Query: stroke

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Source: Molecular Neurobiology

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Total 152 results found since Jan 2013.

Transcriptional Response and Morphological Features of the Neurovascular Unit and Associated Extracellular Matrix After Experimental Stroke in Mice
In conclusion, the variety in gene regulation emphasizes the complexity of interactions within the ischemia-affected NVU and ECM. These data might help to focus future res earch on a set of highly sensitive elements, which might prospectively facilitate neuroprotective strategies beyond the traditional single target perspective.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Glia-Like Cells from Late-Passage Human MSCs Protect Against Ischemic Stroke Through IGFBP-4
AbstractStem cell therapy is considered to be a promising future treatment for intractable neurological diseases, although all the clinical trials using stem cells have not yet shown any good results. Early passage mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in most clinical trials because of the issues on safety and efficacy. However, it is not easy to get plenty of cells enough for the treatment and it costs too much. Lots of late passage MSCs can be obtained at lower cost but their efficacy would be a big hurdle for clinical trials. If late passage MSCs with better efficacy could be used in clinical trials, it could be...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Attenuation of Ischemic Stroke-Caused Brain Injury by a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Involves Improved Proteostasis and Reduced Neuroinflammation
AbstractMitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a key role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced brain injury. We previously showed that ubiquilin-1 (Ubqln1), a ubiquitin-like protein, improves proteostasis and protects brains against oxidative stress and I/R induced brain injury. We demonstrate here that nialamide (NM), a non-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, upregulated Ublqn1 and protected neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation- and I/R-caused cell death in in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Post-ischemic administration of the NM in a stroke mouse model even at 3  h following I/R still reduced ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Contribution of Serum Lipid Profiles to Outcome After Endovascular Thrombectomy for Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke
AbstractThe contribution of lipids, including low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), to stroke outcomes is still debated. We sought to determine the impact of LDL-C concentrations on the outcome of patients with ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation who received treatment with endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke treated at a tertiary center between 2012 and 2016. Patients treated with EVT for large artery occlusion in the anterior circulation were selected. The primary e...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alteration of microRNA 340-5p and Arginase-1 Expression in Peripheral Blood Cells during Acute Ischemic Stroke
AbstractAcute stroke alters the systemic immune response as can be observed in peripheral blood; however, the molecular mechanism by which microRNA (miRNA) regulates target gene expression in response to acute stroke is unknown. We performed a miRNA microarray on the peripheral blood of 10 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 11 control subjects. Selected miRNAs were quantified using a TaqMan assay. After searching for putative targets from the selected miRNAs using bioinformatic analysis, functional studies including binding capacity and protein expression of the targets of the selected miRNAs were performed. The resul...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Novel miRNA PC-5P-12969 in Ischemic Stroke
AbstractCirculating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used effectively as peripheral biomarkers and mechanistic targets for human diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer ’s, and cancer. The purpose of our study is to determine noninvasive, blood-based early detectable biomarkers for ischemic stroke (IS). Based on our previous global miRNA sequencing study, four miRNAs were previously unreported (novel) in IS condition. Among these, miRNA PC-5P-12969 was exclusivel y expressed in the IS condition; otherwise, it was not expressed in normal condition, and therefore, we focused on miRNA PC-5P-12969 for further studies. In the present ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Canonical Wnt Pathway Maintains Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity upon Ischemic Stroke and Its Activation Ameliorates Tissue Plasminogen Activator Therapy
AbstractStroke induces blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, which promotes complications like oedema and hemorrhagic transformation. Administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) within a therapeutic time window of 4.5  h after stroke onset constitutes the only existing treatment. Beyond this time window, rtPA worsens BBB breakdown. Canonical Wnt pathway induces BBB formation and maturation during ontogeny. We hypothesized that the pathway is required to maintain BBB functions after stroke; thus, its activation m ight improve rtPA therapy. Therefore, we first assessed pathway activity in the brain of m...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - March 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) Improves Neurobehavioral Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke in Diabetic Rats: Possible Role of Vascular Endothelial TLR-4
In conclusion, TLR-4 is highly upregulated in the microvasculature and that beneficial effects of TLR-4 inhibition are more profound in diabetes. This suggests that inhibition of vascular TLR-4 may provide therapeutic benefits for stroke recovery in diabetes.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - February 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Delayed Galectin-3-Mediated Reprogramming of Microglia After Stroke is Protective
AbstractGalectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin, has recently emerged as a molecule with immunoregulatory functions. We investigated the effects of Gal-3 on microglia morphology, migration, and secretory profile under physiological conditions and in the context of ischemic injury. We show that in the control conditio ns, exposure to recombinant Gal-3 increases microglial ramification and motility in vitro and in vivo via an IL-4-dependent mechanism. Importantly, after stroke, Gal-3 exerted marked immune-modulatory properties. Delivery of Gal-3 at 24 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was associate...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - February 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bilirubin and Ischemic Stroke: Rendering the Current Paradigm to Better Understand the Protective Effects of Bilirubin
AbstractNovel and innovative methods are critical in fostering new treatments and improving clinical outcomes in patients who suffer from ischemic stroke. Bilirubin has long been considered metabolic waste that can be harmful to the body; however, it is now becoming recognized as one of the body ’s most potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective molecules. These properties facilitate bilirubin’s anti-atherogenic effects to impede and prevent the formation of thrombi in ischemic stroke. These functions allow for protection from neuronal injury during an ischemic state and suggest that elevated bilirubin ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - January 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Improved Reperfusion and Vasculoprotection by the Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase Inhibitor PJ34 After Stroke and Thrombolysis in Mice
In conclusion, the combination of the PARP inhibitor PJ34 with rt-PA after cerebral ischemia may be of particular interest in order to improve thrombolysis with an extended therapeutic window.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Novel Five-Node Feed-Forward Loop Unravels miRNA-Gene-TF Regulatory Relationships in Ischemic Stroke
AbstractThe complex and interlinked cascade of events regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs), transcription factors (TF), and target genes highlight the multifactorial nature of ischemic stroke pathology. The complexity of ischemic stroke requires a wider assessment than the existing experimental research that deals with only a few regulatory components. Here, we assessed a massive set of genes, miRNAs, and transcription factors to build a miRNA-gene-transcription factor regulatory network to elucidate the underlying post-transcriptional mechanisms in ischemic stroke. Feed-forward loops (three-node, four-node, and novel five-node...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Monogenic, Polygenic, and MicroRNA Markers for Ischemic Stroke
AbstractIschemic stroke (IS) is a leading disease with high mortality and disability, as well as with limited therapeutic window. Biomarkers for earlier diagnosis of IS have long been pursued. Family and twin studies confirm that genetic variations play an important role in IS pathogenesis. Besides DNA mutations found previously by genetic linkage analysis for monogenic IS (Mendelian inheritance), recent studies using genome-wide associated study (GWAS) and microRNA expression profiling have resulted in a large number of DNA and microRNA biomarkers in polygenic IS (sporadic IS), especially in different IS subtypes and imag...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - June 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Docosanoids Promote Neurogenesis and Angiogenesis, Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity, Penumbra Protection, and Neurobehavioral Recovery After Experimental Ischemic Stroke
AbstractDocosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) are neuroprotective after experimental ischemic stroke. To explore underlying mechanisms, SD rats underwent 2  h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and treated with DHA (5 mg/kg, IV) or NPD1 (5 μg/per rat, ICV) and vehicles 1 h after. Neuro-behavioral assessments was conducted on days 1, 2, and 3, and on week 1, 2, 3, or 4. BrdU was injected on days 4, 5, and 6, immunohistochemistry was perform ed on week 2 or 4, MRI on day 7, and lipidomic analysis at 4 and 5 h after onset of stroke. DHA improved short- and long-term behavioral functions and red...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - June 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

TRPV4 Activation Contributes Functional Recovery from Ischemic Stroke via Angiogenesis and Neurogenesis
In conclusion, our data suggest that TRPV4 activation by 4α-PDD may improve poststroke functional improvement through angiogenesis and neurogenesis.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - April 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Combination of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Homocysteine Predicts the Post-Stroke Depression in Patients with Ischemic Stroke
In this study, we examined the changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and homocysteine (HCY) levels, two of the risk factors, during the acute period of ischemic stroke (IS) and evaluated the relationship between these two factors and long-term post-stroke depression (PSD). In this study, 259 patients with IS had finished the follow-up and were included. Based on the symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in accordance with DSM-IV criteria for depression at 1  year after stroke. The influence of Hs-CRP/CHY levels on PSD was performed by binary logistic regression analysis and receiver operating chara...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - March 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genetic Mutation of GluN2B Protects Brain Cells Against Stroke Damages
