Cell counts were then determined using flow cytometry. A high degree of inter-individual variability was observed in the counts of all lymph ocyte subtypes in the MS group. A significantly lo...
Source: Inflammation - September 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Attenuates Seawater Instillation-Induced Acute Lung Injury via the Nrf2 Pathway in Rabbits
This study investigated the effect of hydrogen gas on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury and explored the mechanisms involved. Rabbits were randomly assigned to control, hydrogen (2  % hydrogen gas inhalation), seawater (3 mL/kg seawater instillation), and seawater + hydrogen (3 mL/kg seawater instillation + 2 % hydrogen gas inhalation) groups. Arterial partial oxygen pressure and lung wet/dry weight ratio were detected. Protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF) and serum as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin st...
Source: Inflammation - September 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Salubrinal Suppresses IL-17-Induced Upregulation of MMP-13 and Extracellular Matrix Degradation Through the NF-kB Pathway in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells
This study examined the effect of IL-17 on the regulation of MMP-13 and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intervertebral disc (IVD). We then examined whether salubrinal, a known inhibitor of eIF2 α dephosphorylation, inhibited the IL-17-induced changes mentioned above. Furthermore, we demonstrated a potential therapeutic role for salubrinal in alleviating the chronic inflammatory-dependent degenerative state commonly observed in IDD. After inflammatory distress with IL-17, RT-PCR and wester n blot were employed to investigate the expression of MMP-13, collagen type II (COL2A1), collagen type I (COL1A1), and aggrecan (...
Source: Inflammation - September 3, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contributory Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Not Conditioned Media, On Ovalbumin-Induced Asthmatic Changes in Male Rats
ABSTRACTOur aim in selecting an appropriate cell fraction and conditioned media (CM) was to achieve the suitable candidate for ameliorating long-term chronic asthmatic changes of respiratory tract. Thirty-six rats were classified into healthy and sensitized groups, which were further divided into three subgroups; rats received systemically 50  μl volume of PBS, CM, or 2 × 106 rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs). Tracheal responsiveness (TR), immunologic responses, and recruitment of rBMMSCs into the lungs were evaluated. A high degree of TR and total WBC and percentages of eosinophils and neutro...
Source: Inflammation - September 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Aptamers Targeting Immune System
AbstractThe immune system plays important role in protecting the organism by recognizing non-self molecules from pathogen such as bacteria, parasitic worms, and viruses. When the balance of the host defense system is disturbed, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and inflammation occur. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA ligands that interact with complementary molecules with high specificity and affinity. Aptamers that target the molecules involved in immune system to modulate their function have great potential to be explored as new diagnostic and therapeutic agents for immune disorders. This ...
Source: Inflammation - September 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effects of Resveratrol in a Mouse Model of LPS and Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD
This study was designed to examine whether resveratrol exerts the protective effects on LPS and cigarette smoke (LC)-induced COPD in a murine model. In lung histopathological studies, H&E, Masson ’s trichrome, and AB-PAS staining were performed. The cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, TGF-β, and TNF-α) and inflammatory cells in BALF were determined. The Beclin1 level in the lungs of mouse was analyzed. Compared with the LC-induced mouse, the level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β) of the BALF in the resveratrol + cigarette smoke-treated mouse had obviously decreased. Histological examination of th...
Source: Inflammation - September 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Reduced Expression of SARM in Mouse Spleen during Polymicrobial Sepsis
Conclusions These findings suggest that SARM is a potential regulator of sepsis-induced splenocyte apoptosis. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - September 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neougonin A Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses via Downregulation of the NF-kB Signaling Pathway in RAW 264.7 Macrophages
In this study, the pharmacological effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of neougonin A on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses were investigated. We observed that neougonin A reduced the production of inflammatory mediators (TNF α, PGE2, NO, IL-1 β, and IL-6;P <  0.001) and inflammation-related proteins (iNOS and COX-2) induced by LPS in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that neougonin A could inhibit the phosphorylation of IkBα and block the translocation of NF-kB/p65 into the nucleus even at 1.25 μM (P <  0.0...
