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VIDEO: How can magic help stroke survivors?
Learning magic tricks gives stroke survivors a great opportunity to be more independent and to show off their new talents to relatives and friends.
Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition - October 11, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of D-cycloserine and Distributed Practice as Adjuvants to Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy After Stroke
Conclusions. Greater distribution of practice and treatment with d-cycloserine do not appear to augment retention of gains achieved with CIMT. However, concentration of CIMT over 2 weeks ("massed practice") appears to confer no advantage either.
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - October 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Nadeau, S. E., Davis, S. E., Wu, S. S., Dai, Y., Richards, L. G. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Microwave-Based Stroke Diagnosis Making Global Prehospital Thrombolytic Treatment Possible
Here, we present two different brain diagnostic devices based on microwave technology and the associated two first proof-of-principle measurements that show that the systems can differentiate hemorrhagic from ischemic stroke in acute stroke patients, as well as differentiate hemorrhagic patients from healthy volunteers. The system was based on microwave scattering measurements with an antenna system worn on the head. Measurement data were analyzed with a machine-learning algorithm that is based on training using data from patients with a known condition. Computer tomography images were used as reference. The detection meth...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A Mirror Therapy-Based Action Observation Protocol to Improve Motor Learning After Stroke
To investigate whether a mirror therapy based-action observation protocol contributes to motor learning of the affected arm after stroke.
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - October 1, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Wouter Harmsen, Johannes Bussmann, Ruud W. Selles, Henri Hurkmans, Gerard Ribbers Source Type: research

The Reality of Virtual Reality In Stroke Rehabilitation
To design, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a knowledge translation (KT) strategy to support therapists in acquiring proficiency with the Interactive Rehabilitation Exercise System (IREX; GestureTek) while emphasizing integration of motor learning strategies (MLS) during virtual reality (VR) interventions. VR systems are promising treatment options in stroke rehabilitation because they can incorporate MLS supporting motivating task-oriented practice.
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - October 1, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Jocelyn Harris, Heidi Sveistrup, Stephanie M N Glegg, Heather Colquhoun, Hillel Finestone, Pat Miller, Vincent DePaul, Laurie Wishart, Marie Brien Source Type: research

Long-term recovery trajectory after stroke: an ongoing negotiation between body, participation and self.
Conclusions: This study stresses the importance of developing new forms of professional support during the long-term recovery trajectory, to stimulate and increase interaction and coherence in the relationship between the stroke survivor's bodily perception, participation in everyday life and sense of self. Implications for Rehabilitation The study deepening how the long-term recovery trajectory after stroke is about ongoing embodied, practical and socially situated negotiations. The study demonstrates that the recovery trajectory is a long term process of learning where the stroke survivor, as an embodied agent, gradually...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - October 16, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Arntzen C, Borg T, Hamran T Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

Blunt traumatic injury of the innominate artery resulting in a stroke – A rare presentation
We present a case of traumatic injury of the innominate artery resulting in an ischemic stroke. Case presentation A 20-year-old gentleman ejected from a two wheeler and run over by a truck presented to us with multiple bleeding facial wounds and severe crush injury of his upper torso. Bedside chest X-ray revealed a widened mediastinum and multiple rib fractures with pneumothoraces bilaterally which were drained with intercostal tubes. An hour into his stay in the ED he developed left hemiparesis. CT brain showed infarcts in right temporo-parietal and occipital regions. CT angiogram of neck vessels revealed an avulsion inj...
Source: Apollo Medicine - October 23, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Opera singer Eric Jordan sings his way through stroke recovery process
One early morning in September 2012, Eric Jordan was awakened by the cries of his 20-month-old son — and that kept him from dying in his sleep. As he tried to go to his child, Jordan fell to the floor, paralyzed. The opera singer would soon learn that he had undergone a severe stroke that...
Source: L.A. Times - Health - October 24, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities information sheet compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
Source: NINDS Disorders: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - October 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Considerations in the Efficacy and Effectiveness of VR Interventions for Stroke Rehabilitation: Moving the Field Forward.
Abstract In the past 2 decades, researchers have demonstrated the potential for virtual reality (VR) technologies to provide engaging and motivating environments for stroke rehabilitation interventions.(1) Much of the research has been focused on the Exploratory Phase and jumps to Intervention Efficacy trials and Scale Up Evaluation have been made with limited understanding of the active ingredients in a VR intervention for stroke.(2,3) The rapid pace of technology development is an additional challenge for this emerging field, providing a moving target for researchers developing and evaluating potential VR techno...
Source: Physical Therapy - October 24, 2014 Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Proffitt R, Lange B Tags: Phys Ther Source Type: research

