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IL-21 Is Positively Associated with Intervertebral Disc Degeneration by Interaction with TNF- α Through the JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway
This study was conducted in order to investigate the function of IL-21 in intervertebral disc degeneration. The serum concentration of IL-21 in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) was examined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of IL-21, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS-7), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) in degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues of human and rat. Moreover, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were treated with 0, 10, 100, and 1000 ng/mL of IL-21 cytokine with and without AG490. TNF-α, ADAMT...
Source: Inflammation - February 24, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Establishment of a Novel Autoimmune Experimental Model of Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis in C57BL/6 Mice
AbstractThe aim of this study is to identify whether vaccinating twice with bladder homogenate can establish a new model of experimental autoimmune cystitis (EAC) in C57BL/6 strain mice. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with bladder homogenate in complete Freund ’s adjuvant (CFA) and boost immunized with bladder homogenate in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA) after 2 weeks were used as the EAC model. Mice immunized with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in CFA or IFA were used as the control. Micturition habits and suprapubic–pelvic pain threshold wer e measured 4 weeks after primary immunization. Bladder to body weight...
Source: Inflammation - February 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Adenovirus-Mediated Small Interfering RNA Targeting TAK1 Ameliorates Joint Inflammation with Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice
AbstractTransforming growth factor β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is a key upstream kinase in cell signaling during inflammation, which regulates the expression of inflammatory mediators. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against TAK1 offers promise as a potential therapeutic strategy in immune-mediated inflammatory disorder including rheu matoid arthritis. Here, we are to evaluate the therapeutic effects of intra-articular administration of adenoviral-mediated siRNA against TAK1 (ad-siRNA-TAK1) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Ad-siRNA-TAK1 was constructed. The murine RAW 264.7 macrophages were infected with ad-siRN...
Source: Inflammation - February 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A multifunctional alanine-rich anti-inflammatory peptide BCP61 showed potent inhibitory effects by inhibiting both NF- κB and MAPK expression
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of BCP61 on induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. The treatment with BCP61, with varying concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/mL, inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced NF-κB and MAPKs (extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), c -Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and mitogen-activated protein (p38)) as well as production of pro-inflammatory mediators,...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

5-Aminosalicylic Acid Attenuates Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats by Increasing the Expression of Nur77
AbstractThe aim of this study is to investigate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rats and its molecular mechanism. Sixty male Sprague –Dawley rats (250–300 g) were evenly randomized into six groups: control group; PAH group induced by MCT intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg) on day 1; and four PAH groups treated for 30 days from day 2 with 5-ASA at 50 (5-ASA-50 group), 100 (5-ASA-100 group), 150 (5-ASA-150 group), and 200  mg/kg/day (5-ASA-200 group), respectively. Body mass, weight increment, survival rates, pulmonary artery pressur...
Source: Inflammation - February 17, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Emodin, Thymol, and Astragalin on Leptospira interrogans -Induced Inflammatory Response in the Uterine and Endometrium Epithelial Cells of Mice
AbstractLeptospirosis is a systemic infection that causes, among others, acute kidney injury, acute liver disease, muscle pain, vasculitis, bleeding disorders, and reproductive loss. In an effort to reduce uterine inflammatory responses induced byLeptospira, we evaluated the anti-inflammation effects of emodin, thymol, and astragalin in a mouse model. Our results showed that treatment with emodin, thymol, and astragalin alleviated uterine inflammation induced by leptospira infectionvia suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and prevented tissue damage. Furthermore, we used primary endometrium epithelial cells ...
Source: Inflammation - February 16, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diallyl Disulfide Suppresses the Inflammation and Apoptosis Resistance Induced by DCA Through ROS and the NF- κB Signaling Pathway in Human Barrett’s Epithelial Cells
This study investigated whether DADS has chemopreventive effects against BE and the potentially related signaling pathway. BAR-T cells were treated with DCA in the presence or absence of DADS. An MTT assay was used to detect the viability of the cells. The apoptosis rate of the cells was measured by light microscopy and flow cytometry. ROS levels were determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to detect mRNA and protein levels, respectively. The levels of target proteins were also determined by western blot analysis. DADS d id not inhibit cell viability in a certain concentr...
