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Flu Vaccine Protective Against Stroke, CV Events? Flu Vaccine Protective Against Stroke, CV Events?
Although flu vaccination rates in high-risk groups in the US are very low, those who receive them are at lower risk for transient ischemic stroke, MI, and all-cause mortality, new research suggests.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Internal Medicine Headlines - July 30, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news

AHA News: Flu Shot May Help Protect Vulnerable Hospital Patients From Heart Attack, Mini-Stroke
MONDAY, July 27, 2020 (American Heart Association News) -- Hospital patients at high risk for influenza had lower rates of death, heart attack, mini-stroke and cardiac arrest if they were vaccinated against flu during their hospital stay, a new...
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - July 27, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

Deathly Ill Coronavirus Patients Could Be Saved By Heart Attack And Stroke Drug
BOSTON (CBS) — TPA is a drug that is used to help stroke and heart attack victims. It works by breaking up or busting blood clots. Doctors at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center are now using it in a clinical trial on gravely ill coronavirus patients. “There’s a lot of very small blood clots accumulating in the lungs of these patients,” said Dr. Christopher Barrett. “And that seems to be at least contributory, if not the predominant reason, that their respiratory failure is so bad.” Dr. Barrett says TPA could help patients recover faster, free up ventilators and even prevent people from...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - April 8, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Health – CBS Boston Tags: Boston News Health Syndicated CBSN Boston Syndicated Local Cheryl Fiandaca Coronavirus Health News Source Type: news

Johnson & Johnson Launches Heartline ™, the First-of-its-Kind, Virtual Study Designed to Explore if a New iPhone App and Apple Watch Can Help Reduce the Risk of Stroke
New Brunswick, NJ, February 25, 2020 — Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) today announced that the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, in collaboration with Apple, opened enrollment for the Heartline™ Study. The study is designed to explore if the Heartline™ Study app on iPhone and heart health features on Apple Watch can improve health outcomes, including reducing the risk of stroke, with earlier detection of atrial fibrillation (AFib). AFib, a common form of irregular heart rhythm, is a leading cause of stroke in the U.S. To enroll in the Heartline™ Study, individuals must be age 65 or older...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - February 25, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news

Shingles Vaccine Linked to Lower Stroke Risk Shingles Vaccine Linked to Lower Stroke Risk
New evidence suggests the Zoster Vaccine Live — administered to prevent shingles — could also reduce the risk of stroke in older adults.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Allergy Headlines - February 17, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news

Shingles Vaccine Bonus: Reduced Risk of Stroke?
Title: Shingles Vaccine Bonus: Reduced Risk of Stroke?Category: Health NewsCreated: 2/12/2020 12:00:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 2/13/2020 12:00:00 AM
Source: MedicineNet Heart General - February 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: news

ASA: Herpes Zoster Vaccine May Reduce Risk for Stroke
WEDNESDAY, Feb. 12, 2020 -- Vaccination with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) is associated with a reduced risk for stroke among older adults, according to a study to be presented at the American Stroke Association International Stroke Conference, held...
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - February 12, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Influenza vaccination and 1-year risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, pneumonia, and mortality among intensive care unit survivors aged 65  years or older: a nationwide population-based cohort study
ConclusionsCompared with the unvaccinated ICU survivors, the influenza vaccinated ICU survivors had a lower 1-year risk of stroke and a lower 1-year risk of death, whereas no substantial association was observed for the risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia. Our findings support influenza vaccination of individuals aged  ≥ 65 years.
Source: Intensive Care Medicine - June 10, 2019 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

An Association Between Herpes Zoster Vaccination and Stroke Reduction Among Elderly Individuals.
Authors: Klaric JS, Beltran TA, McClenathan BM Abstract Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) affects individuals (60+ years) by reactivation of varicella virus from primary infection. Approximately one-third of the general population will develop HZ and are at increased risk of stroke. Our objective was describing possible associations between self-reported HZ vaccination and stroke with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System, a cross-sectional nationwide telephone survey. Non-institutionalized U.S. adults answered items concerning health risk behaviors. 2014 survey dat...
Source: Military Medicine - March 23, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research