Young mother had to learn to eat and walk again with her new baby after she suffered a stroke - aged just 27 
Donna Watson from Peterlee, County Durham, had to be weaned on pureed foods alongside daughter Millie and even learn to walk again after suffering the stroke in February 2013 aged 27.
Source: the Mail online | Health - October 29, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Self-management: challenges for allied healthcare professionals in stroke rehabilitation - a focus group study.
Conclusion: Professional perceptions and beliefs are important factors to take into account when implementing stroke self-management programmes. Before professionals can enable stroke survivors to self-manage, they first need support in acquiring knowledge and skills regarding post-stroke self-management. Moreover, professionals could benefit from behavioural change models, and professionals recognised that stroke self-management interventions would be most beneficial when delivered post-discharge at people's homes. Implications for Rehabilitation Post-stroke self-management is a learning process with different levels depe...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - October 28, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Satink T, Cup EH, de Swart BJ, Nijhuis-van der Sanden MW Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

Effect of different combinations of physiotherapy treatment approaches on functional outcomes in stroke patients: A retrospective analysis
Publication date: June 2014 Source:Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal, Volume 32, Issue 1 Author(s): Bryan Ping Ho Chung This retrospective study compared the functional outcomes among stroke patients who had received rehabilitation based on different physiotherapy treatment approaches. The participants were divided into three groups according to the physiotherapist in charge of their treatment. The primary treatment approaches applied in Group A, Group B, and Group C were the functional approach, the Bobath approach, and the motor learning approach, respectively. For each participant, the Berg's Balance Scale score, the Mo...
Source: Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal - October 12, 2014 Category: Physiotherapy Source Type: research

Incremental learning of Chinese orthography: ERP indicators of animated and static stroke displays on character form and meaning acquisition
We examined the hypothesis that encoding Chinese characters through stroke-by-stroke animation produces orthographic learning that is different from conventional static displays. We used behavioral responses and ERPs to index the incremental learning that occurs of character forms, and the attention allocation to dynamic vs. static encodings. Adult, native English speakers learned form-meaning associations for characters displayed either statically or dynamically while ERPs were recorded. During learning, in both conditions, the P600 component decreased over exposures, indexing incremental and episodic learning of characte...
Source: Journal of Neurolinguistics - November 3, 2014 Category: Speech Therapy Source Type: research

Spatial cognitive rehabilitation and motor recovery after stroke
Purpose of review: Stroke rehabilitation needs to take major steps forward to reduce functional disability for survivors. In this article, we suggest that spatial retraining might greatly increase the efficiency and efficacy of motor rehabilitation, directly addressing the burden and cost of paralysis after stroke. Recent findings: Combining motor and cognitive treatment may be practical, as well as addressing the needs after moderate-to-severe stroke. Spatial neglect could suppress motor recovery and reduce motor learning, even when patients receive appropriate rehabilitation to build strength, dexterity, and endurance. S...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - November 7, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATIVE AND COGNITIVE DISEASES: Edited by Gabriella Bottini Source Type: research

Executive dysfunction post-stroke: an insight into the perspectives of physiotherapists.
Conclusions: Current results demonstrate that ED has negative implications for physiotherapy rehabilitation post-stroke. Although further interdisciplinary research is warranted, the present results suggest that physiotherapists should be aware of the presence of ED in people post-stroke and develop strategies to minimise the impact of ED on physiotherapy rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Physiotherapists report a lack of knowledge of ED post-stroke and a requirement for future learning and training regarding the optimal management of people with ED undergoing physiotherapy rehabilitation post-stroke. ED has ...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - November 6, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Hayes S, Donnellan C, Stokes E Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