Source: Inflammation - February 14, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-17A Monoclonal Antibody Partly Reverses the Glucocorticoids Insensitivity in Mice Exposed to Ozonec
This study aimed to observe the capacity of anti-murine interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody (IL-17mAb) to reverse ozone-induced glucocorticoid insensitivity and to detect its effects with glucocorticoids in protecting against airway inflammation. After C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone (2.5  ppm; 3 h) for 12 times over 6 weeks, PBS, IL-17mAb (50 ug/ml), dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and combination administration of IL-17mAb (50 ug/ml) and dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally injected into mice at a dose of 0.1 ml, respectively, for 10 times over 5 weeks. At sacrifice, lu ng histology, airway inflammatory ce...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lidocaine against sepsis-induced acute lung injury
AbstractLidocaine (Lido) is reported to suppress inflammatory responses and exhibit a therapeutic effect in models of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) exerts pro-inflammatory effects by enhancing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. However, the precise mechanism by which Lido confers protection against ALI is not clear. ALI was induced in RAGE WT and RAGE knockout (KO) rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operations for 24  h. The results showed that Lido significantly inhibited CLP-induced lung inflammation and histopatholo...
Source: Inflammation - February 13, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Simvastatin Inhibits IL-1 β-Induced Apoptosis and Extracellular Matrix Degradation by Suppressing the NF-kB and MAPK Pathways in Nucleus Pulposus Cells
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of simvastatin on IDD. The viability of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells was determined by the methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The apoptosis of NP cells was measured by flow cytometric analysis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and western blotting of relevant apoptotic proteins. The protein levels of catabolic factors and anabolic factors were determined by western blotting. The cells were stimulated with IL-1β in the absence or pr esence of simvastatin to investigate the effects on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)...
Source: Inflammation - February 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

TIPE2 Inhibits the Expression of Asthma-Related Inflammatory Factors in Hyperstretched Bronchial Epithelial Cells Through the Wnt/ β-Catenin Pathway
In this study, we found that TIPE2 was poorly expressed in hyperstretched human bronchial ep ithelial cells (BEAS-2B). TIPE2 overexpression also significantly suppressed the stretch-induced secretion of asthma-related inflammatory factors (TNF-α, TSLP, MMP-9, and VEGF). In contrast, TIPE2 inhibition significantly promoted the secretion of TNF-α, TSLP, MMP-9, and VEGF. Furthermore, overexp ression of TIPE2 remarkably inhibited the activation of Wnt/β-catenin in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells, while siTIPE2 activated Wnt/β-catenin in hyperstretched BEAS-2B cells. Further analysis showed that the Wnt/β-catenin signal inhib...
Source: Inflammation - February 10, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IRF3 Inhibits Neutrophil Recruitment in Mice Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa
AbstractPseudomonas aeruginosa is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a transcription factor that plays an important role in the immune response to viral infection via the IRF3/IFN- β signaling pathway. Controversial data exist regarding the role of IRF3 in immune cell recruitment during bacterial infections. IRF3 has been shown to promote neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in mice infected withP. aeruginosa by inducing the production of specific chemokines and cytokines. In contrast, our study showed that IRF3 kn...
Source: Inflammation - February 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

BTP2, a Store-Operated Calcium Channel Inhibitor, Attenuates Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats
AbstractLung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a critical complication following a lung transplant, cardiopulmonary bypass, pulmonary embolism, and trauma. Immune cells and their effector functions are involved in the lung I/R injury. Store-operated calcium channels (SOCC) are highly Ca2+-selective cation channels and have crucial effects on the immune system. It has been indicated that BTP2, a potent SOCC blocker, could inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production from immune cells bothin vitro andin vivo. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the beneficial effects of BTP2 on lung I/R injury in Sprague-Da...
Source: Inflammation - February 7, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Plumbagin Prevents IL-1 β-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Osteoarthritis Chondrocytes and Prevents the Progression of Osteoarthritis in Mice
This study aimed to assess the effects of plumbagin on human OA chondrocytes and in a mouse model of OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM).In vitro, human OA chondrocytes were pretreated with plumbagin (2, 5, 10  μM) for 2 h and subsequently stimulated with IL-1β for 24 h. Production of NO, PGE2, MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 was evaluated by the Griess reagent and ELISAs. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of COX-2, iNOS, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, aggrecan, and collagen-II was measured by real-time PCR. The p rotein expression of COX-2, iNOS, p65, p-p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα was detected by Western blot....
