Query: stroke

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Specialty: Neurology
Source: JAMA Neurology

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Total 232 results found since Jan 2013.

Potential New Horizons for the Prevention of Cerebrovascular Diseases and Dementia
In this issue ofJAMA Neurology, Spence et al discuss the effect of pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent that has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and myocardial infarction in patients with insulin resistance, in patients with prediabetes. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria, ie, a hemoglobin A1c level of 5.7% to 6.4% or a fasting plasma glucose level of 100 to 125 mg/dL. Data were taken from the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) study, an international randomized clinical trial performed in patients with previous stroke or transient ischem...
Source: JAMA Neurology - February 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of Thrombectomy With Stroke Outcomes Among Patient Subgroups
This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial determines the association of thrombectomy among patients by age, symptom severity, time to randomization, arterial occlusive lesion location, and imaging modality.
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Potential Benefits of Migraine —What Is It Good For?
Migraine is a painful neurological disease that causes substantial suffering for millions of people. Most individuals with migraine develop it when they are relatively young, and the condition persists for decades. Although migraine often improves with age, some individuals will continue to experience well into old age. Disease activity is highest in the otherwise productive middle years of life, with the result that the economic, social, and personal costs of migraine are out of proportion to its prevalence. As if this were not enough, migraine is associated with an increased risk of serious health conditions, including s...
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Current Understanding and Gaps in Research of Carotid Webs in Ischemic Strokes
This narrative review addresses the current understanding of carotid webs as a modifiable risk factor for stroke.
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Redundant Wording in Results and P Value Discrepancy in Figure 1
In the Brief Report titled “Association of Medication Nonadherence Among Adult Survivors of Stroke After Implementation of the US Affordable Care Act,” published online August 27, 2018, wording in the first sentence of the Results section “, and 61.9% were aged 65 years or older” should have been deleted. In the fourt h sentence of the Results section, “; uninsurance decreased (from 13.7%...)” also should have been deleted. In Figure 1, theP value given as .001 for comparisons across the 4 rightmost bars should have beenP <  .001. The article has been corrected online.
Source: JAMA Neurology - October 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Markers of Vascular Brain Injury
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the clinical and therapeutic significance of magnetic resonance imaging markers of covert vascular brain injury (white matter hyperintensities, brain infarcts, and cerebral microbleeds) associated with stroke, dementia, and death in community-dwelling older adults.
Source: JAMA Neurology - October 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Global Orbital Infarction Syndrome After a Carotid Artery Dissection
This case report describes an unusual ophthalmologic emergency after a 59-year-old man experiences an ischemic stroke in the right middle cerebral artery.
Source: JAMA Neurology - October 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of Dextroamphetamine on Poststroke Motor Recovery
This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effect of dextroamphetamine combined with physiotherapy vs placebo and physiotherapy for improving poststroke motor recovery among patients with ischemic stroke.
Source: JAMA Neurology - August 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Treatment of Poststroke Aphasia With Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Stroke remains a leading cause of human disability. Important gains have been realized in the setting of acute ischemic stroke, where thrombolytic and catheter-based reperfusion therapies can substantially improve long-term behavioral outcomes. However, most patients with a new stroke are not eligible for such therapies because of delays in diagnosis or hemorrhagic etiology, for example, and many who are treated nonetheless have substantial long-term disability. Additional classes of poststroke therapy are needed.
Source: JAMA Neurology - August 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Treat Aphasia After Stroke
This randomized clinical trial examines the futility of studying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation vs sham stimulation as an adjunctive intervention during speech therapy to improve speech production (naming) for older adults with long-term poststroke aphasia.
Source: JAMA Neurology - August 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Power of Clinical Registries and Quality Improvement Collaboratives
The American Heart Association established the American Stroke Association in 1998 to improve stroke care and speed the implementation of evidence-based stroke treatments. In 2001, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry pilot programs. The Massachusetts pilot program, 1 of 4, was modeled after the Get With the Guidelines –Coronary Artery Disease program and was called Get With the Guidelines–Stroke (GWTG-Stroke). GWTG-Stroke is a collaborative disease-specific clinical data registry and quality improvement program and includes evidence-based quality measu...
Source: JAMA Neurology - August 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Additional Factors Regarding Clinical Outcomes of General Anesthesia and Conscious Sedation for Acute Ischemic Stroke —Reply
In Reply We thank Chabanne and Futier for the relevant question concerning ventilator parameters in the General or Local Anesthesia in Intra Arterial Therapy (GOLIATH) trial. Unfortunately, it was not possible for us to obtain periprocedural arterial blood gas parameters because of resource constraints. However, we have recently reported the end tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) levels in the general anesthesia (GA) arm (4.4 kPa; interquartile range, 4.2-4.8 kPa). Taking the normal arterial to EtCO2 gradient into account, our data indicate a normoventilation, which was the intention in the study protocol. The EtCO2 levels were ...