The improvement of spatial memory deficits in APP/V717I transgenic mice by chronic anti-stroke herb treatment
In China, herbal medicine has an extensive history for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. Clinical studies have shown that stroke patients are more likely to experience significant memory decline in comparison to their healthy counterparts. Cognition is improved in stroke patients treated with herbal medicine active components, Geniposide (GP) and Geniposide Rg1 (GRg1) (together, called TLJN). However, the effect of TLJN in Alzheimer disease remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the behavioral effect of TLJN in male and female APP/V717I transgenic (Tg) mice. We conducted two different treatment strategies: (1...
Source: Experimental Biology and Medicine - July 28, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Yang, K., Tan, Y., Wang, F., Zhang, Q., Sun, P., Zhang, Y., Yao, N., Zhao, Y., Wang, X., Fan, A., Hua, Q. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Using hormetic strategies to improve ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning against stroke.
Authors: Zhao H, Joo S, Xie W, Ji X Abstract Both ischemic preconditioning (IPreC) and ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) trigger endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms in cerebral ischemia. IPreC is defined as a brief ischemia that protects against a subsequent severe ischemia, while IPostC refers to a series of brief cerebral blood vessel occlusions performed at reperfusion following an ischemic event. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship in toxicology, where a low dose of toxicant stimulates and a high dose inhibits biological responses. In general, any minor stress will stimulate a biological...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - November 16, 2014 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Comparison of Robotics, FES, and Motor Learning Methods for Treatment of Persistent Upper Extremity Dysfunction after Stroke: a Randomized Controlled Trial
To compare response to upper limb treatment using robotics (ROB) + motor learning (ML) vs. functional electrical stimulation (FES) + ML vs. ML alone, according to a measure of complex functional everyday tasks for chronic, severely impaired stroke survivors.Design: single-blind, randomized trial.
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - November 15, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Jessica McCabe, Michelle Monkiewicz, John Holcomb, Svetlana Pundik, Janis J. Daly Source Type: research

Mechanical thrombectomy with the Solitaire stent: is there a learning curve in achieving rapid recanalization times?
Conclusions There is a learning curve involved in the efficient use of the Solitaire stent in endovascular acute stroke therapy. Along with improvements in patient transfer to angiography and improved efficiency with intracranial access, mastering this device contributed significantly towards reducing recanalization times.
Source: Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery - October 7, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Eesa, M., Burns, P. A., Almekhlafi, M. A., Menon, B. K., Wong, J. H., Mitha, A., Morrish, W., Demchuk, A. M., Goyal, M. Tags: Ischemic stroke Source Type: research

An active learning approach for stroke lesion segmentation on multimodal MRI data
We report encouraging results over a dataset combining functional, anatomical and diffusion data.
Source: Neurocomputing - November 21, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Views of Paramedics on Their Role in an Out-of-Hospital Ambulance-Based Trial in Ultra-Acute Stroke: Qualitative Data From the Rapid Intervention With Glyceryl Trinitrate in Hypertensive Stroke Trial (RIGHT)
Conclusion Ultra-acute stroke research in the out-of-hospital environment is feasible, but important barriers need to be addressed. Proxy consent by paramedics addresses some of the difficulties with the consent process in the out-of-hospital setting.
Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine - November 24, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Mum, 26, paralysed after contraceptive pill caused stroke: 'I had to learn to walk again'
DEVASTATED Donna Watson suffered a major stroke caused by a double clot in her brain, four months after giving birth to her first baby
Source: Daily Express - Health - November 24, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Interdisciplinary Concepts for Design and Implementation of Mixed Reality Interactive Neurorehabilitation Systems for Stroke.
We present key interactive computing, motor learning and media arts concepts utilized by an interdisciplinary group to develop adaptive, mixed reality (MR) INR systems for upper extremity therapy of patients with stroke. Two example INR systems are used to show how the concepts can be applied within a: small INR clinical study that achieved integrated improvement of movement quality and functionality through continuously supervised therapy; and pilot study that achieved improvement of clinical scores with minimal supervision. The notion is proposed that some of the successful approaches developed and tested within these sy...
Source: Physical Therapy - November 25, 2014 Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Baran M, Lehrer N, Duff M, Venkataraman V, Turaga P, Ingalls T, Rymer WZ, Wolf SL, Rikakis T Tags: Phys Ther Source Type: research