Source: Inflammation - February 7, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Picroside II Protects Rat Lung and A549 Cell Against LPS-Induced Inflammation by the NF- κB Pathway
AbstractPicroside II is the main active ingredient in the root department of Chinese medicinePicrorhiza scrophulariiflora which has been proved to have beneficial effects on health, such as ameliorating the cerebral ischemia and protecting the liver. However, its effects on acute lung injury remain unclear. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of picroside II on acute lung injury in mice and the inflammation in A549 cells which are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced. We evaluated the levels of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)in vivo andvitro by enzyme-linked...
Source: Inflammation - February 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

1 α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Ameliorates Seawater Aspiration-Induced Lung Injury By Inhibiting The Translocation Of NF-κB and RhoA
AbstractOur previous study have reported that 1 α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) suppresses seawater aspiration-induced ALIin vitro andin vivo. We also have confirmed that treatment with calcitriol ameliorates seawater aspiration-induced inflammation and pulmonary edemavia the inhibition of NF- κB and RhoA/Rho kinase pathway activation. In our further work, we investigated the effect of calcitriol on nuclear translocation of NF-κB and membrane translocation of RhoAin vitro. A549 cells and rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVECs) were cultured with calcitriol or not for 48  h and then stimulated with...
Source: Inflammation - February 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comment on “Potential Effects of Calcium Binding Protein S100A12 on Severity Evaluation and Curative Effect of Severe Acute Pancreatitis”
(Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - February 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chemokine CXCL13 activates p38 MAPK in the trigeminal ganglion after infraorbital nerve injury
AbstractRecent data demonstrated that chemokine CXCL13 mediates neuroinflammation and contributes to the maintenance of neuropathic pain after nerve injury in the spinal cord. Pro-nociceptive chemokines activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) which are potential signaling pathways contributing to the nociceptive behavior in inflammatory or neuropathic pain. However, whether activation of p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathway in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are involved in CXCL13 and its receptor CXCR5-mediated orofacial pain has not yet been clarified. Here, we show that the unilateral partial infraorbital nerve li...
Source: Inflammation - February 2, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of CCK-8 and Cystathionine γ-Lyase/Hydrogen Sulfide System on Acute Lung Injury in Rats
AbstractAcute lung injury (ALI) is mainly characterized by diffusive injuries to lung epithelium and increased permeability of alveolar-capillary membranes caused by various factors, which leads to pulmonary edema and pulmonary closure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is the main component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, is one of the most important factors causing pulmonary infection and ALI. More and more reports have indicated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is closely correlated with ALI and has anti-inflammation function, while the specific mechanism needs further investigation. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CC...
Source: Inflammation - January 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intranasal Curcumin Inhibits Pulmonary Fibrosis by Modulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in Ovalbumin-Induced Chronic Asthma
AbstractPulmonary fibrosis is associated with irreversible, or partially reversible, airflow obstruction and ultimately unresponsiveness to asthma therapies such as corticosteroids. Intranasal curcumin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, has been found effective in allergic asthma. To study the effect of intranasal curcumin on airway remodeling and fibrosis in murine model of chronic asthma, BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and exposed to OVA aerosol (2%) from day 21 (after sensitization) for 5  weeks (twice/week). Curcumin (intranasal) was administered during the OVA aerosol challenge. Mice exposed to OVA devel...
Source: Inflammation - January 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

NPS2143 Inhibits MUC5AC and Proinflammatory Mediators in Cigarette Smoke Extract (CSE)-Stimulated Human Airway Epithelial Cells
AbstractMucus overproduction is a fundamental hallmark of COPD that is caused by exposure to cigarette smoke. MUC5AC is one of the main mucin genes expressed in the respiratory epithelium, and its transcriptional upregulation often correlates with increased mucus secretion. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of NPS2143, a selective CaSR antagonist on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-stimulated NCI-H292 mucoepidermoid human lung cells. Treatment of NPS2143 significantly inhibited the express...