Source: JAMA Neurology - July 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Error in Table
The Research Letter titled, “Medical Specialties of Clinicians Providing Mechanical Thrombectomy to Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in the United States,” published in the April 2018 print issue included an error in the Table that presented the data for neurosurgeons in the row labeled “Neurology,” and the data for neurologists in the row labeled “Neurosurgery.” This included indicating that 110 thrombectomies were performed by neurosurgeons and 91 by neurologists. The Table has been corrected and now matches the data present in the main text of the article: 91 thrombectomies performed by neurosurgeons an d...
Source: JAMA Neurology - May 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Arterial Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide and Secondary Brain Injury
Secondary brain injury (SBI) occurs when tissue made vulnerable by a primary brain injury (eg, traumatic brain injury [TBI], stroke, or global cerebral ischemia), is exposed to additional insults, such as low blood flow, hypoxia, fever, seizures, or glucose concentration extremes. The prevention and treatment of SBI forms the basis for these conditions ’ neurocritical care management; guidelines emphasize maintaining parameters associated with blood pressure and ventilation thought to limit SBI. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by a complex interplay of neurovascular coupling, pressure autoregulation, arterial bloo...
Source: JAMA Neurology - March 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Considerations in Assessing Disability Trajectories
To the Editor We thank Dhamoon et al for their prospective longitudinal cohort study assessing the long-term disability trajectory before and after an ischemic stroke compared with myocardial infarction (MI). The authors found that the gradient of increasing disability was significantly steeper after a stroke but remained consistent after MI.
Source: JAMA Neurology - March 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Considerations in Assessing Disability Trajectories —Reply
In Reply We agree with Pan et al that endovascular thrombectomy for large vessel occlusions may improve long-term disability trajectories for those who receive this treatment. However, few patients with ischemic stroke currently receive this treatment, and it is not certain how much of an association endovascular thrombectomy will have with long-term disability trajectories for patients with ischemic stroke as a whole. It is certainly hoped that more trained specialists are available to provide the treatment, more capable stroke centers will be developed, and more patients will present within an amenable time window. Howev...
Source: JAMA Neurology - March 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Speak Therapy
In this essay, a medical student reflects on his grandfather ’s experience with stroke and the ways emotions and personal relationships affect a patient’s health.
Source: JAMA Neurology - March 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Leaving Against Medical Advice
She was never even supposed to be in the hospital. We got a telephone call from an ophthalmologist who suspected a stroke in a woman in her early 70s after finding a visual field defect. She had gone to the clinic because she was bumping into objects for a few days, but she expected to do a few tests, get a diagnosis, and go home, because whatever was wrong did not even bother her much. Instead, she was treated to an admission to our stroke center and a nothing by mouth designation overnight after she failed the nurse ’s swallowing screening. The ambient music of the ward—the echoes, beeps, snoring, and nurses and phys...
Source: JAMA Neurology - February 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Errors in Abstract and Figures 2 and 3
This article was c orrected online.
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Safety and Efficacy of a 3-D Stent Retriever With Aspiration-Based Thrombectomy
This randomized clinical noninferiority trial assesses a novel 3-dimensional stent retriever when used in conjunction with aspiration-based mechanical thrombectomy compared with aspiration-based mechanical thrombectomy alone in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Management of Patent Foramen Ovale in Patients With Ischemic Stroke
This Viewpoint describes the results of 5 randomized clinical trials of devices that occlude patent foramen ovale, discusses the cerebrovascular outcomes associated with treatment, and outlines judicious use of closure procedures.
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Emergency Department Stroke Care
To the Editor In his Editorial, Caplan comments on the article by Topcuoglu and colleagues. Caplan writes:
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Informing vs Changing the Practice of Carotid Revascularization
The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs Stenting Trial (CREST) was a multicenter randomized clinical trial directly comparing the risks and benefits of stenting with those of endarterectomy for symptomatic and asymptomatic high-grade stenosis. Involving 2502 patients across the United States and Canada followed-up for up to 10 years, the trial did not detect significant differences in the end point of perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, or death or ipsilateral ischemic stroke after the perioperative period. Primary results were published in 2010. CREST clearly informed practice guidelines, but the extent t...
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Infarct Progression in Patients During Mechanical Thrombectomy Transfer
This cohort study examines the clinical imaging factors associated with unfavorable imaging profile evolution for thrombectomy in patients with ischemic stroke initially transferred to non –thrombectomy-capable stroke centers.