Feedback Received While Practicing Everyday Activities During Rehabilitation After Stroke: An Observational Study
ConclusionGiven the importance of specific content for learning, therapists could replace some motivational statements with information feedback. When practicing alone, information feedback could be provided by commercially available biofeedback or customized equipment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Source: Physiotherapy Research International - December 2, 2014 Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Rosalyn Stanton, Louise Ada, Catherine M. Dean, Elisabeth Preston Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Myasthenia gravis as a 'stroke mimic' - it's all in the history.
Abstract An 85-year-old man presented to hospital as an emergency having difficulties with swallowing and speech. In the emergency department, he was assessed as having acute onset dysphagia and dysarthria in keeping with an acute stroke. Subsequently, it became apparent that although the symptoms were indeed of relatively acute onset, there was a clear description by the patient of fatigability and diurnal variation, prompting a working clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. The patient followed a turbulent clinical course, and interpretation of investigation results proved not to be straightforward in the acut...
Source: Clinical Medicine - December 1, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Shaik S, Ul-Haq MA, Emsley HC Tags: Clin Med Source Type: research

Immediately After A Stroke, Your Next Steps Are Crucial
By Shereen Lehman (Reuters Health) - Time is critical when someone has a stroke, but care can be delayed when victims, bystanders or even health workers don't recognize the emergency, a new study in the UK finds. Better public awareness of the signs of stroke and the importance of seeking immediate emergency care are needed, the authors say. Stroke signs include the sudden onset of various symptoms such as confusion, difficulty speaking, droopy face or slurred speech, weakness in a limb, numbness, being off-balance, visual loss or a really severe headache. "Getting to hospital quickly is...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - December 12, 2014 Category: Science Source Type: news

Brain-Machine Interfaces In Neurorehabilitation of Stroke.
Abstract Stroke is among the leading causes of long-term disabilities leaving an increasing number of people with cognitive, affective and motor impairments depending on assistance in their daily life. While function after stroke can significantly improve in the first weeks and months, further recovery is often slow or non-existent in the more severe cases encompassing 30-50% of all stroke victims. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying recovery in those patients are incompletely understood. However, recent studies demonstrated the brain's remarkable capacity for functional and structural plasticity and recovery ...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - December 6, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Soekadar SR, Birbaumer N, Slutzky MW, Cohen LG Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research

Combined Clinical and Home Rehabilitation: A Case Report of an Integrated Knowledge-to-Action Study in a Dutch Rehabilitation Stroke Unit.
DISCUSSION: Improving local settings with available evidence is not a straightforward application process but rather a matter of searching, logical reasoning, and creatively working with heterogeneous knowledge sources in partnership with different stakeholders. Multiple organizational levels need to be addressed rather than focusing on therapists as sole site of change. PMID: 25504490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Physical Therapy - December 11, 2014 Category: Physiotherapy Authors: Nanninga CS, Postema K, Schönherr MC, van Twillert S, Legginga AT Tags: Phys Ther Source Type: research

Neural substrates underlying stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning after stroke
Motor skill learning is one of the key components of motor function recovery after stroke, especially recovery driven by neurorehabilitation. Transcranial direct current stimulation can enhance neurorehabilitation and motor skill learning in stroke patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retention of stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning involving a paretic upper limb have not been resolved. These neural substrates were explored by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nineteen chronic hemiparetic stroke patients participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized, sham-controlled experiment...
Source: Brain - January 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Lefebvre, S., Dricot, L., Laloux, P., Gradkowski, W., Desfontaines, P., Evrard, F., Peeters, A., Jamart, J., Vandermeeren, Y. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dose of arm activity training during acute and subacute rehabilitation post stroke: A systematic review of the literature.
CONCLUSION: The dose of activity-related arm training during acute and subacute rehabilitation after stroke is limited. PMID: 25568073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Rehabilitation - January 7, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Hayward KS, Brauer SG Tags: Clin Rehabil Source Type: research