Source: Inflammation - January 20, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Aptamers Against Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Review
AbstractInflammatory disorders result from continuous inflammation in injured sites. Many molecules are involved in this process; the inhibition of which could prevent the inflammation. Chemokines are a group of these biological mediators which are categorized into pro-, anti-, and pro-/anti-inflammatory. Thus, targeting these essential molecules can be an effective way for prevention and control of inflammatory diseases. Various therapeutic agents have been developed for primary and secondary prevention of these disorders, but each of them has its own limitations. Aptamers, as novel therapeutic agents, are a new generatio...
Source: Inflammation - January 20, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of IL-33 on LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice
The objective of the study is to investigate the role and specific molecular mechanism of interleukin-33 (IL-33) acted on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). C57BL/6 mice intratracheally instilled LPS to induce ALI model. The mice were randomly divided into three groups: the sham operation group (Sham), ALI group (ALI), and pretreatment with IL-33 of ALI group (IL-33). By observing the survival rate, inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in lung tissue, lung histopathological examination, pulmonary capillary leakage, lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ra...
Source: Inflammation - January 20, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Inhibits Peptidoglycan-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Human Dental Pulp Cells
ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and identify the intracellular signaling pathway involved. We investigated the effect of BDNF (50  ng/ml) on interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 expression in peptidoglycan (PGN)-treated HDPCs. An inhibition assay was performed with MAPK or NF-κB inhibitors to determine the possible signaling pathway. IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA, IL-6 and IL-8 protein, and phosphorylated p38 kinase activity were determined usi ng real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blot analysis, respectively. BDNF signifi...
Source: Inflammation - January 20, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Off-Target Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the P2X7 Receptor Antagonist AZ11645373
AbstractWe have found that a well-characterized P2X7 receptor antagonist AZ11645373 blocked production of pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8 in endothelial cells treated with OxPAPC. The effect was not due to toxicity of AZ11645373 as documented by cellular metabolic activity assay. The mechanism of inhibition by AZ11645373 was apparently independent of the P2X7 receptor because this receptor was not involved in induction of IL-8 under our experimental conditions. In support of this notion, two P2X7 agonists ATP and BzATP did not upregulate IL-8. On the other hand, a chemically different P2X7 receptor antagonist A740003 did n...
Source: Inflammation - January 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CDK11p58 Promotes Microglia Activation via Inducing Cyclin D3 Nuclear Localization
In this study, we examined the suppressive effects of CDK11p58 on microglia activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)in vitro. We found that in the activated microglia, the expression of CDK11p58 increased and the overexpression of CDK11p58 could reduce the increased proliferation and CD11b expression in LPS-activated microglia. Such suppressive effects might be resulted from the interaction with cyclin D3 which promoted CDK11p58 nuclear localization. Our results suggested that CDK11p58 acted to regulate microglia activation through CDK11p58 and cyclin D3 interaction. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 18, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibition of DPP-4 Activity and Neuronal Atrophy with Genistein Attenuates Neurological Deficits Induced by Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
This study suggests that genistein has potent neuroprotective activity against global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal injury and consequent neurological deficits in streptozotoci n-induced diabetic mice. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 16, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide
In conclusion, (+)-limonene epoxide inhibited release/activity of inflammatory mediators, vascular permeability, migration of neutrophils and displayed systemic and peripheral analgesic-dependent effects of the opioid system. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - January 16, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of IL-13 Genetic Variants in Signalling of Asthma
AbstractAsthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways characterised by intermittent airway narrowing and airflow obstruction. The aim of this study was to examine the association of IL-13 Arg 130 Gln (A/G) and -1112C/T cytokine gene polymorphisms and to know the secretion of IL-13 cytokine levels and the interactions between the IL-13 130A/G and IL-13R α1/IL-4Rα complex cytokine genes. The study population comprised of atopic and non-atopic asthma patients and healthy controls (HC) (N = 120). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). IL-...