AbstractImmediately following ischemia, glutamate accumulates in the extracellular space and results in extensive stimulation of its receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. A large amount of Ca2+ influx directly through the receptor-gated ion channels which leads to Ca2+ overload and triggers several downstream lethal reactions. As a result, cell dies via apoptosis or necrosis, or both. Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) physically and functionally interacts with the NMDA receptor GluN2B subunit at extra-synaptic sites and this inte...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - March 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early Treatment with Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Inhibitor (JPI-289) Reduces Infarct Volume and Improves Long-Term Behavior in an Animal Model of Ischemic Stroke
AbstractIn patients with stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, overactivation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) causes harmful effects by inducing apoptosis, necrosis, neuroinflammation, and immune dysregulation. The current study investigated the neuroprotective effect of a novel PARP-1 inhibitor, JPI-289, in an animal model of ischemic stroke. A transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO, 2  h) model was used to determine the therapeutic effect and the most effective dose and time window of administration of JPI-289. We also investigated the long-term outcomes of treatment with JPI-289 by diffusion-weigh...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - January 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasma miR-124 Is a Promising Candidate Biomarker for Human Intracerebral Hemorrhage Stroke
AbstractStroke causes death or long-term disabilities and threatens the general health of the population worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that miRNAs are dysregulated and can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in stroke. The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of all the stroke cases. However, at present, little is known regarding the functions and clinical implications of miRNAs in ICH. In the present study, we established the collagenase-induced rat ICH model to mimic human ICH syndrome. We profiled the expression of 728 rat miRNAs at different time points in rat brain tissues and plasm...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of ACYP2 and TSPYL6 Genetic Polymorphisms with Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Han Chinese Population
In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms ofACYP2 andTSPYL6 are associated with increased risk of developing ischemic stroke. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to validate our findings.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sigmoid Sinus Characteristics Correlate with Early Clinical and Imaging Surrogates in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke
AbstractCerebral venous outflow may play a decisive role in acute ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the relation of cerebral sinus vein characteristics with clinical and imaging surrogates of early outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We evaluated cerebral vein characteristics in 212 patients with the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive stroke confirmed by CT angiography CTA within 6  h from symptom onset. Readout parameters included volume and density of the sigmoid sinus (SS) and density of the superior sagittal sinus (SupSagS). These were correlated with early clinical outcome defined as hospital death (HD), final inf...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

DAPK1 Signaling Pathways in Stroke: from Mechanisms to Therapies
AbstractDeath-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, plays important roles in diverse apoptosis pathways not only in tumor suppression but also in neuronal cell death. The requirement of DAPK1 catalytic activity for its proposed cell functions and the elevation of catalytic activity of DAPK1 in injured neurons in models of neurological diseases, such as ischemia and epilepsy, validate that DAPK1 can be taken as a potential therapeutic target in these diseases. Recent studies show that DAPK1-NR2B, DAPK1-DANGER, DAPK1-p53, and DAPK1-Tau are currently known path...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dodecafluoropentane Improves Neurological Function Following Anterior Ischemic Stroke
This study investigated shortened dosage schedules of DDFPe in nonstandard posterior (NSTND) strokes following occlusions of the posterior cerebral arteries. DDFPe given at shortened schedules of 30 or 60-min injection intervals will reduce neurological deficits, percent stroke volume (%SV), and serum glutamate levels in NSTND ischemic strokes. New Zealand White rabbits (N = 26) were randomly placed into three groups: A (n = 9) controls given saline injections every 60 min, B (n = 9) 2 % DDFPe given IV every 30 min, and C (n = 8) DDFPe every 60 min. Injections began 1 h after embolization. Groups were subdivid...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Spatholobi Caulis Extract on Neuronal Damage and Focal Ischemic Stroke/Reperfusion Injury
AbstractNeuronal apoptotic cell death plays an important role in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer ’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and ischemic stroke. Spatholobi Caulis (SC) has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, viral infection, and anemia. However, the protective effects of SC extract (SCE) against apoptotic cell death in the brain h ave not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of SCE against neuronal injury etoposide-induced neurotoxicity and in rats subjected to focal transient ischemic stroke middle cerebral artery occlusion ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genetic Variants in MicroRNAs Predict Recurrence of Ischemic Stroke
