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Total 236 results found since Jan 2013.

EP 2. Pyramidal tract FA predicts motor outcome in subacute stroke patients after a three week period of arm ability training for ADL-relevant hand motor tests
Outcome prediction after motor stroke for the acute to subacute phase can be consulted for individual therapy modification. For the outcome of severely impaired patients the intactness of the pyramidal tract descending from the lesioned hemisphere (ipsilesional; i) has been described as an important parameter for upper limb strength as a measure of motor outcome (Stinear et al., 2012). In addition, in chronic stroke fractional anisotrophy (FA) of the pyramidal tract is predictive for hand motor impairment in strength (Lindenberg et al., 2010).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Domin, S. Roschka, U. Horn, T. Platz, M. Lotze Tags: ePoster Presentations – Stroke Source Type: research

EP 1. Brain activity after acute left hemispheric stroke in imitation and tool associated actions
Apraxia, a disorder of higher motor control, frequently leads to impaired tool use or imitation capacities due to left hemispheric lesions. However, despite similar lesion size or location, patients present with different apraxic deficits thus different early reorganization mechanism may be assumed. To understand the impaired praxis network after stroke on a functional level, we correlated behavioral performance in imitation and tool use tasks with activation patterns in fMRI of 47 acute left-hemispheric stroke patients.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A. Dressing, L. Beume, C.S. M. Schmidt, D. K ümmerer, T. Bormann, I. Mader, M. Rijntjes, C.P. Kaller, C. Weiller, M. Martin Tags: ePoster Presentations – Stroke Source Type: research

Temporal evolution of event-related desynchronization in acute stroke: A pilot study
Conclusion: The two evolutions presumably reflect the reorganization of brain networks and functional recovery after acute stroke. The significant increase of ipsilesional Sm in patients with a good recovery suggests an important role of this hemisphere during recovery.Significance: Improved understanding of ERD in acute stroke may assist in prognostication and rehabilitation.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 2, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chayanin Tangwiriyasakul, Rens Verhagen, Wim L.C. Rutten, Michel J.A.M. van Putten Tags: Cerebral Function and its Development Source Type: research

Corticomuscular coherence in acute and chronic stroke
Conclusions: The changes in CMC parameters in acute stroke could result from a temporary decrease in inhibition, which normalizes in the course of recovery. As all patients showed very good motor recovery, the modulation of CMC amplitude and frequency over time might thus reflect the process of motor recovery.Significance: We demonstrate for the first time the dynamical changes of corticomuscular interaction both at acute and chronic stage of stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 6, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Katherina von Carlowitz-Ghori, Zubeyir Bayraktaroglu, Friederike U. Hohlefeld, Florian Losch, Gabriel Curio, Vadim V. Nikulin Tags: Movement, Motor Control and Movement Disorders Source Type: research

Neuromagnetic beta and gamma oscillations in the somatosensory cortex after music training in healthy older adults and a chronic stroke patient
Conclusions: The proposed stimulation paradigm captures the integrity of primary somatosensory hand representation. Source position and synchronization between the stimuli and gamma activity are indices, sensitive to music-supported training. Responsiveness was also observed in a chronic stroke patient, encouraging for the music-supported therapy. Notably, changes in somatosensory responses were observed, even though the therapy did not involve specific sensory discrimination training.Significance: The proposed protocol can be used for monitoring changes in neuronal organization during training and will improve the underst...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 2, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shahab Jamali, Takako Fujioka, Bernhard Ross Tags: Sensation, Central Sensory Pathways and their Disorders Source Type: research

Priming sensorimotor cortex to enhance task-specific training after subcortical stroke
Conclusion: Primary motor cortex iTBS not only modulates M1 corticospinal excitability but also increases M1 receptiveness to sensory input.Significance: Priming with iTBSiM1 may enhance ipsilesional sensorimotor integration and facilitate better quality sensorimotor training after subcortical stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 23, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Suzanne J. Ackerley, Cathy M. Stinear, P. Alan Barber, Winston D. Byblow Tags: Neural Plasticity, Functional Adaptation and Recovery Source Type: research