Source: Inflammation - August 31, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Angelicin on Ovalbumin (OVA)-Induced Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma
In conclusion, our results suggested that angelicin inhibited allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by inhibiting NF-kB activation. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 31, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intravenous Glutamine Administration Modulates TNF- α/IL-10 Ratio and Attenuates NFkB Phosphorylation in a Protein Malnutrition Model
In conclusion, this study shows that GLN has the capacity to reduce TNF-α synthesis as well as to act as a negative regulator of NFkB phosphorylation, leading to a positive outcome in the control of TNF -α production. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 26, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Discovery of New Benzothiazine Derivative as Modulator of Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis
In conclusion, EHP possesses significant anti-arthritic property which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and immunomo dulatory effects. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 25, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Changes in the Levels of Interleukin-17 Between Atopic and Non-atopic Children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia
AbstractAs previous study showed thatMycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) induced a cellular immune response associated with interleukin-17 (IL-17), we designed this study to explore IL-17 in MP pneumonia patients with atopic sensitization and 144 patients were evaluated and divided into three groups: atopic MP pneumonia group (n = 38), non-atopic MP pneumonia group (n = 74), and atopic non-MP pneumonia group (n = 32). Serum IL-17 was measured at admission acute phase and at recovery phase. We found IL-17 levels only in the atopic MP pneumonia group that were significantly higher at recovery phase than at acute phase, an...
Source: Inflammation - August 17, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The P2X 7 Receptor Involved in gp120-Induced Cell Injury in BV2 Microglia
This study was aimed at exploring the effects of P2X7 receptor on BV2 microglia cell injury induced by glycoprotein gp120 (gp120) and its underlying mechanisms. We used the MTS method to study the influence of different gp120 concentrations on BV2 microglia cells, and to test the degree of cell injury in each gp120 treatment group; quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot were used to detect the P2X7 mRNA and receptor protein expressions. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the P2X7 receptor expression and P65 NF- κB, respectively. We also measured the content of TNFα, IL-1β, nitric oxide ...
Source: Inflammation - August 16, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Healthy and Inflamed Gingival Fibroblasts Differ in Their Inflammatory Response to Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide
In conclusion, the resident IGFs do not exhibit LPS tolerance and play an important role in modulating host immune response, which are critical in the immuno pathogenesis of periodontal disease. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Astragaloside IV on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats Via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
In this study, we investigated the effects of astragaloside IV (As-IV) on pulmonary fibrosis and its mechanisms of action. Sprague-Dawley rats were used in a model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BLM). Rats were intraperitoneally injected with As-IV (10, 20, 50  mg/kg) daily for 28 days, while the rats in control and BLM groups were injected with a saline solution. The effects of As-IV treatment on pulmonary injury were evaluated with the lung wet/dry weight ratios, cell counts, and histopathologic. Oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Vitamin A Deficiency Promotes Inflammation by Induction of Type 2 Cytokines in Experimental Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma Murine Model
AbstractVitamin A (VA) deficiency is one of the most common malnutrition conditions. Recent reports showed that VA plays an important role in the immune balance; lack of VA could result in enhanced type 2 immune response characterized by increased type 2 cytokine production and type 2 innate lymphoid cell infiltration and activation. Type 2 immune response plays protective role in anti-infection but plays pathological role in asthmatic disease. In order to investigate the role of VA in the asthmatic disease, we used ovalbumin-induced asthma murine model and observed the pathological changes between mouse-received VA-defici...
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Influence of Radiotherapy on AIM2 Inflammasome in Radiation Pneumonitis
In conclusion, radiotherapy triggered some critical components of AIM2 inflammasome in RP. The activation of AIM2 inflammasome by radiotherapy may contribute to the pathogenesis of RP. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - August 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Polystyrene-Divinylbenzene-Based Adsorbents Reduce Endothelial Activation and Monocyte Adhesion Under Septic Conditions in a Pore Size-Dependent Manner
AbstractEndothelial activation with excessive recruitment and adhesion of immune cells plays a central role in the progression of sepsis. We established a microfluidic system to study the activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by conditioned medium containing plasma from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood or from septic blood and to investigate the effect of adsorption of inflammatory mediators on endothelial activation. Treatment of stimulated whole blood with polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based cytokine adsorbents (average pore sizes 15 or 30  nm) prior to passage over the endothelial layer resulted in...
Source: Inflammation - August 8, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Role of Liriodendrin in Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury
AbstractIn current study, we investigated the role of liriodendrin, a constituent isolated fromSargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehd. Et Wils (Sargentodoxaceae), in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced acute lung inflammatory response and injury (ALI). The inflammatory mediator levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pathologic changes in lung tissues were evaluated via pathological section with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. To investigate the mechanism whereby liriodendrin regulates lung inflammation, the phosphorylation of the NF-kB (p65) an...