AbstractMicroRNAs are a recently discovered class of small noncoding RNA, which play key roles in every aspect of brain function, including neural development and neurogenesis. Since abnormal expression and function of microRNAs has been observed in ischemic stroke, we evaluated whether genetic variations in microRNAs can influence the clinical behavior of ischemic stroke. Common functional microRNA SNPs (i.e., miR-146a rs2910164, miR-149 rs2292832, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-499 rs3746444, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-618 rs2682818) were genotyped in 914 patients with ischemic stroke. MicroRNAs variants were not associated w...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - April 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Role of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR in Evaluating Level III Collateral Circulation in a Rat Model of Acute Ischemic Stroke
In conclusion, the permeability parameters, such as IAUC andKtrans map, can quantitatively assess capillary intensity, which may indicate angiogenesis categorized as level III collateral circulation after ischemic stroke.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - April 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CT Permeability Imaging Predicts Clinical Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intra-arterial Thrombolytic Therapy
In conclusion, combining PCT andKtrans maps derived from first-pass PCT can identify at-risk cerebral ischemic tissue more precisely than perfusion parameters alone. This provides improved accuracy in predicting FIV and clinical outcomes.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - April 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Elevated Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Free Fatty Acid Levels Are Associated with Unfavorable Functional Outcome in Subjects with Acute Ischemic Stroke
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) free fatty acid (FFA) levels in a cohort of patients with an acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In a prospective study, FFA levels were measured using an enzyme cycling method on admission in serum and CSF of 252 consecutive patients with AIS. The prognostic value of FFA to predict the functional outcome and mortality within 90-day was compared with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and with other known outcome predictors. Serum and CSF levels of FFA increased with increasing severity of stroke as defined ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - March 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Isoform-B Stimulates Neurovascular Repair After Ischemic Stroke by Promoting the Function of Pericytes via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1
In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of VEGF-B in ischemic stroke using different in vivo and in vitro approaches. We showed that the delayed intranasal administration of VEGF-B reduced neuronal damage and inflammation. Unexpectedly, VEGF-B stimulated the formation of stable brain microvasculature within the injured region by promoting the interaction between endothelial cells and pericytes. Our data indicate that the effects of VEGF-B were mediated via its specific receptor VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) that is predominately expressed in brain pericytes. Importantly, VEGF-B promoted the survival of pericyt...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - March 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Extracellular Matrix Modulation Is Driven by Experience-Dependent Plasticity During Stroke Recovery
This study provides molecular targets for novel therapi es that could support rehabilitation of stroke patients.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - March 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Characterization of Dysregulated miRNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Ischemic Stroke Patients
AbstractEpigenetic modification may play an important role in pathophysiology of ischemic stroke (IS) risk. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which constitute one of the modes of epigenetic regulation, have been shown to be associated with a number of clinical disorders including IS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the miRNA profile in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of IS patients and compare it with stroke-free controls. Blood samples were obtained from 19 healthy age-gender-race matched individuals who served as controls to 20 IS patients. miRNA microarray analysis with RNA from PBMCs was performed and sig...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - February 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evidence that NF- κB and MAPK Signaling Promotes NLRP Inflammasome Activation in Neurons Following Ischemic Stroke
In this study, we provide evidence that activation of either the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways was partly responsible for inducing the expression and activation of NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasome proteins and that these effects can be attenuated using pharmacological inhibitors of these two pathways in neurons and brain tissue under in vitro and in vivo ischemic conditions, respectively. Moreover, these findings provided supporting evidence that treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparation can reduce activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways resulting in decreased expression and activation of N...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - January 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lipoprotein (a) as a Predictor of Early Stroke Recurrence in Acute Ischemic Stroke
This study aims to determine lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels in serum and to investigate their associations with stroke recurrence events in a 3-month follow-up study in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Serum Lp(a) levels were determined in 203 ischemic stroke patients and 120 normal controls at admission. The severity and clinical outcome of ischemic stroke patients were evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We followed the participants for a median of 3  months using a standard questionnaire to determine the stroke recurrence events. The correlation analysis and multiple linear re...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - December 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