Deficits in startle-evoked arm movements increase with impairment following stroke
Conclusions: We conclude that the task-inappropriate flexor activity likely results from cortical or corticospinal damage leading to an unsuppressed or hypermetric classic startle reflex that interrupts startReact elbow extension.Significance: Given startReact’s functional role in compensation during environmental disturbances, our results may have important implications for our understanding deficits in stroke survivor’s response to unexpected environmental disturbances.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - January 10, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Claire Fletcher Honeycutt, Eric Jon Perreault Tags: Movement, Motor Control and Movement Disorders Source Type: research

The effects of functional electrical stimulation on upper-extremity function and cortical plasticity in chronic stroke patients
I was pleased to read the study by . ‘The effects of electromyography-controlled functional electrical stimulation on upper extremity function and cortical perfusion in stroke patients’ published in the Clinical Neurophysiology journal.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - January 22, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rebeca Boltes Cecatto Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply to “The effects of functional electrical stimulation on upper extremity function and cortical plasticity in chronic stroke patients”
I appreciate the very important and developed suggestions by Dr. Cecatto for our article (). The proposals on the reasons why EMG-controlled FES (EMG–FES) could shift the brain hemispheric-dominant perfusion in our study provided our study further development and progress. The motor output and corresponding muscle and joint proprioceptive feedback may be tightly coupled and coordinated with movement by EMG–FES. As Dr. Cecatto proposed, these neural reorganisation mechanisms should be explored. The sensory components of large afferent fibre activation, proprioceptive input and increased cognitive sensory attention are a...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 10, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yukihiro Hara Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Perception of lower extremity loads in stroke survivors
The loss of load perception in the impaired leg likely impacts control of walking in stroke survivors (Bohannon, 2003). While the gait impairments experienced by stroke survivors could result directly from damage to motor areas of the brain (Collen et al., 1990; Enzinger et al., 2008), the lack of proper inputs from the environment (sensory information) clearly has an impact on the body’s ability to control movement. In order to walk without losing balance, the motor control system needs to receive accurate sensory information from the limbs.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 11, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Virginia W. Chu, T. George Hornby, Brian D. Schmit Source Type: research

Stroke gait rehabilitation: Is load perception a first step towards load control?
Stroke is often considered to be primarily a motor deficiency, yet sensory deficits play a major role in motor behavior and therefore should not be overlooked. This is particularly true for locomotion. Basically one major aim of gait is to support the body against gravity. Hence, not surprisingly, it has been found that load receptors play a very important role in the regulation of gait in a wide variety of animals (Duysens et al., 2000). Load receptors are present in extensor muscles (Golgi tendon organs) and in the foot sole (cutaneous receptors).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 9, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jacques Duysens, Firas Massaad Source Type: research

Startling acoustic stimuli can evoke fast hand extension movements in stroke survivors
Movement deficits following stroke are particularly prevalent in the hand leading to significant reduction in independence and the ability to participate in daily functions (Latham, 1989). Therefore, new therapies that target the hand are extremely valuable. Startle-elicited movements have recently been implicated as a possible therapy target. The classic startle reflex that occurs during exposure to a startling stimulus, e.g. loud sound, results in the adoption of a protective stance (flexion of the upper joints).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - June 18, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Claire Fletcher Honeycutt, Ursina Andrea Tresch, Eric Jon Perreault Source Type: research

Activation deficit correlates with weakness in chronic stroke: Evidence from evoked and voluntary EMG recordings
Weakness after stroke is widely observed clinically, and is reported to be the primary contributor to impaired voluntary force control (Chang et al., 2013) and to functional impairments in chronic stroke (Kamper et al., 2006). Weakness is highly correlated with the severity of initial damage to the corticospinal tracts in the acute phase (Small et al., 2013). In the course of recovery, both central and peripheral mechanisms contribute to weakness as a result of neural plasticity, adaptation, exercises and therapies.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - April 1, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sheng Li, Jie Liu, Minal Bhadane, Ping Zhou, W. Zev Rymer Source Type: research