Post-Onset Shingles Rx Fails to Cut Ischemic Stroke Risk Post-Onset Shingles Rx Fails to Cut Ischemic Stroke Risk
The higher risk for stroke with herpes zoster was not attenuated by antivirals or Zostavax vaccination in older patients, but that shouldn ' t slow vaccination rates or further study.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - February 1, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Cardiology News Source Type: news

Treating shingles after it appears doesn't reduce increased stroke risk
(American Heart Association) Stroke risk increased significantly in the days, weeks and months after shingles appeared, despite use of the shingles vaccine and antiviral therapy to treat it, according to preliminary research.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Protective effect of influenza vaccination on outcomes in geriatric stroke patients: A nationwide matched cohort study
The effects of influenza vaccination (IV) on stroke outcomes are unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes after stroke in elderly individuals who have received an IV.
Source: Atherosclerosis - January 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fai Lam, Ta-Liang Chen, Chun-Chuan Shih, Chao-Shun Lin, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Yuarn-Jang Lee, Chaur-Jong Hu, Hung-Yi Chiou, Chien-Chang Liao Source Type: research

Beneficial Effects of Vaccination on Cardiovascular Events: Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, Heart Failure
Influenza and pneumococcal infections have been suggested to be potential risk factors for causing adverse cardiovascular events, especially in high-risk patients. Vaccination against respiratory infections in patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) could serve as a potential cost-effective intervention to improve their clinical outcomes and cardiac societies have encouraged it. Previous studies have shown that influenza vaccination reduce mortality, acute coronary syndromes and hospitalization in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and/or heart failure (HF). However, there is a paucity of randomized ...
Source: Cardiology - November 15, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Experimental vaccine may reduce risk of post-stroke blood clot
An experimental vaccine reduced the risk of post-stroke blood clot risk in a study with mice, researchers reported on Monday.
Source: Health News - UPI.com - October 29, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Experimental vaccine may reduce post-stroke blood clot risk
(American Heart Association) An experimental vaccine might one day protect ischemic stroke survivors from developing blood clots and subsequent strokes. The vaccine was found to be as safe and effective as one of the most widely used oral blood thinners currently used to reduce clotting risk.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 29, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Smoking and Parenting; Afib and Stroke: It ' s PodMed Double T! (with audio)
(MedPage Today) -- This week ' s topics include the Ebola vaccine, stroke risk and resolved a-fib, an antibody for migraine prevention, and cannabis and tobacco smoking by parents
Source: MedPage Today Primary Care - May 19, 2018 Category: Primary Care Source Type: news

Laboratory-confirmed respiratory infections as triggers for acute myocardial infarction and stroke: a self-controlled case series analysis of national linked datasets from Scotland
While acute respiratory tract infections can trigger cardiovascular events, the differential effect of specific organisms is unknown. This is important to guide vaccine policy. Using national infection surveillance data linked to the Scottish Morbidity Record, we identified adults with a first myocardial infarction or stroke from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2014 and a record of laboratory-confirmed respiratory infection during this period. Using self-controlled case series analysis, we generated age- and season-adjusted incidence ratios (IRs) for myocardial infarction (n=1227) or stroke (n=762) after infections compare...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - March 29, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Warren-Gash, C., Blackburn, R., Whitaker, H., McMenamin, J., Hayward, A. C. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Infection Source Type: research

Influenza vaccination might reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: A population-based cohort study.
Conclusions: Influenza vaccination might exert a dose-response effect against ischemic stroke in patients with AF who have risk factors for ischemic stroke by reducing the incidence of ischemic stroke, particularly in those aged 65-74 and ≥75 y. PMID: 29348857 [PubMed]
Source: Oncotarget - January 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Heart attack and stroke risk higher with shingles
Doctors urged to make patients with shingles aware of their risk of cardiovascular disease Related items fromOnMedica Risk of stroke increases immediately after shingles Vaccine for shingles fails to reach patients in most need
Source: OnMedica Latest News - July 4, 2017 Category: UK Health Source Type: news

Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Risk of Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background: Despite the presence of a strong association between influenza infection and stroke, whether influenza vaccination reduces the risk of stroke is yet a matter of controversy. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether influenza vaccination protects against stroke.Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from database inception date to November 18, 2016, without language restrictions, to identify studies investigating the effect of influenza vaccination on subsequent risk of stroke. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the risk of stroke in overall and subgroup analyses and calcula...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Angiotensin II Peptide Vaccine Protects Ischemic Brain Through Reducing Oxidative Stress Basic Sciences
Conclusions—Our findings indicate that Ang II vaccination exerts neuroprotective and antioxidative effects in cerebral ischemia, with renin–angiotensin system blockade by penetration of anti–Ang II antibodies into ischemic brain lesion. Ang II peptide vaccination could be a promising approach to treat ischemic stroke.
Source: Stroke - April 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kouji Wakayama, Munehisa Shimamura, Jun-ichi Suzuki, Ryo Watanabe, Hiroshi Koriyama, Hiroshi Akazawa, Hironori Nakagami, Hideki Mochizuki, Mitsuaki Isobe, Ryuichi Morishita Tags: Basic Science Research, Ischemic Stroke Original Contributions Source Type: research

Stroke rates appear to be rising steadily in young adults
The rate of stroke among young people has apparently been rising steadily since 1995, according to a study published this week. Hospitalization rates for stroke increased for women between the ages of 18 and 44, and nearly doubled for men in that age range from 1995 through 2012. Using more-detailed data for 2003 through 2012, the researchers found that rates […]Related:California vaccination rate hits new high after tougher immunization lawRisk of a rare but deadly mouse-borne virus increases in the springThe federal panel that opposed prostate cancer screening just changed its mind
Source: Washington Post: To Your Health - April 15, 2017 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Influenza Vaccination Reduces Hemorrhagic Stroke Risk in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Population-Based Cohort Study
In this study, we investigated the association of influenza vaccination with the risk of hemorrhagic stroke to develop an efficient strategy for reducing this risk in patients with AF.
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - December 21, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ju-Chi Liu, Yi-Ping Hsu, Szu-Yuan Wu Source Type: research

Merck stops production of osteoporosis drug over stroke concerns, has yet to stop vaccine production
(NaturalNews) Pharmaceutical giant Merck announced on September 2 that it is abandoning plans for a new osteoporosis drug known as odanacatib, after the latest phase of safety trials showed that the drug significantly raised patients' risk of stroke. The findings of that trial will...
Source: NaturalNews.com - September 8, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Flu vaccine reduces risk of hospital stay for stroke, heart failure for diabetes patients
People with type 2 diabetes who receive the influenza vaccine may be less likely to be admitted to hospital for myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure, according to new research.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - July 25, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: news

Biological Plausibility of a Link Between Arterial Ischemic Stroke and Infection with Varicella-Zoster Virus or Herpes Simplex Virus.
Abstract There are now 9 human herpesviruses; the increase from 8 to 9 was caused by a recent decision to split human herpesvirus (HHV) strains 6A and 6B into distinct species. The 9 species are subdivided into three subfamilies, called alpha: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV); beta: cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV6A, HHV6B and HHV7; gamma: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (sometimes called HHV8). These same herpesviruses have evolved with humankind around the world since the great migration of modern humans across the Mandeb Strait out of Afri...
Source: Circulation - January 26, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Grose C Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Infection and Stroke: an Update on Recent Progress
Abstract The role of infection in cerebrovascular disease is complex and remains incompletely understood. Over the last 5 years, investigators have made notable inroads in untangling this thorny topic. In this review, we examine these recent developments, concentrating on four aspects of the relationship between infection and stroke. We first discuss specific infectious agents as direct causes of stroke, focusing on recent work implicating herpesviruses and HIV in cerebral vasculopathy. We then discuss systemic infection of any type as a stroke trigger, focusing on the relationship of infection to timing of acut...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - December 16, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Infection, vaccination, and childhood arterial ischemic stroke
A stroke occurs when a blood vessel to the brain is either blocked or ruptured. When blood to part of the brain is blocked, it causes what is called an ischemic stroke. Stroke is much more common in adults and the elderly. This is because fats and cholesterol can build up and block blood vessels as we age. Stroke is much less common in children. Stroke occurs in 11 per 100,000 children under the age of 18 every year.1 Still, it is one of the top 10 causes of death for children.2 We don't routinely expect children to have the major risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, an...
Source: Neurology - October 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Woo, D. Tags: Childhood stroke, All Infections, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, All Pediatric, Pediatric stroke; see Cerebrovascular Disease/ Childhood stroke PATIENT PAGES Source Type: research