Source: JAMA Neurology - September 25, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Presenting to Primary Stroke Centers for Thrombolysis —Reply
In Reply We thank Uchino for his letter on our recently published article in which he discusses potential limitations of our study. The first criticism concerns the unexpected less favorable outcome in the mothership (MS) group despite significantly shorter onset-to-needle and onset-to-recanalization times. It is true that even though the difference was not statistically significant, the MS group had fewer patients with a 3-month favorable functional outcome (50.8%) when compared with the drip-and-ship (DS) group (61 [61.0%];P = .26). As we mentioned in our article, patients in the MS group had slightly but significant...
Source: JAMA Neurology - August 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Patient Care is All About Stories
“Doc, I think I’m getting my stroke back.” Neurologists and primary care physicians have heard this plaint many times from former patients who experienced a stroke. While writing this Editorial, I received an urgent email from the relative of a young patient who had had a left cerebral hemisph ere infarct several years ago. The email said the patient was having some intermittent weakness in his right foot for the last few days. He also had slight weakness on the right side of the face so he went to the emergency department (ED).
Source: JAMA Neurology - August 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of Birth Place and Geographic Location on Risk Disparities in Cerebrovascular Disease
The geographic disparities in stroke and cerebrovascular disease have long been recognized with high-risk areas, such as the states in the Southeast with the greatest risk and identified as the Stroke Belt. These epidemiologic observations have facilitated the identification of risk factors associated with the excess disease burden as well as the benefits of interventions focused on disease control. The geographic disparities in stroke risks prompted specific investigations and conferences to determine the factors associated with the excess risk burden for specific geographic areas, such as the southeastern United States, ...
Source: JAMA Neurology - July 31, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Crowdsourcing the Million Brains Initiative —Reply
In Reply The enthusiasm expressed for the Million Brains Initiative and the thoughtful consideration of ethical facets by Byram and Illes are much appreciated. The authors underscore a few of the inevitable ramifications that will undoubtedly parallel the realization of precision stroke medicine and the transformation from blissful ignorance to big data in stroke medicine. The current paradigm for cerebrovascular disorders from stroke to dementia is founded on individual clinical symptoms that prompt the acquisition, routine interpretation, and archiving of neuroimaging results. Impressions are readily generated and docume...
Source: JAMA Neurology - June 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rapid Treatment and Interfacility Transport for Patients With Stroke
The former chairman of the board and chief executive officer of IBM, Lou Gerstner, once said that “It is not about bits, bytes and protocols, but profits, losses and margins.”(p325) While Gerstner may have been referencing the financial profits and margins of a large company like IBM, how much more does this principle hold in the business of medicine and health? A protocol is not of any inherent value until we are able to appreciate its results and see its impact on patient outcomes.
Source: JAMA Neurology - May 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Are More Young People Having Strokes?
If a headline such as “Stroke Tsunami: 30 000 More Strokes in the Young” pops into your Twitter feed based on a study in this month’s issue ofJAMA Neurology, should the claim be taken seriously? Is urgent action needed to reverse this trend? While that headline would certainly be eye-catching, the best short answer makes for a lede begging to be buried, “Maybe, but the evidence is pretty cloudy.”
Source: JAMA Neurology - April 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Managing Patients With Large Ischemic Core
To the Editor We read with interest the article by Rebello and colleagues on endovascular treatment. There is still uncertainty on how best to manage patients who have a large ischemic core and a large artery clot. Using matched controls is an excellent approach when the study is not a randomized clinical trial. The authors modified the approach of Mandava and colleagues, who had proposed matching controls based on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scales, age, and pretreatment glucose level. The authors had substituted an “ischemic core on computed tomography perfusion” for the National Institutes of Health Str...
Source: JAMA Neurology - April 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

What Is in a Match? —Reply
In Reply We appreciate the interest of Phan and Ma in our recent article. We agree that patients may behave differently according to their stroke laterality, and that nondominant hemisphere infarcts with larger volumes may present with relatively lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scales (NIHSS) scores. However, Fink et al found that infarct volumes were greater on the right side as compared with the left only among patients presenting with mild strokes (NIHSS  ≤ 5) with no significant right-left differences detected at higher NIHSS values. By contrast, our patient cohort was exclusively composed of patients ...
Source: JAMA Neurology - April 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Strokes in Younger Adults
This analysis of data from the National Inpatient Sample examines whether stroke hospitalization rates have continued to increase and identifies the prevalence of associated stroke risk factors among younger adults aged 18 to 54 years.
Source: JAMA Neurology - April 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Conscious Sedation vs General Anesthesia for Vertebrobasilar Stroke Thrombectomy
This case-control study compares clinical and angiographic outcomes between monitored anesthesia care and general anesthesia in patients presenting with vertebrobasilar occlusion strokes.
Source: JAMA Neurology - April 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Migraine and the Risk of Carotid Artery Dissection
Stroke incidence is increasing among patients aged 40 to 60 years —faster than in older age cohorts. Preliminary evidence suggests that ischemic stroke—not hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage—accounts for the increase. Many speculate that increasing incidences of classic vascular risk factors among young patients contribute to the increased incidence of st roke. Certainly, we are all aware of the obesity epidemic and continued prevalence of smoking, leading to premature atherosclerosis. Furthermore, equally relevant causes of stroke in the young include migraine, drug abuse, cervical arterial dissections, patent fo...