Asymmetries in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in chronic stroke survivors with spastic hypertonia: Evidence for a vestibulospinal role
Spastic hypertonia or “spasticity” is a frequent and often disabling sequel to hemispheric stroke (Watkins et al., 2002; Urban et al., 2010). It is a motor disorder, manifesting as a sharply lateralized muscular hypertonia on the contralesional side with exaggerated phasic and tonic stretch reflex activity (Lance, 1980). Clinically, spasticity presents as an increase in the resistance of a passive limb to externally applied joint motion and is commonly associated with deficits in both motor and functional performance (Bohannon et al., 1987; O’Dwyer et al., 1996; Watkins et al., 2002; Sommerfeld et al., 2004).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Derek M. Miller, Cliff S. Klein, Nina L. Suresh, William Z. Rymer Source Type: research

How do the physiology and transcallosal effects of the unaffected hemisphere change during inpatient rehabilitation after stroke?
In this issue of Clinical Neurophysiology, Takechi and colleagues publish a paper entitled “Longitudinal changes of motor cortical excitability and transcallosal inhibition after subcortical stroke” that represents a long-overdue examination of changes in interhemispheric interactions during an important period for the recovery of motor function after stroke. It has been suspected that this type of recovery to neuronal damage represents a type of neuroplasticity, potentially with both adaptive and maladaptive processes.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 27, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: George F. Wittenberg, Michael A. Dimyan Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes of motor cortical excitability and transcallosal inhibition after subcortical stroke
Motor circuit reorganization in the cerebral cortex is known to contribute to recovery following stroke. This reorganization can be examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using measures of corticospinal and intracortical excitability (Liepert et al., 2000; Shimizu et al., 2002; Liepert et al., 2005; Talelli et al., 2006; Wittenberg et al., 2007; Bütefisch et al., 2008; Manganotti et al., 2008; Swayne et al., 2008; Takeuchi et al., 2010). TMS measures such as motor threshold (MT) and recruitment curve (RC) reflect corticospinal excitability, whereas intracortical excitability is reflected by cortical silent pe...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - February 27, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Utako Takechi, Kaoru Matsunaga, Ryoji Nakanishi, Hiroaki Yamanaga, Nobuki Murayama, Kosuke Mafune, Sadatoshi Tsuji Source Type: research

Perception of lower extremity loads in stroke survivors
The loss of load perception in the impaired leg likely impacts control of walking in stroke survivors (Bohannon, 2003). While the gait impairments experienced by stroke survivors could result directly from damage to motor areas of the brain (Collen et al., 1990; Enzinger et al., 2008), the lack of proper inputs from the environment (sensory information) clearly has an impact on the body’s ability to control movement. In order to walk without losing balance, the motor control system needs to receive accurate sensory information from the limbs.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 11, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Virginia W. Chu, T. George Hornby, Brian D. Schmit Source Type: research

Stroke gait rehabilitation: Is load perception a first step towards load control?
Stroke is often considered to be primarily a motor deficiency, yet sensory deficits play a major role in motor behavior and therefore should not be overlooked. This is particularly true for locomotion. Basically one major aim of gait is to support the body against gravity. Hence, not surprisingly, it has been found that load receptors play a very important role in the regulation of gait in a wide variety of animals (Duysens et al., 2000). Load receptors are present in extensor muscles (Golgi tendon organs) and in the foot sole (cutaneous receptors).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 9, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jacques Duysens, Firas Massaad Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Startling acoustic stimuli can evoke fast hand extension movements in stroke survivors
Movement deficits following stroke are particularly prevalent in the hand leading to significant reduction in independence and the ability to participate in daily functions (Latham, 1989). Therefore, new therapies that target the hand are extremely valuable. Startle-elicited movements have recently been implicated as a possible therapy target. The classic startle reflex that occurs during exposure to a startling stimulus, e.g. loud sound, results in the adoption of a protective stance (flexion of the upper joints).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - June 18, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Claire Fletcher Honeycutt, Ursina Andrea Tresch, Eric Jon Perreault Source Type: research

Activation deficit correlates with weakness in chronic stroke: Evidence from evoked and voluntary EMG recordings
Weakness after stroke is widely observed clinically, and is reported to be the primary contributor to impaired voluntary force control (Chang et al., 2013) and to functional impairments in chronic stroke (Kamper et al., 2006). Weakness is highly correlated with the severity of initial damage to the corticospinal tracts in the acute phase (Small et al., 2013). In the course of recovery, both central and peripheral mechanisms contribute to weakness as a result of neural plasticity, adaptation, exercises and therapies.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - April 3, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sheng Li, Jie Liu, Minal Bhadane, Ping Zhou, W. Zev Rymer Source Type: research