Source: Inflammation - January 12, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of Long-Term Simulated Microgravity on Immune System and Lung Tissues in Rhesus Macaque
AbstractWe evaluated different lymphocyte populations and levels of plasma cytokines in peripheral blood as well as inflammatory infiltration and expressions of cytokines in lung tissues derived from macaque under long-term stimulated microgravity through being suspended in an antiorthostatic position so as to identify relevant immune parameters and to understand potential mechanisms of lung injury. Fifteen healthy male rhesus macaques were randomly divided into groups 1 (control,n = 5), groups 2 (head-down tilting for 6 weeks,n = 5), and groups 3 (head-down tilting for 6 weeks and recovery for 4 weeks,n = 5...
Source: Inflammation - January 9, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Natural Course of Atopic Dermatitis and the Association with Asthma
AbstractIn this paper, we aimed to explore the potential mechanism underlying atopic dermatitis (AD) and its association with asthma. The BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to three groups, including the vehicle control (VD) group, the AD group, and the treatment (TR) group. The AD mice model was successfully constructed in the AD and TR group. The dermatitis severity scores and skin lesions were significantly increased in AD mice after DNCB application. Airway responsiveness in the AD group was significantly higher than in the TR group. The number of inflammatory cells was increased in skin lesions and bronchoalveolar lav...
Source: Inflammation - January 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Pterostilbene Against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats
This study aims to evaluate the role of Gas6/Axl signaling in the protective effects of PTB against MI/R injury. In experiment 1, the rats were subjected to 30  min of ischemia, followed by 3, 6, and 12 h of reperfusion, respectively. In experiment 2, the rats were administered intraperitoneally with PTB or vehicle and subjected to MI/R injury. The results suggested that the expression of Gas6 and Axl decreased significantly after MI/R injury. PTB treatm ent conferred a cardioprotective effect with an improved post-ischemic cardiac function, a reduced myocardial infarct size, and decreased lactate dehydrogenase and creat...
Source: Inflammation - January 4, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

AGEs Decreased SIRT3 Expression and SIRT3 Activation Protected AGEs-Induced EPCs ’ Dysfunction and Strengthened Anti-oxidant Capacity
AbstractAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been confirmed to induce dysfunction in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and play key roles in pathogenesis of diabetes-related vascular complications. The major function of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is to orchestrate oxidative metabolism and control reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which are more closely related to EPCs ’ dysfunction. Our study therefore was designed to explore the role of SIRT3 on AGEs-induced EPCs dysfunction of. EPCs isolated from healthy adults were stimulated with AGEs and the expression of SIRT3 was assessed. Then, EPCs transfected with ad-S...
Source: Inflammation - December 29, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alteration of Lysophosphatidylcholine-Related Metabolic Parameters in the Plasma of Mice with Experimental Sepsis
AbstractPlasma concentration of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was reported to decrease in patients with sepsis. However, the mechanisms of sepsis-induced decrease in plasma LPC levels are not currently well known. In mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of polymicrobial peritoneal sepsis, we examined alterations in LPC-related metabolic parameters in plasma,i.e., the plasma concentration of LPC-related substances (i.e., phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)), and activities or levels in the plasma of some enzymes that can be involved in the regulation of plasma LPC concentration (...
Source: Inflammation - December 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effects of Ezetimibe, Simvastatin, and their Combination on Inflammatory Parameters in a Rat Model of Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis
AbstractStatins are hypocholesterolemic drugs that are prescribed for patients with an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. Ezetimibe has an atheroprotective activity through inhibition of the expression of vascular adhesion molecule-I and vascular CD14, a marker of the infiltration of mononuclear leukocytes. Ezetimibe reduces the amount of chemoattractant protein-1 that is available for monocytes and macrophages and alters the activity of nuclear factor κB in leukocytes. The mechanisms of action of statins complement those of ezetimibe. Previous studies have demonstrated that the combinatio...
Source: Inflammation - December 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Expression of miRNA-155, miRNA-223, miRNA-31, miRNA-21, miRNA-125b, and miRNA-146a in the Inflammatory Pathway of Hidradenitis Suppurativa
AbstractHidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has been associated with marked inflammatory perturbation. The mechanisms regulating the inflammatory network remain elusive. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been described as gene regulators of inflammation. We evaluated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of six selected inflammation-related miRNAs in lesional and perilesional skin samples of HS patients and in healthy controls. Samples of 15 HS patients and 10 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. Expression levels of the miRNAs miRNA-155-5p, miRNA-223-5p, miRNA-31-5p, miRNA-21-5p, miRNA-125b-5p, and miRNA-146a-5p...