TAT-PEP Enhanced Neurobehavioral Functional Recovery by Facilitating Axonal Regeneration and Corticospinal Tract Projection After Stroke
AbstractPaired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) has been identified as a new receptor for myelin-associated inhibitory (MAI) proteins, which may play important role in axonal regeneration and corticospinal tract (CST) projection associated with neurobehavioral function recovery after stroke. Here, we found that the expression of PirB was increased in the cortical penumbra from 1 to 28  days after transient focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion of rats. Then, transactivator of transcription-PirB extracellular peptide (TAT-PEP) was generated that might block the interactions between MAIs and PirB. The results showed that...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - December 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Activation of Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Reduces Brain Edema in Mice with Ischemic Stroke and Bone Fracture
AbstractStroke is an important risk factor for bone fracture. We showed previously that bone fracture at the acute stage of ischemic stroke worsens, and activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) improves, stroke recovery by attenuating inflammation. We hypothesized that activation of α-7 nAchR also improves the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed on C57BL/6J mice foll owed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0.8 mg/kg PHA 568487 (PHA, α-7 nAchR-specific agonist), 6 mg/kg methyllycaconitine (MLA, α-7 nAchR...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - December 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

GSK-3 β inhibitor TWS119 attenuates rtPA-induced hemorrhagic transformation and activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after acute ischemic stroke in rats
This study provides a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent tPA-induced HT after acute ischemic stroke.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Low Serum Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Were Associated with Poor Short-Term Functional Outcome and Mortality in Acute Ischemic Stroke
In this study, 204 patients were included. Patients with poor outcomes and non-survivors had significantly lower BDNF levels on admission (P <  0.0001 all). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common risk factors showed that BDNF levels in the lowest interquartile (≤1st 9.2 ng/ml) was an independent predictor of functional outcome (odds ratios [OR] = 3.75; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 2.43–8.12) and mortality (OR = 4.04; 95 % CI, 2.07–9.14). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of BDNF was 0.77 (95 % CI, 0.70–0.84) for functional outcome and 0.79 (95 % CI, 0....
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rodent Gymnastics: Neurobehavioral Assays in Ischemic Stroke
AbstractDespite years of research, most preclinical trials on ischemic stroke have remained unsuccessful owing to poor methodological and statistical standards leading to “translational roadblocks.” Various behavioral tests have been established to evaluate traits such as sensorimotor function, cognitive and social interactions, and anxiety-like and depression-like behavior. A test’s validity is of cardinal importance as it influences the chance of a successful translation of preclinical results to clinical settings. The mission of choosing a behavioral test for a particular project is, therefore, imperative and the ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HDAC Inhibitor Sodium Butyrate-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation Enhances Neuroprotective Function of Microglia During Ischemic Stroke
In this study, we investigated the epigenetic regulation of microglial activation by studying histone modification histone 3-lysine 9-acetylation (H3K9ac) and its regulation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. In vitro analysis of activated microglia showed that HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate (SB), alters H3K9ac enrichment and transcription at the promoters of pro-inflammatory (Tnf- α,Nos2,Stat1,Il6) and anti-inflammatory (Il10) genes while inducing the expression of genes downstream of the IL10/STAT3 anti-inflammatory pathway. In an experimental mouse (C57BL/6NTac) model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO),...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ischemic Post-Conditioning Induces Post-Stroke Neuroprotection via Hsp70-Mediated Proteasome Inhibition and Facilitates Neural Progenitor Cell Transplantation
AbstractIn view of the failure of pharmacological therapies, alternative strategies promoting post-stroke brain repair are needed. Post-conditioning is a potentially promising therapeutic strategy, which induces acute neuroprotection against ischemic injury. To elucidate longer lasting actions of ischemic post-conditioning, mice were exposed to a 60-min stroke and post-conditioning by an additional 10-min stroke that was induced 10  min after reperfusion onset. Animals were sacrificed 24 h or 28 days post-stroke. Post-conditioning reduced infarct volume and neurological deficits 24 h post-stroke, enhancing blood-brain ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - October 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase after Ischemic Stroke Reduces Infarct Volume and Improves Long-Term Behavior
AbstractPhosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have recently been implicated in apoptosis and ischemic cell death. We tested the efficacy of early intervention with a peptide PI3K activator in focal cerebral ischemia. After determining the most effective dose (24  μg/kg) and time window (2 h after MCAO) of treatment, a total of 48 rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) was performed 1 h after MCAO and rats with lesion sizes within a predetermined range were randomized to either PI3K activator or vehic le treatment arms. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Delayed Treatment with Green Tea Polyphenol EGCG Promotes Neurogenesis After Ischemic Stroke in Adult Mice