Asymmetries in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in chronic stroke survivors with spastic hypertonia: Evidence for a vestibulospinal role
Spastic hypertonia or “spasticity” is a frequent and often disabling sequel to hemispheric stroke (Watkins et al., 2002; Urban et al., 2010). It is a motor disorder, manifesting as a sharply lateralized muscular hypertonia on the contralesional side with exaggerated phasic and tonic stretch reflex activity (Lance, 1980). Clinically, spasticity presents as an increase in the resistance of a passive limb to externally applied joint motion and is commonly associated with deficits in both motor and functional performance (Bohannon et al., 1987; O’Dwyer et al., 1996; Watkins et al., 2002; Sommerfeld et al., 2004).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Derek M. Miller, Cliff S. Klein, Nina L. Suresh, William Z. Rymer Source Type: research

How do the physiology and transcallosal effects of the unaffected hemisphere change during inpatient rehabilitation after stroke?
In this issue of Clinical Neurophysiology, Takechi and colleagues publish a paper entitled “Longitudinal changes of motor cortical excitability and transcallosal inhibition after subcortical stroke” that represents a long-overdue examination of changes in interhemispheric interactions during an important period for the recovery of motor function after stroke. It has been suspected that this type of recovery to neuronal damage represents a type of neuroplasticity, potentially with both adaptive and maladaptive processes.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 3, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: George F. Wittenberg, Michael A. Dimyan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes of motor cortical excitability and transcallosal inhibition after subcortical stroke
Motor circuit reorganization in the cerebral cortex is known to contribute to recovery following stroke. This reorganization can be examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using measures of corticospinal and intracortical excitability (Liepert et al., 2000; Shimizu et al., 2002; Liepert et al., 2005; Talelli et al., 2006; Wittenberg et al., 2007; Bütefisch et al., 2008; Manganotti et al., 2008; Swayne et al., 2008; Takeuchi et al., 2010). TMS measures such as motor threshold (MT) and recruitment curve (RC) reflect corticospinal excitability, whereas intracortical excitability is reflected by cortical silent pe...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - March 3, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Utako Takechi, Kaoru Matsunaga, Ryoji Nakanishi, Hiroaki Yamanaga, Nobuki Murayama, Kosuke Mafune, Sadatoshi Tsuji Source Type: research

P11. Quality of Life after pediatric ischemic stroke: Five year follow-up of swiss children
Children after pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) are known to suffer from neurological and neuropsychological impairments but limited data is available concerning quality of life (QoL) outcome. The aim of this present study is to examine long-term effects on QoL in a population-based AIS sample from Switzerland.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 1, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: S. Kornfeld, S. Winkelbeiner, M. Studer, E. Boltshauser, A. Capone Mori, A. Datta, J. Fluss, D. Mercati, A. Hackenberg, E. Keller, O. Maier, J.P. Marcoz, G.P. Ramelli, C. Poloni, R. Schmid, T. Schmitt-Mechelke, E Wehrli, T. Heinks, M. Steinlin Source Type: research

Perception of lower extremity loading in stroke
We read with great interest the article entitled “Perception of lower extremity loads in stroke survivors” by Chu et al. (2014). There is a dearth of studies regarding perception of loading in stroke population. We applaud the authors for the contemporary thoughts on the method of measuring lower extremity dynamic load perception. We take this opportunity to share few scientific facts related to the scope of this article.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 25, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Senthil N.S. Kumar, Leonard H Joseph, Ahmad Pharmy Jalil Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Reply to “Perception of lower extremity loading in stroke”
As reflected by the comments of Kumar et al. (2014), there is an increasing interest in developing quantitative measurements of complex sensorimotor behaviors in people with neurologic injury or disease. In concept, our manuscript “Perception of lower extremity loads in stroke survivors” addresses one of these behaviors, which is likely to be important to gait function in stroke survivors. While we believe that impairment in load perception plays an important role in gait, Kumar et al. raise many important issues related to interpreting data from testing paradigms with higher complexity, and in extrapolating these labo...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - October 27, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Virginia W. Chu, T. George Hornby, Brian D. Schmit Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Cortical activation and inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence in individuals with arm dystonia due to childhood stroke
Motor disorders following childhood stroke are common (Lynch and Nelson, 2001), yet are insufficiently studied (Bejot et al., 2012). Of the observed post-stroke motor sequelae, childhood dystonia is the most frequently occurring disorder (Bejot et al., 2012). Dystonia, as it occurs in children, is defined as a movement disorder in which involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both (Sanger et al., 2010). Post-stroke dystonia is most commonly observed on the side of the body contralateral to the stroke, and is referred to as hemidystonia.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 14, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sahana N. Kukke, Ana Carolina de Campos, Diane Damiano, Katharine E. Alter, Nicholas Patronas, Mark Hallett Source Type: research