Constraint-induced movement therapy after stroke
Publication date: February 2015 Source:The Lancet Neurology, Volume 14, Issue 2 Author(s): Gert Kwakkel , Janne M Veerbeek , Erwin E H van Wegen , Steven L Wolf Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) was developed to overcome upper limb impairments after stroke and is the most investigated intervention for the rehabilitation of patients. Original CIMT includes constraining of the non-paretic arm and task-oriented training. Modified versions also apply constraining of the non-paretic arm, but not as intensive as original CIMT. Behavioural strategies are mostly absent for both modified and original CIMT. With forced us...
Source: The Lancet Neurology - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endovascular Stroke Therapy Results Improve over Time: The ‘Learning Curve' at a New Comprehensive Stoke Center
Conclusions: At a new community-based CSC, improved outcome occurred from year 1 to year 2, and trends towards decreased mortality, fewer complications, and improved revascularization were observed. Furthermore, the data shows that improvement in NIHSS score after EST is associated with decreased mortality following stroke in this setting, implying a net benefit.Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2014;4:235-242
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra - January 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

World Stroke Day
NOTE: The following is an op-ed piece by Neala Gill, Cardiovascular Health Nova Scotia. Friday, Oct. 29 is World Stroke Day. It is an opportunity to encourage Nova Scotians to learn more about the signs of a stroke, and what you can do to reduce your risk.
Source: Government of Nova Scotia News Releases - Health - October 28, 2010 Category: American Health Authors: Health (To Jan. 11) Source Type: news

Co-morbid beta-amyloid toxicity and stroke produce impairments in an ambiguous context task in rats without any impairment in spatial working memory.
This study examined the combined effects of beta-amyloid administration and unilateral stroke in an animal model of AD. Adult rats were given a sham surgery, bilateral intraventricular infusion of 10μL of 50nmol Aβ25-35, a unilateral injection of endothelin-1 into the right striatum, or Aβ and endothelin-1 administration in combination. Following a recovery period, rats were tested in the 1-trial place learning variant of the Morris water task followed by an ambiguous discriminative fear-conditioning to context task. After behavioural assessment, rats were euthanized, and representative sections of the medial septum wer...
Source: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory - January 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Keeley RJ, Hong NS, Fisher A, McDonald RJ Tags: Neurobiol Learn Mem Source Type: research

Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Improves the Neurofunctional Recovery of Rats Following Traumatic Brain Injury via an Increase in Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells
Abstract Previous studies show that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis, which is a process associated with improved recovery in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and that recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) plays a protective role following stroke. Thus, it was hypothesized that rhEPO would enhance recovery following brain injury in a rat model of TBI via an increase in the mobilization of EPCs and, subsequently, in angiogenesis. Flow cytometry assays using CD34- and CD133-specific antibodies were utilized to identify alterations in EPC levels, CD31 and CD34 ant...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - January 23, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

GABA Levels Are Decreased After Stroke and GABA Changes During Rehabilitation Correlate With Motor Improvement
Conclusions. In patients 3 to 12 months poststroke, GABA levels are lower in the primary motor cortex than in healthy subjects. The observed association between GABA and recovery warrants further studies on the potential use of GABA MRS as a biomarker in poststroke recovery.
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - January 30, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Blicher, J. U., Near, J., Naess-Schmidt, E., Stagg, C. J., Johansen-Berg, H., Nielsen, J. F., Ostergaard, L., Ho, Y.-C. L. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

The contrast between cueing and/or observation in therapy for verb retrieval in post-stroke aphasia.
CONCLUSIONS: Verb naming can be enhanced by semantic/phonological cueing. In addition, other studies (clinical, neuroimaging, etc.) are needed to document the effect of action observation for the treatment of verb anomia. Learning outcomes: The reader will be able to (1) describe semantic-phonological therapies used in post-stroke verb anomia, (2) describe sensorimotor therapies used in post-stroke verb anomia, and (3) identify factors contributing to the efficacy of therapies to improve action naming in aphasia. PMID: 25638465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Communication Disorders - January 21, 2015 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Routhier S, Bier N, Macoir J Tags: J Commun Disord Source Type: research

