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Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery

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Total 306 results found since Jan 2013.

Improved Outcomes of Total Arterial Myocardial Revascularization in Elderly Patients at Long-Term Follow-Up: A Propensity-Matched Analysis
Conclusions Total arterial myocardial revascularization in elderly patients is associated with a reduced late incidence of cardiac-related mortality and major cerebral and cardiovascular events compared with the use of saphenous grafts, thereby providing improved long-term benefits also in this specific subset of patients.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - January 19, 2017 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Postoperative Hypoglycemia Is Associated With Worse Outcomes After Cardiac Operations
Conclusions Postoperative hypoglycemia is associated with both mortality and major morbidity after cardiac operations. The combination of both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia represents a substantial increase in risk. Although it remains unclear whether hypoglycemia is a cause, an early warning sign, or a result of adverse events, this study suggests that hypoglycemia may be an important event in the postoperative period after cardiac operations.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - January 19, 2017 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Outcomes of a Less-Invasive Approach for Proximal Aortic Operations
Conclusions A J incision is a feasible technique for primary isolated elective proximal aortic operations, with a low risk of complications similar to those of full sternotomy, but with the advantages of shorter intensive care unit and hospital stays, lower costs, and better cosmesis.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - January 19, 2017 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Predictors of Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A  Bayesian Analysis
Conclusions This prospective Bayesian analysis identified five independent preoperative predictors of POAF after isolated CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass: CHA2DS2-VASc score, severe obesity, preoperative β-blocker use, preoperative antiplatelet therapy, and renal failure. The main interest in the CHA2DS2-VASc score as a predictor of POAF is that it is a simple and widely used bedside tool. Patients with these independent predictors of POAF may constitute a target population to test preventive strategies, such as non-antiarrhythmic and antiarrhythmic drugs.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - December 19, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Aortic Remodeling After Endovascular Repair of Complicated Acute Type B Aortic  Dissection
Conclusions TEVAR for complicated aTBAD results in low 30-day and 1-year mortality rates, with higher reintervention rates than observed with open operations. TEVAR is effective in thrombosing and stabilizing the size of the thoracic FL. The abdominal aortic FL remains patent and must be carefully scrutinized for long-term aneurysm formation.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - December 18, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Clinical Outcomes of the David V Valve-Sparing Root Replacement Compared With Bioprosthetic Valve-Conduits for Aortic Root Aneurysms
Conclusions VSRR and BIO result in equivalent operative mortality and morbidity with similar midterm survival and valve durability. VSRR is an effective alternative to BIO for aortic root pathologic conditions; however, careful patient selection is paramount.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - December 11, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Mitral Valve Repair/Replacement Plus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Composite Score: A Report of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Quality Measurement Task Force
Conclusions An STS composite performance measure was developed for MVRR + CABG operations. This measure may be useful for outcome assessment, quality improvement, patient counseling, clinical research, and public reporting.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - December 7, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Open Repair of Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Patients 50 Years Old and  Younger
Conclusions Early outcomes of open TAAA repair were excellent for patients 50 years old or younger, despite the fact that these patients typically required extensive repairs.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - December 7, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Outcomes of Dialysis-Dependent Patients After Cardiac Operations in a Single-Center Experience of 483 Patients
Conclusions Patients with DD CRF undergoing cardiac operations have high perioperative and medium-term mortality, particularly in the presence of combined aortic and mitral valve pathologic conditions, active endocarditis, and poor left ventricular function.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - December 7, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Reoperative Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement Versus Transcatheter Valve-in-Valve Replacement for Degenerated Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves
Conclusions For degenerated bioprosthetic aortic valves, TViV has similar operative mortality, strokes rates, and survival as SAVR in this high-risk cohort. Therefore, TViV is a viable alternative to SAVR, although studies using registry data are needed to establish noninferiority.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - October 29, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Impact of Preoperative Atrial Fibrillation on Postoperative Thromboembolic Events After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation
Conclusions Preoperative AF was associated with a similar incidence of postoperative stroke, device thrombosis, and survival. On the basis of these data, it seems unnecessary to perform a left atrial appendage ligation or to alter postoperative anticoagulation in patients with AF undergoing LVAD implantation.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - October 29, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Outcomes in HeartMate II Patients With No Antiplatelet Therapy: 2-Year Results From the European TRACE Study
Conclusions The 2-year analysis of the observational European TRACE study suggests that managing HMII patients with a vitamin K antagonist with a target international normalized ratio of 2.3 without antiplatelet therapy may help to reduce the incidence of major bleeding without increasing the risk of thromboembolic events, including ischemic stroke and pump thrombosis.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - October 14, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Should We Perform Carotid Doppler Screening Before Surgical or Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement?