Contributions of Motoneuron Hyperexcitability to Clinical Spasticity in Hemispheric Stroke Survivors
Spasticity, affecting up to 43% of chronic stroke survivors (Wissel et al., 2013), is diagnosed clinically as muscular hypertonia, coupled with other reflex disturbances. This hypertonia is defined as a velocity-dependent resistance to stretching due to exaggerated reflex responses (Lance, 1980). There are also concurrent mechanical changes of the muscular-tendon complex, which also contribute to increased muscle tone. Although spasticity can sometimes be beneficial for certain functional movements (e.g., making locomotion and body weight support possible), it is still a major neurological impairment that frequently limits...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - November 15, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiaogang Hu, Nina L. Suresh, Matthieu K. Chardon, William Z. Rymer Source Type: research

112. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in early phase of rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke aphasia
About 50% of post-stroke patients remain aphasic a condition that greatly impede their reintegration to society. Results of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) as supplementary treatment for sub-acute post-stroke aphasia are controversial. We assessed the efficacy of inhibitory rTMS with conventional speech therapy to help recovery language performance in sub-acute stroke aphasia.In a randomised case-control double-blind study 12 non-fluent aphasic were consecutively enrolled. All patients suffered a first-ever stroke in the sub-acute stage defined as time since lesion onset from 1 month post-stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: R. Carrai, A. Grippo, A. Angelini, A. Vettori, T. Atzori, C. Falsini, M. Martini, A. Pizzi Source Type: research

106. Deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with H-coil coupled with cycling in chronic lower limb dysfuncion after stroke: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been recognized as a promising intervention for treatment of post-stroke deficits. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of excitatory Hz rTMS with H-coil over the leg motor areas combined with active cycling on paretic lower limb motor function in chronic post-stroke. rTMS was delivered with the H-coil targeting the lower limbs (real or sham for 11 sessions over 3weeks, with cross-over after 4weeks wash-out, in 12 subjects with first stroke more than 6months before.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: R. Chieffo, F. Giatsidis, E. Houdayer, M. Fichera, A. Nuara, E. Coppi, L. Ferrari, G. Di Maggio, R. Santangelo, A. Poggi, M. Sessa, M. Comola, A. Zangen, G. Comi, L. Leocani Source Type: research

9. Brain network modulation following motor imagery BCI-assisted training after stroke
To evaluate the influence of Motor Imagery (MI) training assisted via Brain Computer Interface (BCI) on brain network organization in subacute stroke patients. We analyzed EEG-derived brain networks estimated before and after two training strategies (with and without BCI support); correlations between connectivity indices and clinical improvement were performed. Twenty-eight subacute stroke patients were enrolled and assigned to two groups: 14 patients underwent a one-month motor imagery (MI) training supported by a sensorimotor–based BCI (BCI group) while 14 underwent a similar MI training without BCI support (CTRL group).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: F. Pichiorri, M. Petti, G. Morone, M. Molinari, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, M. Inghilleri, D. Mattia Source Type: research