Source: Inflammation - August 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Icariine Restores LPS-Induced Bone Loss by Downregulating miR-34c Level
AbstractBacteria-induced inflammatory responses cause excessive bone resorption in chronic inflammatory diseases such as septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and orthopedic implant failure. Icariine has been reported to facilitate the bone healing and reduce the occurrence of osteoporosis in clinical, moreover, laboratory studies which have proved that Icariine promotes the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastsin vitro. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Icariine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone lossvia an osteogenic-in vitro model and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, w...
Source: Inflammation - August 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diosmin Modulates the NF-kB Signal Transduction Pathways and Downregulation of Various Oxidative Stress Markers in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy
AbstractHyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress plays an imperative role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. NF-kB is an important transcription factor in eukaryotes which regulates a diverse array of cellular process, including inflammation, immunological response, apoptosis, growth and development. Increased expression of NF-kB plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases including diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the nephroprotective nature of diosmin by assessing the various biochemical parameters, markers of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cyt...
Source: Inflammation - August 4, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

PGRN Suppresses Inflammation and Promotes Autophagy in Keratinocytes Through the Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
Abstract Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease that has a major impact on patients ’ quality of life. Progranulin (PGRN) is highly expressed in skin diseases and plays an important role in inflammation response and autophagy. However, the function of PGRN in the immune system and autophagy in psoriasis has not been clearly identified and elaborated on. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of PGRN on the inflammatory and autophagy process underlying inflammation in HaCaT cells. We showed that PGRN was markedly highly expressed in psoriasis lesions and inflammatory HaCaT cells. Specif...
Source: Inflammation - July 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Coptisine Prevented IL- β-Induced Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Chondrocytes
Abstract Interleukin 1 β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Coptisine is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Coptidis rhizome and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of co ptisine on interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated chondrocytes have not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coptisine on IL-1β-induced inflammation in human articular chondrocytes. Our results showed that coptisine greatly inhibited the production of ni tric...
Source: Inflammation - July 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

PGRN Suppresses Inflammation and Promotes Autophagy in Keratinocytes Through the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
Abstract Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease that has a major impact on patients’ quality of life. Progranulin (PGRN) is highly expressed in skin diseases and plays an important role in inflammation response and autophagy. However, the function of PGRN in the immune system and autophagy in psoriasis has not been clearly identified and elaborated on. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of PGRN on the inflammatory and autophagy process underlying inflammation in HaCaT cells. We showed that PGRN was markedly highly expressed in psoriasis lesions and inflammatory HaCaT cells...
Source: Inflammation - July 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Effects of Ferulic Acid Against Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Formaldehyde-Induced Hepatotoxicity
This study was designed to elucidate the protective effects of ferulic acid (FA) on formaldehyde-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring some routine biochemical parameters, cytokine levels, and oxidative stress-related parameters in addition to YKL-40 in male Wistar albino rats. Tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Also, serum YKL-40, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin concentrations, and AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH activities were measured. Histological specimens were examined in light ...
Source: Inflammation - July 20, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nanoparticle-Delivered IRF5 siRNA Facilitates M1 to M2 Transition, Reduces Demyelination and Neurofilament Loss, and Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice
ABSTRACT Macrophage activation and persistent inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI), and different phenotypes of macrophages play diverse roles in the pathological process of SCI. After SCI, there is an acute phase of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage infiltration, followed by a long-lasting phase of classically activated (M1) macrophage accumulation in the wound. The long-lasting predominance of M1 macrophages may derail healing and compromise organ functions. Based on the previous findings that the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) up-regulates gen...
Source: Inflammation - July 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Parallel Profiles of Inflammatory and Effector Memory T Cells in Visceral Fat and Liver of Obesity-Associated Cancer Patients
This study reflects similar processes of inflammation and T cell activation in the omentum and liver, and may suggest common targets to modulate pathological inflammation at these sites. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 16, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) Polarizes Both M-CSF- and GM-CSF-Differentiated Macrophages Toward an M1-Like Phenotype
In this study, we characterized the interaction between S. cerevisiae and M1- or M2-like macrophages. M1-like macrophages had a higher yeast uptake capacity than M2-like macrophages, but both cell types internalized opsonized yeast to the same extent. The M1 surface markers HLAII and CD86 were upregulated after yeast uptake in M1- and M2-like macrophages. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-6, increased, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory mediators did not change. These results demonstrate that S. cerevisiae can target both M1 and M2 macrophages, paralleled...