Conclusions We found no statistically significant association between ICAS severity procedure-related stroke after aortic valve replacement. This suggests that universal carotid Doppler screening before isolated TAVR or SAVR is unnecessary.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - October 5, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

The Racial Paradox in Multiarterial Conduit Utilization for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Conclusions Despite similar rates of arterial grafting for black patients and white patients in this large single-center cohort, black patients continued to have significantly worse late survival when compared with white patients. Continued evaluation as to the causes of this disparity is warranted.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - October 5, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Bicuspid Aortic Insufficiency With Aortic Root Aneurysm: Root Reimplantation Versus Bentall Root Replacement
Conclusions In patients with bicuspid aortic valve AI with root aneurysm, primary cusp repair with root reimplantation achieves equivalent midterm outcomes compared with Bentall root replacement.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - September 19, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Branched Endovascular Therapy of the Distal Aortic  Arch: Preliminary Results of the Feasibility Multicenter Trial of the Gore Thoracic Branch Endoprosthesis
Conclusions Total endovascular repair of distal zone 2 arch aortic aneurysms can be achieved with a novel branched arch endograft. Future studies will evaluate the feasibility of this approach for aneurysms encompassing the brachiocephalic trunk and left carotid artery.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - September 19, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Transesophageal Echocardiography Complications in Adult Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Conclusions The overall incidence of TEE complications after cardiac surgery was 1.4%. Advanced age, low body mass index, complexity of procedure, prior stroke, prolonged bypass time, and return to the operating room appear to be significant risk factors for TEE complications.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - September 18, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Prolonged Cross-Clamping During Aortic Valve Replacement Is an Independent Predictor of Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality: Analysis of the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database
Conclusions Prolonged ACCD offers an independent predictor of postoperative morbidity and mortality after isolated AVR for AS despite recent technologic advances and surgical refinements.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - September 11, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Anterior Leaflet Augmentation With CorMatrix Porcine Extracellular Matrix in Twenty-Five Patients: Unexpected Patch Failures and Histologic Analysis
Conclusions For type III MR, a large anterior leaflet patch technique with porcine ECM was associated with a 32% recurrence rate of severe MR related directly to patch failure. Further research and development should be performed on the use of ECM materials with a goal to decrease the failure rate experienced in this study.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - September 9, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Comparison of the Performance of a Sutureless Bioprosthesis With Two Pericardial Stented Valves on Small Annuli: An In  Vitro Study
Conclusions All of the valves tested provided good fluid dynamic performances. The sutureless bioprosthesis provided the best performance with the least hindrance to flow behavior. From the hydrodynamic perspective, the sutureless prosthesis may present an advance in the evolution of bioprostheses, ensuring low gradients and potential for low incidence of patient-prosthesis mismatch even in small annuli.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 18, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Failure to Rescue Rates After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: An Analysis From The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database
Conclusions CABG mortality rates vary directly with FTR, but complication rates have little relation to death. FTR rates derived from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons data can serve as national benchmarks. Predicted FTR rates may facilitate patient counseling, and FTR O/E ratios have promise as valuable quality metrics.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - July 20, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcome and Valve Surgery for Infective Endocarditis in the Systematic Analysis of a Community Study
Conclusions In unselected patients with IE, prognostic factors for long-term mortality were consistent with those identified in previous studies for short-term mortality. These results confirm the apparent benefit associated with valve surgical procedures on long-term prognosis.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - July 20, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement for Severe Aortic Stenosis in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3b to 5
Conclusions CKD stages 3b to 5 increases the risk of mortality after TAVI and SAVR. In this subset of patients, SAVR was associated with somewhat better early and late survival. The risk of acute kidney injury was higher after SAVR. These findings suggest that CKD stages 3b to 5 does not contraindicate SAVR. Strategies to prevent severe acute kidney injury should be implemented with either SAVR or TAVI.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - July 20, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Right Minithoracotomy for Mitral Valve Surgery: Impact of Tailored Strategies on Early Outcome
Conclusions Right minithoracotomy MVS can routinely be performed with favorable outcomes in all comers when perfusion strategies and clamping techniques are carefully selected after proper evaluation of the patient’s preoperative characteristics.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - July 18, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Scimitar Syndrome Repair in Adults: Intermediate-Term Results Using an Extracardiac Conduit
Conclusions Correction of scimitar syndrome with an extracardiac conduit can be easily and safely performed in adults, with excellent intermediate-term durability, without graft thrombi or stenosis. This technique avoids deep hypothermic circulatory arrest when the SV is short or enters the IVC in an unusually caudad location.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - July 16, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery Provides Excellent Outcomes Without Increased Cost: A Multi-Institutional Analysis
Conclusions Compared with conventional sternotomy, mini-MVR in the “real world” demonstrated no differences in rates of major morbidity, but it was associated with shorter length of stay and fewer transfusions. Contrary to our hypothesis, mini-MVR can be performed with similar total hospital costs as conventional sternotomy. In summary, minimally invasive mitral surgical procedure in select patients can provide superior outcomes without increased cost.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Reexploration for Bleeding and Its Association With Mortality After Cardiac Surgery