1. Epileptic seizures in pediatric stroke: Data from the Italian Registry for Childhood Thrombosis
According to data from the Italian Registry for Childhood Thrombosis (R.I.T.I.), in about half cases diagnosis of pediatric stroke occurs after 24h from clinical onset (Baggio et al., SINP2013). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of seizures at stroke onset and their correlation with time to diagnosis in the pediatric stroke patients in the R.I.T.I. We selected the R.I.T.I. children with first acute arterial (AIS) or venous (CSVT) cerebral infarction occurring between January 2007 and June 2012; we studied prevalence, characteristics and recurrence of epileptic seizures, focusing on diagnostic delay.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 13, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: L. Baggio, S. Sartori, M. Nosadini, C. Gentilomo, P. Saracco, M. Agostini, B. Bassi, A. Palmieri, A.M. Laverda, P. Simioni, A. Suppiej, per il G.I.R.T.I. (Gruppo Italiano Registro Trombosi Infantili) Source Type: research

Diffusion imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation assessment of transcallosal pathways in chronic stroke
The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of neural fibre tracts that mediate interhemispheric communication. Such interhemispheric communication is especially important for movement, with inhibitory and excitatory signals transmitted between hemispheres based on whether unimanual or synchronous/asynchronous bimanual movement is performed (Carson, 2005). Deficits in motor function are commonly experienced following stroke and increasing evidence suggests that these deficits may be driven, in part, by disruption of transcallosal pathways (Murase et al., 2004; Duque et al., 2005; Gupt...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - January 14, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cameron S. Mang, Michael R. Borich, Sonia M. Brodie, Katlyn E. Brown, Nicholas J. Snow, Katie P. Wadden, Lara A. Boyd Source Type: research

1-A-D-4. Effects of repetitive facilitative exercise with neuromuscular electrical stimulation, direct application of vibratory stimulation and repetitive transcranial stimulation of the hemiplegic hand in chronic stroke patients
Repetitive facilitative exercise (RFE) is a recently developed approach to the rehabilitation of hemiplegia. RFE can be integrated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), direct application of vibratory stimulation (DAVS), and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to achieve further improvement. The aims of the present study were to retrospectively compare the effects of RFE and NMES+DAVS with those of RFE and rTMS and to determine the maximal effect of the combination of RFE with NMES, DAVS, rTMS and pharmacological treatments in chronic stroke patients.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 4, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Seiji Etoh, Tomokazu Noma, Shuji Matsumoto, Megumi Shimodozono, Kazumi Kawahira Source Type: research

Multiple sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation and upper extremity rehabilitation in stroke: A review and meta-analysis
Stroke is a health concern worldwide and one of the main causes of disability (Kolominsky-Rabas et al., 2001; Albert and Kesselring, 2012). Motor impairment is the main cause of disability after stroke, leading to major health problems (Boggio et al., 2007; Clarke, 1999). In Europe, stroke costs around 64.1 billion euros and in the United Kingdom, around £8.9 billion per annum is spent on community care and rehabilitation of people with stroke (Saka et al., 2009; Gustavsson et al., 2011). At six months, 33% to 66% of people with Upper Extremity (UE) impairments do not present with functional upper limb function and only 5...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 4, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: L. Tedesco Triccas, J.H. Burridge, A.M. Hughes, R.M. Pickering, M. Desikan, J.C. Rothwell, G. Verheyden Source Type: research

Effects of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Studies report that 50% to 81% of people who have a stroke experience swallowing problems (Hamdy, 2010; Meng et al., 2000). This impact is staggering when the cost implications and morbidity of post-stroke dysphagia are considered. Stroke patients with dysphagia cost more to treat (about $4,510 more per patient than a stroke patient without dysphagia) because their hospital stay is nearly doubled, they require more therapy, and they have more complications with worse outcomes (Bonilha et al., 2014; Altman et al., 2010).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 8, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jessica M. Pisegna, Asako Kaneoka, William G. Pearson, Sandeep Kumar, Susan E. Langmore Source Type: research