Source: Inflammation - December 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dimethyl Sulfoxide Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Hemorrhagic Shock/Resuscitation in Rats
AbstractInflammation following hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation (HS/RES) induces acute lung injury (ALI). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities. We sought to clarify whether DMSO could attenuate ALI induced by HS/RES. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to receive either a sham operation, sham plus DMSO, HS/RES, or HS/RES plus DMSO, and these were denoted as the Sham, Sham  + DMSO, HS/RES, or HS/RES + DMSO group, respectively (n = 12 in each group). HS/RES was achieved by drawing blood to lower mean arterial pressure (40–45 mmHg for 60 min) followed by reinfus...
Source: Inflammation - December 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation and Autophagy Are Attenuated in Ephx2-Deficient Mice
AbstractCigarette smoke (CS) increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by causing inflammation, emphysema, and reduced lung function. Additionally, CS can induce autophagy which contributes to COPD. Arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have promising anti-inflammatory properties that may protect the heart and liver by regulating autophagy. For this reason, the effect of decreased soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, Ephx2)-mediated EET hydrolysis on inflammation, emphysema, lung function, and autophagy was here studied in CS-induced COPDin vivo. Adult male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J an...
Source: Inflammation - December 27, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chlorogenic Acid Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Inhibiting TLR4/NF- κB Signal Pathway
In conclusion, our results provide a mechanis tic explanation for the anti-inflammatory effects of CGA in LPS-induced AKI mice through inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 27, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Epigenetic Modification Mediates the Increase of LAG-3 + T Cells in Chronic Osteomyelitis
We examined the expression of LAG-3 in the T cells of peripheral blood of 50 healthy controls and 50 patients with chronic osteomyelitis by flow cytometry. Clinical data were analyzed to determine the correlation between inflammation index and LAG-3 expression. Moreover, we isolated the CD4+ T cells from healthy controls and chronic osteomyelitis patients to compare cell proliferation and IFN- γ production. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were utilized to analyze the epigenetic modification on LAG-3 expression in T cells. We found that LAG-3 was significantly increased in the T cells of peripheral blood from chronic ...
Source: Inflammation - December 27, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Exosomes from iPSCs Delivering siRNA Attenuate Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression and Neutrophils Adhesion in Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells
In this study, we reprogrammed urine exfoliated renal epithelial cells into human induced pluripotent stem cells (huiPSCs) and purified the exosomes (Exo) from huiPSCs as RNAi delivery system. Through choosing the episomal system to deliver transcription factors, we obtained a non-integrating huiPSCs. Experiments in bothvitro andvivo demonstrated that these huiPSCs possess the pluripotent properties. The exosomes of huiPSCs isolated by differential centrifugation were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing a typical exosomal appearance with an average diameter of 122  nm. Immunoblotting confirmed the...
Source: Inflammation - December 21, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Modulator BMPER Regulates Endothelial Barrier Function
AbstractThe endothelium serves as a selective barrier and controls the exchange of nutrients, hormones, and leukocytes between blood and tissues. Molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of endothelial barrier dysfunction remain incompletely understood. Accumulating evidence implicates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-modulator BMPER as a key regulator in endothelial biology. Herein, we analyze the impact of BMPER in the control of endothelial barrier function. To assess the role of BMPER in vascular barrier function in mice, we measured the leakage of Evans blue dye from blood into interstitial lung tissue. B...
Source: Inflammation - December 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Tripartite Motif 8 (TRIM8) Positively Regulates Pro-inflammatory Responses in Pseudomonas aeruginosa -Induced Keratitis Through Promoting K63-Linked Polyubiquitination of TAK1 Protein
In this study, we investigate the role of tripartite motif 8 (TRIM8) in regulating the inflammatory process of PA-induced keratitis. The expression of TRIM8 was increased in mouse corneas andin vitro-cultured macrophages after PA infection. Knockdown of the expression of TRIM8 significantly inhibited the activation of NF- κB signaling and decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines bothin vivo andin vitro after infected with PA. Furthermore, we investigated the potential mechanism and we found after PA infection that TRIM8 could promote K63-linked polyubiquitination of transforming growth factor β-activated ki...