Conclusions Excessive bleeding leading to reexploration is associated with a twofold increased early postoperative mortality rate. Reexploration for bleeding is also associated with mortality beyond 90 days after operation.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - June 28, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Aortic Valve Replacement in the Moderately Elevated Risk Patient: A Population-Based Analysis of Outcomes
Conclusions This population-based contemporary assessment suggests moderate-risk patients undergoing AVR experience favorable outcomes. Although increasing PROM is important in preoperative evaluation of risk, preexisting pulmonary hypertension and indication for operation are among other factors that should be considered as TAVR expands into this group of patients.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - June 18, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Branched Endovascular Therapy of the Distal Aortic Arch: Preliminary Results of the Feasibility Multicenter Trial of the Gore Thoracic Branch Endoprosthesis
Conclusions Total endovascular repair of distal zone 2 arch aortic aneurysms can be achieved with a novel branched arch endograft. Future studies will evaluate the feasibility of this approach for aneurysms encompassing the brachiocephalic trunk and left carotid artery.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - June 3, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Propensity Matched Analysis of del Nido Cardioplegia in Adult Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Initial Experience With 100 Consecutive Patients
Conclusions In our initial experience, DC provided equivalent myocardial protection and clinical outcomes to BC in adult isolated CABG patients. DC was associated with lower cardiopulmonary bypass glucose levels than BC and demonstrated the feasibility of single-dose administration for routine coronary operations.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - May 20, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Posterior Circulation Ischemia or Occlusion in Five Adults With Failing Fontan Circulation
Conclusions In adults with failing Fontan circulation there is a potential for neurologic complications as a result of venous congestion with elevated central venous pressures, and aberrant posterior circulation. The patient’s history and brain imaging may be used to identify at-risk patients and to tailor perioperative management during Fontan conversion or heart transplantation to mitigate the risk for brainstem ischemia.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - May 20, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Transapical Transcatheter Valve-in-Valve Implantation for Failed Mitral Bioprostheses: Gradient, Symptoms, and Functional Status in 18 High-Risk Patients Up to 5 Years
Conclusions Mitral valve-in-valve implantation allows good clinical and hemodynamic results. In our series, the appearance of a significant gradient at follow-up was not associated with echocardiographic signs of structural deterioration, and was possibly related to the size of the transcatheter and recipient valve.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - May 19, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Does a Higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons Score Predict Outcomes in Transfemoral and Alternative Access Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement?
Conclusions As expected, non-TF patients were at a higher risk than TF patients for procedural morbidity and death. Although no differences were observed in 30-day deaths or morbidity in different STS PROM subgroups, those undergoing non-TF TAVR at a higher STS PROM (>8%) had higher 1-year mortality. When applicable, TF TAVR remains the procedure of choice in high- or extreme-risk patients undergoing TAVR.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - May 19, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Resection of Intraabdominal Tumors With Cavoatrial Extension Using Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest
Conclusions Intraabdominal malignancies with cavoatrial extension can be safely resected. Excellent local tumor control can be anticipated. Long-term surveillance is necessary to detect recurrence.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - May 10, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Outcomes on Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices: A Single Institutional 9-Year Experience
Conclusions These data indicate excellent survival for BTT and DT patients on long-term LVAD support. However, for LVAD therapy to become a plausible alternative to heart transplantation, we need to further decrease the incidence of postoperative complications.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - May 10, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

The Midterm Impact of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement on Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Michigan
Conclusions TAVR implementation in Michigan has dramatically increased overall SAVR volume. This phenomenon has occurred with a concomitant decrease in preoperative risk profile and has improved early SAVR outcomes, particularly at TAVR hospitals, but surprisingly not in patients considered at high preoperative risk. As TAVR use increases, these issues may be further clarified and elucidated.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - May 4, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Validation of the European Multicenter Study on Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (E-CABG) Bleeding Severity Definition
Conclusions The E-CABG bleeding severity classification seems to be a valuable tool in the assessment of the severity and prognostic effect of perioperative bleeding in cardiac operations.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - April 20, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

The Optimal Weaning Strategy for Intraaortic Balloon Counterpulsation: Volume-Based Versus Rate-Based Approach in an Animal Model
Conclusions Volume reduction was the most effective weaning method considering that frequency reduction weaning was responsible for significant negative effects on hemodynamics and coronary circulation.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - March 19, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Open Seldinger-Guided Femoral Artery Cannulation Technique for Thoracic Aortic Surgery
Conclusions An open Seldinger-guided femoral (or axillary) cannulation technique is quick and easy to perform, with minimal vascular or other complications and extremely low risk of stroke. This technique is recommended for its speed, simplicity, and effectiveness, and for its preservation of distal arterial flow (which is occluded with the traditional arterial incision/arterial snare technique).