Sensory stimulation in post-stroke postural imbalance: A novel treatment approach?
Postural disorders represent a frequent sequel after stroke and many patients do not regain undisturbed upright stance. Most often, patients show a so-called “postural imbalance” (PI) which denotes an asymmetric body position during stance as expressed by a lateral displacement of his/her centre of pressure towards the non-paretic leg and an increased lateral sway when measured on a force platform (Perennou 2006). Clinically, the result of this asymmetric body posture is a poorer rehabilitation outcome of those patients with PI, less functional autonomy and a poorer quality of life.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 22, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lena Schmidt, Georg Kerkhoff, Kathrin S. Utz Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The effect of optokinetic and galvanic vestibular stimulations in reducing post-stroke postural asymmetry
Improving balance after stroke is of crucial importance because its improvement is strongly correlated to higher patient autonomy and improved quality of life (QoL). The characteristics of postural disturbances following stroke, as observed on a force platform, are of increased sway and a lateral displacement of the centre of pressure (CP) toward the non-paretic limb (Pérennou et al 1997, Rode et al 1998). The lateral displacement of the centre of pressure toward the lesion side is more important in patients with right hemispheric lesion (RHL) and this is thought to partly explain the predominance of postural imbalance in...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - May 22, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: I.V. Bonan, E. Leblong, S. Leplaideur, B. Laviolle, S. Tassel Tonche, A.P. Yelnik Source Type: research

Atypical cortical drive during activation of the paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior is related to gait deficits in chronic stroke
Following a neurological injury, recovery of lower extremity control and the ability to walk is a primary goal of stroke patients (Bohannon et al. 1991). However, many individuals are left with long term disability of functional ambulation following stroke, despite current standard rehabilitation (Bohannon et al. 1991). Gains in neuroscience research over the last several decades have enhanced our understanding of structural changes in the brain that may underlie functional disability following stroke (Kleim and Jones 2008).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - June 18, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jacqueline A. Palmer, Alan R. Needle, Ryan T. Pohlig, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod Source Type: research

P74. 1Hz rTMS over the contralesional dorsal premotor cortex improves dexterity of the affected hand after stroke: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial
The contralesional dPMC may be a new target for rTMS procedures intended to improve dexterity of the affected hand after acute stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Lüdemann-Podubecká, K. Bösl, D.A. Novak Source Type: research

P109. Parietofrontal motor pathways and their association with motor function after stroke
A stroke results in widespread alterations of motor-related brain activity and interregional interactions in the sensorimotor network. Numerous studies have investigated the functional relevance of the primary motor cortices (M1) and predominantly frontal and prefrontal secondary motor areas. Only few studies focused on the functional role of the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) after stroke. Corticocortical interactions between M1, PMv and posterior parietal motor areas, such as the anterior (aIPS) and caudal intraparietal sulcus (cIPS) are relevant for skilled voluntary hand function.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: P. Koch, R. Schulz, M. Zimerman, M. Wessel, M. Bönstrup, G. Thomalla, B. Cheng, C. Gerloff, F.C. Hummel Source Type: research

P108. The effect of task effort on recovery-related brain activity following motor stroke assessed with FMRI and EEG
Spontaneous recovery of motor deficits after stroke evolve at a rather unpredictable fashion regarding the time and extend of skill reacquisition (Langhorne et al., Lancet, 2011). Previous longitudinal studies investigating brain activity during recovery from hand motor deficits point to an early overactivation of the motor network with a decrease back to near normal patterns later after stroke (Rehme et al., Neuroimage, 2012). Since patients regain force and skill during recovery, changes in neural activation over time could be explained by a decreased relative task effort over time.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Bönstrup, R. Schulz, B. Cheng, J. Feldheim, G. Thomalla, F. Hummel, C. Gerloff Source Type: research

P105. Network dynamics engaged in the modulation of motor behavior in chronic stroke patients
Affected hand movements are associated with a successive increase of neural activity in both hemispheres in the first weeks after stroke, which then return to levels observed in healthy controls, particularly in patients making full motor recovery. Little is known about the changes of the interplay of brain regions that enable the modulation of motor performance after stroke. In healthy subjects, an important feature of faster hand movements is mediated by a more effective coupling between distinct cortical and subcortical motor areas.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: E.-M. Pool, M. Kutscha, E. Binder, S.B. Eickhoff, G.R. Fink, C. Grefkes Source Type: research

P11. Connectivity-based predictions of hand motor outcome at the sub-acute stage after stroke
Predicting motor recovery after stroke is a recognized aim in stroke rehabilitation. Here, we combine two different neuroimaging methods to test their prognostic power at the sub-acute stage after stroke. We measured resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in 19 stroke patients within the first days (5–9days) after stroke and investigated short term (3months) and long term (6months) motor outcome.Resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) showed no relevant predictive value for motor outcome.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Lindow, M. Domin, M. Grothe, W. Byblow, M. Lotze Source Type: research