Individualised home‐based rehabilitation after stroke in eastern Finland – the client's perspective
This study focused on clients' experiences of a 3‐month individualised, home‐based rehabilitation programme supervised by a multidisciplinary team. The data were collected in 2009–2010, and it was based on interviews with 14 clients (48–83 years of age) conducted approximately 7 months after stroke. In the thematic analysis, five main topics describing the goals and functions of the home‐based rehabilitation were identified as follows: (i) learning strategies for solving problems in daily activities at home and in the community; (ii) receiving exercise coaching; (iii) exploring community services and facilities...
Source: Health and Social Care in the Community - February 9, 2015 Category: Health Management Authors: Merja A. T. Reunanen, Aila Järvikoski, Ulla Talvitie, Outi Pyöriä, Kristiina Härkäpää Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Vascular safety of brain plasticity induction via transcranial direct currents
Experience alters the strength of neuronal connections as a fundamental feature of brain physiology. This process, termed neuroplasticity, appears crucially involved in cognitive processes such as learning, memory formation, and adaptive behavior. Neuroplasticity is increasingly implicated in not only a number of neurologic diseases, but also in restitution after brain injury. Noninvasive brain stimulation can induce and modulate neuroplasticity in humans.1 In accordance with the functional relevance of neuroplasticity, noninvasive brain stimulation not only modulates psychological processes and behavior in healthy humans,...
Source: Neurology - February 9, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Nitsche, M. A., Paulus, W. Tags: All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, All Rehabilitation, All clinical neurophysiology EDITORIALS Source Type: research

Invited Commentary on Comparison of Robotics, FES, and Motor Learning Methods for Treatment of Persistent Upper Extremity Dysfunction after Stroke: a Randomized Controlled Trial
In this issue of Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Jessica McCabe and colleagues report findings from their methodologically sound dose-matched clinical trial in 39 patients beyond 6 months post stroke. In this phase II trial, the effects of 60 treatment sessions, each involving 3.5 hours of intensive practice plus either 1.5 hours of functional electrical stimulation (FES) or a shoulder-arm robotic therapy, were compared with 5 hours of intensive daily practice alone. Although no significant between-group differences were found on the primary outcome measure of Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) and the seconda...
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - February 13, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Gert Kwakkel, Erwin E.H. van Wegen, C. Meskers Source Type: research

Comparison of Robotics, Functional Electrical Stimulation, and Motor Learning Methods for Treatment of Persistent Upper Extremity Dysfunction After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial
To compare response to upper-limb treatment using robotics plus motor learning (ML) versus functional electrical stimulation (FES) plus ML versus ML alone, according to a measure of complex functional everyday tasks for chronic, severely impaired stroke survivors.
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - November 15, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Jessica McCabe, Michelle Monkiewicz, John Holcomb, Svetlana Pundik, Janis J. Daly Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Tissue hypoxia during ischemic stroke: Adaptive clues from hypoxia-tolerant animal models.
We describe specific physiological and molecular adaptations employed by different animals' models of hypoxia tolerance in aquatic and terrestrial environments. We highlight how these adaptations might provide potential clues on strategies to adapt for the clinical management of tissue hypoxia during conditions such as stroke where oxygen demand fails to match the supply. PMID: 25738761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - March 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Nathaniel TI, Williams-Hernandez A, Hunter LA, Liddy C, Peffley DM, Imeh-Nathaniel A Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Ipsilateral hippocampal atrophy is associated with long‐term memory dysfunction after ischemic stroke in young adults
Abstract Memory impairment after stroke in young adults is poorly understood. In elderly stroke survivors memory impairments and the concomitant loss of hippocampal volume are usually explained by coexisting neurodegenerative disease (e.g., amyloid pathology) in interaction with stroke. However, neurodegenerative disease, such as amyloid pathology, is generally absent at young age. Accumulating evidence suggests that infarction itself may cause secondary neurodegeneration in remote areas. Therefore, we investigated the relation between long‐term memory performance and hippocampal volume in young patients with first‐eve...
Source: Human Brain Mapping - March 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Pauline Schaapsmeerders, Inge W.M. van Uden, Anil M. Tuladhar, Noortje A.M. Maaijwee, Ewoud J. van Dijk, Loes C.A. Rutten‐Jacobs, Renate M. Arntz, Hennie C. Schoonderwaldt, Lucille D.A. Dorresteijn, Frank‐Erik de Leeuw, Roy P.C. Kessels Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Compensatory Motor Network Connectivity is Associated with Motor Sequence Learning after Subcortical Stroke.
Abstract Following stroke, functional networks reorganize and the brain demonstrates widespread alterations in cortical activity. Implicit motor learning is preserved after stroke. However the manner in which brain reorganization occurs, and how it supports behaviour within the damaged brain remains unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we evaluated whole brain patterns of functional connectivity during the performance of an implicit tracking task at baseline and retention, following 5 days of practice. Following motor practice, a significant difference in connectivity within a motor...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - March 7, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Wadden KP, Woodward TS, Metzak PD, Lavigne KM, Lakhani B, Auriat AM, Boyd LA Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Brain plasticity and rehabilitation in stroke patients.
Abstract In recent years, our understanding of motor learning, neuroplasticity and functional recovery after the occurrence of brain lesion has grown significantly. Novel findings in basic neuroscience have provided an impetus for research in motor rehabilitation. The brain reveals a spectrum of intrinsic capacities to react as a highly dynamic system which can change the properties of its neural circuits. This brain plasticity can lead to an extreme degree of spontaneous recovery and rehabilitative training may modify and boost the neuronal plasticity processes. Animal studies have extended these findings, provid...
Source: Journal of Nippon Medical School - March 26, 2015 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Hara Y Tags: J Nippon Med Sch Source Type: research