Source: JAMA Neurology - March 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association Between Migraine and Cervical Artery Dissection
This cohort study examines the association between migraine and ischemic stroke due to cervical artery dissection in young patients with ischemic stroke.
Source: JAMA Neurology - March 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Not All Middle Cerebral Artery M2 Segments Are the Same
To the Editor In the research article “Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke With Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery M2 Segment,” Sarraj and colleagues describe the advantage of endovascular therapy in addition to best medical therapy for patients with acute M2 occlusions. The article does not describe the distribution of the left- and right-sided lesions. It would be of interest to know whether the overall benefits hold true regardless of lesion lateralization or whether the results are primarily driven by benefits on one side.
Source: JAMA Neurology - February 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Response to Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke —Reply
In Reply We thank Silver and Morelli for their interest in our article. We agree that is it always of interest to look into the side of the lesion, specifically into dominance more than right vs left. Although this was not addressed in the recent randomized clinical trials, we looked into this aspect in our initial analyses. When performing our univariate analysis, we looked at factors that independently correlated with good outcomes with endovascular therapy (EVT) as detailed in the Results section of our article and further discussed in eTable 2 in our Supplement. The side of the lesion was tested in the univariate analy...
Source: JAMA Neurology - February 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hypertension —A Global Neurological Problem
This Viewpoint discusses the gap in hypertension and stroke care between low-income countries and high-income countries and the role neurologists should play in stroke-prevention efforts.
Source: JAMA Neurology - February 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Improved Outcomes in Asymptomatic Obstructive Sleep Apnea
This study enrolled 1522 randomly selected, employed research subjects and observed them for 2 decades. The goal of WSCS was to answer one aspect of a US Congressional mandate to determine the overall public burden of sleep d isorders. The WSCS had a surprising finding: mild OSA was seen in 17% of adults, and, most concerning, 6% of adults had moderate to severe OSA. The WSCS finding most relevant to the current USPSTF recommendation statement is that only 35% of WSCS participants with moderate OSA and 37% of participant s with severe OSA reported excessive daytime sleepiness, the cardinal daytime symptom of OSA. This sugg...
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Thrombolysis and Thrombectomy vs Thrombectomy Alone for Ischemic Stroke
This study examines whether treatment with intravenous thrombolysis before mechanical thrombectomy with a stent retriever is beneficial in patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy.
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SSRIs and Intracranial Hemorrhage
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are among the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. A recent study using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database estimated that in 2012, 8.5% (95% CI, 6.9%-10.4%) of adults 20 years and older were prescribed SSRIs compared with a prevalence of 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0%-1.8%) for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). Although most of these prescriptions were likely for depression, SSRIs are being used for other indications; of particular interest to neurologists, SSRIs are being investigated and sometimes used to promote motor recovery after str...
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intra-arterial Treatment for Basilar Artery Occlusion —Reply
In Reply We thank Bhatti and Sivakumaran for their comments on our article. First, the authors mention the relatively low mean age of 58 years of our cohort (this includes 1 child of 4 years). The patients in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS) had a mean age of 63 years. We think it is unlikely that this difference of 5 years has had an important influence on the results. Moreover, BASICS is a prospective patient registry, without stringent inclusion criteria. This suggests that patients with basilar artery occlusion have a lower age compared with patients with anterior circulation stroke.
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Stroke in Alzheimer Disease
Discussion section.
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association Between Calcium Level and Hematoma Size and Expansion
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and deadly type of stroke, with high rates of morbidity and mortality (40%-50% in most series). There are several well-described and validated risk factors and diseases that increase the risk of ICH, including race, hypertension, use of anticoagulants, amyloid angiopathy, renal insufficiency, thrombolytic therapy, and drug abuse. However, not all ICHs are associated with one of these risk factors. This suggests that there might be some other modifying factors involved.
Source: JAMA Neurology - September 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Dark Matter of Cerebral Microbleeds
To the Editor I read with interest the article by Tsivgoulis et al inJAMA Neurology on cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and the risk for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke, as well as the accompanying Editorial by Fisher. This work follows and extends previous meta-analyses on a thorny topic for acute stroke neurology, demonstrating again that the presence of any number of CMBs on pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging is associated with more than doubling the risk for postthrombolysis ICH. Of importance, the authors provided new evidence from group-level and individual p...
Source: JAMA Neurology - August 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association Between CV Risk Factors and Familial Alzheimer Disease
This cohort study investigates associations between coronary risk factors, stroke, and late-onset Alzheimer dementia in patients with familial disease.
Source: JAMA Neurology - August 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research