V37. Interactions between primary and secondary motor areas for recovered hand functions after stroke
Goal oriented hand movements are the final product of complex interplay between multiple cortical regions of the frontoparietal cortex. Following stroke, recovery of function might be related to structural and functional modifications in the surviving brain networks. Strikingly, the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) plays a crucial role in the sensorimotor processing engaged in shaping finger movements and shares extensive reciprocal projections to the primary motor cortex (M1), making the PMv a promising structure involved in hand motor recovery after stroke.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: M. Zimerman, S. Weide, M. Wessel, R. Schulz, J.E. Timmermann, M. Bönstrup, T. Morishita, P. Koch, C. Gerloff, F.C. Hummel Source Type: research

V9. Distinct contributions of dorsal and ventral streams to imitation of transitive and intransitive gestures: Evidence from acute stroke patients
Meaningful gestures are one of the key features of social interaction and comprise both object-associated transitive movements (e.g. hammering) as well as intransitive movements referring to a communicative content (e.g. waving goodbye). The ability to imitate meaningful gestures is frequently impaired in apraxia due to left-hemispheric stroke. However, the pathophysiology behind these deficits so far remained unresolved. A dual stream-model for a dichotomized organisation of higher cognitive functions such as language or praxis has been proposed, with a dorsal stream involved in sensorimotor processing and a ventral strea...
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 5, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: A. Dreßing, L. Beume, D. Kümmerer, C. Schmidt, T. Bormann, I. Mader, M. Rijntjes, C. Kaller, C. Weiller, M. Hören Source Type: research

Defining abnormal slow EEG activity in acute ischaemic stroke: delta/alpha ratio as an optimal QEEG index
Ischaemic stroke (IS) produces abnormal, slow EEG activity - particularly in the delta frequency range (1-4 Hz) - and attenuation of normative, faster activity, particularly in the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz; e.g., Jordan, 2004; Hirsch et al., 2013). A recent review (Finnigan and van Putten, 2013) emphasises that particular QEEG indices, which are sensitive to such cerebral pathophysiology following IS, can inform clinical decision-making including: (1) continuous monitoring to inform about the efficacy of acute reperfusion therapies, and; (2) outcome prognostication and clinical management decisions based on brief, pre-discharge EEG.
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - July 21, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Simon Finnigan, Andrew Wong, Stephen Read Source Type: research

Report of a delayed seizure after low frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in a chronic stroke patient
We report a seizure in a stroke patient 24 hours after exposure to 1 Hz repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - August 6, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sara Agosta, Emanuela Galante, Francesco Ferraro, Alvaro Pascual Leone, Joel Oster, Lorella Battelli Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for rehabilitation of post-stroke dysphagia: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial
Dysphagia is a common and potential fatal complication following stroke (Martino et al., 2005). It afflicts a great number of patients with hemispheric stroke (Martino et al., 2005) and brainstem infarction (Horner et al., 1991). Post-stroke dysphagia is associated with an increased risk for mortality, and it may lead to severe complications including malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration pneumonia (Teasell et al., 1994; Dziewas et al., 2004; Martino et al., 2005). Most patients recover from dysphagia within a few weeks, but the extent of recovery in swallowing varies widely from patient to patient.(Martino et al., 2005).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juan Du, Fang Yang, Ling Liu, Jingze Hu, Biyang Cai, Wenhua Liu, Gelin Xu, Xinfeng Liu Source Type: research

Symmetry of corticomotor input to plantarflexors influences the propulsive strategy used to increase walking speed post-stroke
Following stroke, the majority of survivors are unable to regain sufficient walking function to allow for ambulation at speeds that are safe and effective for community function and participation (van de Port et al., 2008). In addition to typically slower walking speeds compared to neurologically-intact individuals, persons post-stroke are left with a reduced capacity to increase walking speeds (van de Port et al., 2008). The ability to modulate walking speed is clinically meaningful because it underlies an individual’s capacity for safe and effective community function (Jonkers et al., 2009; van de Port et al., 2008).
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - December 12, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jacqueline A. Palmer, HaoYuan Hsiao, Louis N. Awad, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod Source Type: research