Varied Overground Walking Training Versus Body-Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Adults Within 1 Year of Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusions: In this sample of community-dwelling adults within 1 year of stroke, a 15-session program of varied overground walking-focused training was not superior to a BWSTT program of equal frequency, duration, and in-session step activity.
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - March 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: DePaul, V. G., Wishart, L. R., Richardson, J., Thabane, L., Ma, J., Lee, T. D. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

The association of sleep apnea and stroke with cognitive performance: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study (I9-4B)
CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that S+SA is associated with lower verbal memory and executive function scores (but not highest global cognitive impairment) than SA only, stroke only, or neither.Disclosure: Dr. Molano has nothing to disclose. Dr. Kleindorfer has received personal compensation for activities with Genentech. Dr. McClure has received research support from Genzyme and Amgen. Dr. Unverzagt has received personal compensation for activities with Eli Lilly & Company as a consultant. Dr. Wadley has received personal compensation for activities with Amgen Inc. Dr. Howard has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Molano, J., Kleindorfer, D., McClure, L., Unverzagt, F., Wadley, V., Howard, V. Tags: Treating Dementia in an Age of Mixed Disease Data Blitz Presentations Source Type: research

DWI Negative Stroke: Learning Points For Imaging In Acute Stroke (P1.037)
CONCLUSIONS: Clinical exam bears more weight than imaging in suspected brainstem infarcts. With the increasing use of DWI as the imaging of choice in acute stroke, DWI negative stroke must be considered in patients who present with classic brain stem infarcts with negative imaging to prevent delay in therapy as these patients may still be a candidate for thrombolysis.Disclosure: Dr. Nalleballe has nothing to disclose. Dr. JADEJA has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bollu has nothing to disclose. Dr. Onteddu has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Nalleballe, K., Jadeja, N., Bollu, P., Onteddu, S. Tags: Cerebrovascular Disease and Interventional Neurology: Case Reports Source Type: research

An Unusual Cause Of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke: Trousseau's Syndrome From Gastric Cancer (P4.231)
CONCLUSIONS: Trousseau’s Syndrome must be considered in those presenting with recurrent strokes with an otherwise negative embolic work up especially in the elderly and those with cancer risk factors. It must prompt the clinician to look for an associated malignancy.Disclosure: Dr. JADEJA has nothing to disclose. Dr. Johnson has nothing to disclose. Dr. Soetanto has nothing to disclose. Dr. Nalleballe has nothing to disclose. Dr. DeNiro has nothing to disclose. Dr. Qureshi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Graber has received personal compensation for activities with Stemedica Inc., Novocure Inc., and Biogen Idec.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Jadeja, N., Johnson, J., Soetanto, A., Nalleballe, K., DeNiro, L., Qureshi, I., Graber, J. Tags: Neuro-oncology: Paraneoplastic Disorders Source Type: research