Source: Inflammation - December 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-155: a Novel Armamentarium Against Inflammatory Diseases
AbstractAn increasing number of diseases are being newly closely associated with inflammation, where microRNAs seem to play a critical role in the whole disease process from initiation to development. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that govern gene expression and modulation by means of mRNA degradation or translational repression. After several profound research studies, new correlations between microRNA-155 and inflammation-related diseases are strongly emerging. Hence, we review in this paper the possible molecular mechanisms of microRNA-155 in inflammatory disorders. Furthermore, we also consider the feasibility of...
Source: Inflammation - December 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Electro-acupuncture at Acupoint ST36 Ameliorates Inflammation and Regulates Th1/Th2 Balance in Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
In this study, we aimed to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of EA intervention in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, OVA-DTH, DTH + EA, DTH + Sham. “Zusanli” acupoint (ST36) was used for DTH + EA, whereas a non-acupoint (localized 5 mm below the “Zusanli” acupoint) was selected for DTH + Sham. Footpad thickness was checked, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells was estimated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of IgG and IgE in serum of different groups and inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants from homogenized footpads, includi...
Source: Inflammation - December 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Is Involved in Mediating the Anti-inflammation Effects of Vasopressin
AbstractVasopressin possesses potent anti-inflammatory capacity. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream activator Akt contribute to endogenous anti-inflammation capacity. We sought to elucidate whether PI3K is involved in mediating the anti-inflammation effects of vasopressin. Macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) were randomized to receive endotoxin, endotoxin plus vasopressin, or endotoxin plus vasopressin plus the nonselective PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or the selective isoform inhibitor of PI3K α (PIK-75), PI3Kβ (TGX-221), PI3Kδ (IC-87114), or PI3Kγ (AS-252424). Compared to macrophages treated with endotoxin, th...
Source: Inflammation - December 10, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome Prevents LPS-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia in Mice: Contribution of NF- κB, Caspase-1/11, ASC, NOX, and NOS Isoforms
AbstractThe nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3), an intracellular signaling molecule that senses many environmental- and pathogen/host-derived factors, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases associated with inflammation. It has been suggested that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of NLRP3-related inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome prevents inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice as well as changes in expression/activity of nucle...
Source: Inflammation - December 6, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Polysaccharides from Arnebia euchroma Ameliorated Endotoxic Fever and Acute Lung Injury in Rats Through Inhibiting Complement System
In conclusion, the CAEP treatment ameliorated febrile response induced by LPS and acute lung injury induced by LPS plus ischemia-reperfusion. CAEP exerted beneficial effects on inflammatory disease potentially via inhibiting the inappropriate activation of complement system. (Source: Inflammation)
Source: Inflammation - December 3, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation-Induced Downregulation of Hippocampacal Neuregulin 1-ErbB4 Signaling in the Parvalbumin Interneurons Might Contribute to Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy
AbstractSepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common complication associated with poor prognosis in septic patients, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that disturbed neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling in the parvalbumin interneurons was involved in sepsis-induced cognitive impairment in a mouse model of SAE. The SAE model was induced by cecal ligation/perforation (CLP). Animals were randomly divided into the following six groups: sham + vehicle group, sham + NRG1 group, CLP + vehicle group, CLP + NRG1 group, CLP + NRG1 + AG1478 (ErbB4 inhibitor) group, and CLP + minocycline group. Behavio...
Source: Inflammation - December 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Anti-inflammatory Activities of Two Major Withanolides from Physalis minima Via Acting on NF- κ B, STAT3, and HO-1 in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells
AbstractPhysalis minima has been traditionally used as a folk herbal medicine in China for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory constituents and associated molecular mechanisms. In our study, withaphysalin A (WA) and 2, 3-dihydro-withaphysalin C (WC), two major withanolide-type compounds, were obtained from the anti-inflammatory fraction ofP. minima. Both WA and WC significantly inhibited the production of nitrite oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF...
Source: Inflammation - December 2, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research