Source: Inflammation - July 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Enhanced p62 is Responsible for Mitochondrial Pathway-Dependent Apoptosis and Interleukin-1β Production at the Early Phase by Monosodium Urate Crystals in Murine Macrophage
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Involvement of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Receptors in Pathogenesis and Inflammatory Response Induced by Alpha-Neurotoxin Bot III of Scorpion Venom
This study aims to elucidate the involvement of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in pathogenesis and inflammatory response triggered by this toxin. Injection of Bot III to animals induces an increase of peroxidase activities, an imbalance of oxidative status, tissue damages in lung parenchyma, and myocardium correlated with metabolic disorders. The pretreatment with nicotine (nicotinic receptor agonist) or atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) protected the animals from almost all disorders caused by Bot III toxin, especially the immunological alterations. Bisoprolol administration (selective β1 adrenergic recepto...
Source: Inflammation - July 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Asiatic Acid Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
In conclusion, AA inhibited LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine production, which is mediated via blocking of the TLR4/NF-kB signaling pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - July 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Astragaloside IV Inhibits the Inflammatory Injury of Chicken Type II Pneumocytes Induced by Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli
Abstract Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) induces septicemia in chickens by invading type II pneumocytes after breaching the blood–air barrier. Type II pneumocytes play an important role in maintaining the function of the blood–air barrier. Astragaloside IV has been shown in previous studies to have an anti-inflammatory effect. To explore whether astragaloside IV can inhibit APEC-induced injury in chicken type II pneumocytes, cells were infected with APEC-O78. The results showed that astragaloside IV significantly reduced cell damage in chicken type II pneumocytes induced by APEC-O78 by downregulating ...
Source: Inflammation - July 9, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Melatonin Alters the Mechanical and Thermal Hyperalgesia Induced by Orofacial Pain Model in Rats
In this study, we evaluated the effect of acute dose of melatonin upon hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant in a chronic orofacial pain model in Sprague–Dawley rats. Nociceptive behavior was assessed by facial Von Frey and the hot plate tests at baseline and thereafter 30, 60, and 120 min, 24 h, and 7 days after melatonin treatment. We demonstrated that acute melatonin administration alters mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia induced by an orofacial pain model (TMD), highlighting that the melatonin effect upon mechanical hyperalgesia remained until 7 days after its administration. Besides, we observed...
Source: Inflammation - July 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Theophylline with Methylprednisolone Combination Therapy on Biomechanics and Histopathology in Diaphragm Muscles of Rats
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of theophylline and methylprednisolone on the mechanical response and histopathology of hemidiaphragm muscle in rats. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of theophylline and methylprednisolone, which are frequently used in clinics and which have different effects on the respiratory system and on the biomechanics and histopathology of the diaphragm muscle. The study included four groups of rats. Group T received 1 mg/kg of intraperitoneal theophylline, group M received 2 mg/kg of intraperitoneal methylprednisolone, group TM re...
Source: Inflammation - July 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hesperidin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation in Mice by Promoting the miRNA-132 Pathway
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside from citrus fruits, produces antidepressant-like effects in both mice and rats. However, whether these effects are mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines remains unknown. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the effects of hesperidin on the depressive-like behavior; the serum corticosterone concentrations; and the interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like mice. In particular, we evaluated the miRNA-132 expression after LPS and hesperid...
Source: Inflammation - July 5, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibiting High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) Attenuates Inflammatory Cytokine Expression and Neurological Deficit in Ischemic Brain Injury Following Cardiac Arrest in Rats
ABSTRACT Cardiac arrest (CA), if untreated for more than 5 min, can induce severe brain damage, the underlying mechanism of which is still unclear. Previous studies have indicated that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein implicated in several inflammatory disorders, is involved in the inflammatory processes following brain ischemia. However, the role of HMGB1 in brain dysfunction after CA is yet to be determined. In a rat CA model, HMGB1 protein expression was higher at 1, 3, and 7 days post-CA, compared to that in naïve and sham-treated rats. Following injection of HMGB1 antibody (anti-HMGB1) ...
Source: Inflammation - June 30, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research