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - March 7, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Outcomes After Elective Proximal Aortic Replacement: A Matched Comparison of Isolated Versus Multicomponent Operations
Conclusions Elective ascending aortic replacement is safe and effective. Ascending aneurysms should be treated aggressively even when encountered in patients undergoing a multicomponent operation. An aggressive approach to replacement of the ascending aorta may be warranted given the increased risk of stroke during a subsequent reoperation.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - March 7, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Results of Open Surgical Repair in Patients With Marfan Syndrome and Distal Aortic Dissection
Conclusions In these patients with MFS with aortic dissection, open TAAA repair incurred reasonable operative risk, but improvements are needed to reduce rates of renal failure. Extent II TAAA repair does not appear to increase operative risk in patients with MFS.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - February 12, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation After Posterolateral Myocardial Infarction in Sheep Alters Left Ventricular Shear but Not Normal Strain in the Infarct and Infarct Borderzone
Conclusions Moderate CIMR alters radial circumferential shear strain after posterolateral MI in sheep. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of shear strain on myocyte hypertrophy and the effect of mitral repair on myocardial strain.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - February 8, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Mechanical Versus Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients Aged 40 to 70 Years: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2016 Source:The Annals of Thoracic Surgery Author(s): James J. Wu, Michael Seco, James B. Edelman, Guy D. Eslick, Michael K. Wilson, Michael P. Vallely, Michael J. Byrom, Paul G. Bannon Prosthetic valve choice for middle-aged adults undergoing aortic valve replacement is a complex decision. Database searches identified 13 studies comparing mechanical and bioprosthetic valves in aortic valve replacement patients aged 40 to 70 years. No significant difference was found at 15 years for survival, freedom from stroke, and freedom from endocarditis. Mechanical valves were a...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - January 13, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Transatrial Cannulation of the Left Ventricle for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection: A 5-Year Experience
Conclusions In patients undergoing surgery for AAD, transatrial cannulation of the left ventricle proved to be a safe and easy cannulation method that significantly reduced postoperative complications.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - January 13, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

European Multicenter Registry for the Performance of the Chimney/Snorkel Technique in the Treatment of Aortic Arch Pathologic Conditions
Conclusions The chimney technique in the aortic arch proved highly and predictably successful, with a low rate of reinterventions.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - January 13, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Conclusions For patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery and aortic stenosis, TAVR offers a significant morbidity advantage and a strong trend toward improved survival over SAVR at 1 year.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - December 15, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Long-Term Follow-Up of Cardiac Rhythm in 320 Patients After the Cox-Maze III Procedure for Atrial Fibrillation
Conclusions In a single-moment electrocardiogram evaluation 9 years after the cut-and-sew CM-III, 82% of patients were in sinus rhythm or other regular supraventricular rhythm. These findings support a long-lasting positive effect of the CM-III procedure, which is relevant when evaluating current nonpharmacologic therapies for AF.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - December 2, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Annual Outcomes With Transcatheter Valve Therapy
Conclusions The TVT Registry provides important information on characteristics and outcomes of TAVR in contemporary U.S. clinical practice. It can be used to identify trends in practice and opportunities for quality improvement.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 30, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Current Results of Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement: Insights From the German Aortic Valve Registry
Conclusions Contemporary surgical AVR yields excellent outcomes with low in-hospital mortality, a low overall complication rate, and good 1-year outcome for all risk groups. Accordingly, conventional AVR remains an important therapeutic option for many patients.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 12, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Beyond the Aortic Root: Staged Open and Endovascular Repair of Arch and Descending Aorta in Patients with Connective Tissue Disorders
Conclusions Most patients with CTDs who require operations beyond the aortic root have aortic dissection and require multiple reinterventions. Staged repair strategies, including open repair in combination with TEVAR, are feasible, and benefits outweigh risks. These patients require lifelong imaging surveillance.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - November 4, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research