In this study, C57BL/6 mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (60 min) followed by reperfusion for 28 days. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were isolated from ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) at 14 days post-ischemia (dpi). The effects of EGCG on the proliferation and differentiation of NPCs were examined in vivo and in vitro. Behavioral assessments were made 3 days before MCAO and at 28 dpi. SVZ NPCs were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro to mimic the inflammatory response after ischemic stroke. We found that 14 days treatment with EGCG significantly increased the proliferation of SVZ NP...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chromosome 4q25 Variants and Age at Onset of Ischemic Stroke
Abstract Recent genome-wide association studies have identified two variants rs10033464 and rs2200733 on chromosome 4q25, significantly associated with ischemic stroke risk. We conducted this study to investigate whether these two variants were associated with age at onset and prognosis of ischemic stroke in a Chinese population. Genotyping of rs10033464 and rs2200733 was performed by improved multiple ligase detection reaction. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the mean age of ischemic stroke onset for each variant. Combined effects of these two variants on age at ischemic stroke onset were then estimated. Kaplan...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

N-Myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 2 (Ndrg2) Is Involved in Ischemia–Hypoxia-Induced Astrocyte Apoptosis: a Novel Target for Stroke Therapy
In conclusion, NDRG2 is involved in astrocyte apoptosis following ischemic–hypoxic injury, and inhibiting NDRG2 expression significantly reduces ROS production and astrocyte apoptosis. These findings provide insight into the role of NDRG2 in ischemic–hypoxic injury and provide potential targets for future clinical therapies for stroke.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 6, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chloride Co-transporter NKCC1 Inhibitor Bumetanide Enhances Neurogenesis and Behavioral Recovery in Rats After Experimental Stroke
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that chronic bumetanide treatment enhances neurogenesis and behavioral recovery after experimentally induced stroke in rats.
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - March 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Nrf2 Weaves an Elaborate Network of Neuroprotection Against Stroke
Abstract Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a neuroprotective transcription factor that has recently attracted increased attention. Stroke, a common and serious neurological disease, is currently a leading cause of death in the USA so far. It is therefore of vital importance to explore how Nrf2 behaves in stroke. In this review, we first introduce the structural features of Nrf2 and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and briefly depict the activation, inactivation, and regulation processes of the Nrf2 pathway. Next, we discuss the physiopathological mechanisms, upstream modulators, and ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - February 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Nine Anti-Platelet Therapies for Patients with Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: a Mixed Treatment Comparisons
Abstract Anti-platelet treatments, an effective anti-thrombotic therapy, are widely used in non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), including aspirin, cilostazol, clopidogrel, and other mono or dual therapies, while the optimal choice remains uncertain. All the literatures of 38 eligible randomized control trials were searched in PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) without language limitation. And, nine anti-platelet therapies were assessed, including aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol, ticlopidine, triflusal, terutroban, sarpogrelate, dipyridamole plus aspirin,...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - February 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endovascular Treatment Versus Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke: a Quantitative Review and Meta-Analysis of 21 Randomized Trials
Abstract Emerging studies suggest that endovascular treatment (EVT) may be superior to intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke as compared with intravenous thrombolysis. We assessed RCTs investigating EVT versus intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) published up to June 2015. In total, 21 studies of 4473 patients were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. EVT significantly improved functional outcom...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - February 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exogenous Neural Stem Cells Transplantation as a Potential Therapy for Photothrombotic Ischemia Stroke in Kunming Mice Model
In this study, we explore the transplantation of exogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) as the potential therapy for the photothrombotic ischemia stroke in a Kunming mice model. After stroke, mice receiving NSC transplantation demonstrated a better recovery of brain function during the neurobehavioral tests. Histology analysis of the brain samples from NSC transplanted mice demonstrated a reduction of brain damage caused by stroke. Moreover, immunofluorescence assay for biomarkers in brain sections confirmed that transplanted NSCs indeed differentiated to neurons and astrocytes, consistent with the improved brain function afte...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - January 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research