A call for new attitudes on infection, vaccination, and childhood stroke
Population-based estimates of the incidence of childhood stroke range from 2.6 to 13 cases per 100,000 children per year. Unlike in adults, conventional stroke risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes, and cigarette smoking make little contribution to the etiology of stroke in children. Developmental, genetic, and environmental factors are major contributors to ischemic stroke in children.
Source: Neurology - October 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Biller, J., Heyer, G. L. Tags: Childhood stroke, All Infections, Pediatric stroke; see Cerebrovascular Disease/ Childhood stroke, Case control studies EDITORIALS Source Type: research

Infection, vaccination, and childhood arterial ischemic stroke: Results of the VIPS study
Conclusions: Infection may act as a trigger for childhood AIS, while routine vaccinations appear protective. Hence, efforts to reduce the spread of common infections might help prevent stroke in children.
Source: Neurology - October 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Fullerton, H. J., Hills, N. K., Elkind, M. S. V., Dowling, M. M., Wintermark, M., Glaser, C. A., Tan, M., Rivkin, M. J., Titomanlio, L., Barkovich, A. J., deVeber, G. A., On behalf of the VIPS Investigators Tags: Childhood stroke, All Infections, Pediatric stroke; see Cerebrovascular Disease/ Childhood stroke, Case control studies ARTICLE Source Type: research

Study Links Flu Vaccine to Short-Term Drop in Stroke Risk
Research only sees an association, not a cause-and-effect connection Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Flu Shot, Stroke
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - October 15, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Flu shot reduces risk of stroke, study suggests
The risk of suffering a stroke is significantly reduced for up to two months after receiving a flu vaccine, a major new study has shown.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - October 6, 2015 Category: Science Source Type: news

Vaccines may decrease stroke risk in sick children
Stephen FellerMINNEAPOLIS, Oct. 2 (UPI) -- Cold, flu and minor infections increase the already small risk of stroke in children, but the increased risk is mitigated by children being properly vaccinated.
Source: Health News - UPI.com - October 2, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Colds, Flu Up Odds for Stroke in Kids, Though Risk Is Low
Researchers also found children who had all of their vaccinations were less vulnerableSource: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Childhood Immunization, Flu, Ischemic Stroke
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - September 30, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Colds, flu may temporarily increase stroke risk in kids
(American Academy of Neurology) Stroke is very rare in children, but colds, flu and other minor infections may temporarily increase stroke risk in children, according to a study published in the Sept. 30, 2015, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The study also found routine childhood vaccines may decrease the risk of stroke.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - September 30, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Influenza vaccination and risk of stroke: Self-controlled case-series study.
CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination is associated with a reduction in incidence of stroke. This study supports previous studies which have shown a beneficial association of influenza vaccination for stroke prevention. PMID: 26296496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - August 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Asghar Z, Coupland C, Siriwardena N Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Ischemic stroke after influenza vaccination.
PMID: 25975998 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy - May 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Famularo G, Minisola G, Gasbarrone L Tags: Ann Pharmacother Source Type: research

A Shot to Avoid a Heart Attack or Stroke? Yep…the Flu Shot!
Sure, the flu shot protects you from the seasonal flu. But did you know that the flu shot protects you from heart attack, stroke, and other cardiovascular crises? Learn why you need to roll up your sleeve at this time every year, not only to prevent the flu, but also to protect your heart and brain!read more
Source: Psychology Today Work Center - November 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Peter Edelstein, M.D. Tags: Health Integrative Medicine Self-Help Work flu heart attack preventative health stroke vaccination Source Type: news

ANH-Intl News Alerts: Week 42, 2014
TTIP, vaccines, water fluoridation, healthy eating, stroke risk, and history of safe use for food
Source: Alliance for Natural Health - October 15, 2014 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Sophie Tags: BMI calories cerebral infarction diet europe healthy eating india innoculation international Ireland Israel McDonalds measles NAMV Novel Foods Regulation Nurses Against Mandatory Vaccines obesity restaurant stroke risk Source Type: news

Influenza vaccination and cardiovascular risk in patients with recent TIA and stroke
Conclusions: Influenza vaccination was not associated with reduced outcome events in patients with recent atherothrombotic ischemic stroke after considering all baseline characteristics (including concomitant medications) associated with influenza vaccination.
Source: Neurology - May 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Lavallee, P. C., Labreuche, J., Fox, K. M., Lavados, P., Mattle, H., Steg, P. G., Amarenco, P., On behalf of the PERFORM, OPTIC, and AMISTAD Investigators Tags: Stroke prevention, Viral infections, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke ARTICLE Source Type: research

Risk of stroke increases immediately after shingles
Treating shingles with antivirals protects against increased stroke risk, study findsRelated items from OnMedicaNICE issues first guidelines on stroke rehabilitationEarlier thrombolysis improves stroke outcomesStroke burden set to double by 2030Shingles vaccine cuts risk in people on anti-TNFsShingles campaign starts
Source: OnMedica Latest News - April 3, 2014 Category: UK Health Source Type: news

Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Vaccination in Preventing Stroke: The CAPAMIS Study, 3-Year Follow-up
This study assessed clinical effectiveness of PPV23 in preventing ischemic stroke in people older than 60 years.Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study involving 27,204 individuals of 60 years or older in Tarragona, Spain, who were prospectively followed from December 01, 2008, until November 30, 2011. Outcomes were neuroimaging-confirmed ischemic stroke, 30-day mortality from stroke, and all-cause death. Pneumococcal vaccination effectiveness was evaluated by Cox regression analyses, estimating hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and influenza vaccine status.Results: Cohort members were...
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 21, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Angel Vila-Corcoles, Olga Ochoa-Gondar, Teresa Rodriguez-Blanco, Cinta de Diego-Cabanes, Eva Satue-Gracia, Angel Vila-Rovira, Cristina Torrente Fraga, EPIVAC Research Group Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Flu jab "may cut" stroke risk by a quarter
ConclusionThis research finds that, overall, having the flu vaccine reduced the risk of a person experiencing a stroke by about 25%. The reduction in risk seemed to be greatest within the first three months of vaccination, but remained for up to 12 months.  However, the effect lasted only if the vaccine was given early in the flu season (September to mid-November); giving the vaccine late in the flu season (mid-November to February) was not associated with significantly reduced risk.The research benefits from using data coded within the General Practice Research Database for England and Wales for almost 50,000 people with...
Source: NHS News Feed - February 21, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Heart/lungs Neurology Older people Source Type: news

Seasonal flu vaccine may cut stroke risk
Having the seasonal flu jab could reduce the risk of suffering a stroke by almost a quarter, researchers have found. Academics discovered that patients who had been vaccinated against influenza were 24% less likely to suffer a stroke in the same flu season. In 2010, the same research team showed a similar link between flu vaccination and reduced risk of heart attack. "Further experimental studies would be needed to better understand the relationship between flu vaccination and stroke risk. However, these findings reinforce the value of the U.K.'s national flu vaccination program with reduced risk of stroke appearing to be ...
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - February 20, 2014 Category: Science Source Type: news

Stroke: Extreme Weather May Boost Risk
SAN DIEGO (MedPage Today) -- Dramatic weather changes boost stroke risk, whereas childhood vaccinations and exercise may reduce it, a series of studies showed.
Source: MedPage Today Pediatrics - February 18, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: news

Common Infections Linked to Stroke in Children; Vaccines May Reduce Risk
Source: American Heart Association Related MedlinePlus Pages: Childhood Immunization, Stroke
Source: MedlinePlus Health News - February 12, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Herpes Zoster Linked Again to Increased Stroke, MIHerpes Zoster Linked Again to Increased Stroke, MI
The vaccine that reduces herpes zoster might also cut risks for vascular events, including stroke, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction, researchers speculate. Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Cardiology Headlines - January 2, 2014 Category: Cardiology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news