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Total 31 results found since Jan 2013.
Internal carotid artery and bilateral vertebral arteries dissections associated with amphetamine abuse: Case report
We reported the Case of a 40-year-old male patient with chronic amphetamine used since childhood. He had increased the consumption from once a month to every other day in the last year. The patient suffered from acute left-side hemiparesis and neglect. Computed tomography angiography of the brain and neck vessels demonstrated non-atheromatous vasculopathy with a suspected dissection process of the right internal carotid artery and bilateral vertebral arteries. A review of recent data is also provided to clarify the possible mechanism.PMID:34401140 | PMC:PMC8353386 | DOI:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102676
Source: Annals of Medicine - August 17, 2021 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Nopdanai Sirimaharaj Kitti Thiankhaw Source Type: research
A Case of Alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (Flakka)-Induced Ischemic Stroke
We present a case report of an acute ischemic stroke following the recreational use of α-PVP. The ischemic lesions were located in the midd le cerebral artery and deep watershed areas of the left cerebral hemisphere. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy were initiated, and the patient was discharged with only a mild right hemiparesis.Case Rep Neurol 2021;13:131 –134
Source: Case Reports in Neurology - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Kratom Adulterated with Phenylethylamine and Associated Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Linking Toxicologists and Public Health Officials to Identify Dangerous Adulterants.
CONCLUSION: Medical toxicologists should form working relationships with laboratories and public health officials to aid in early identification of adulterated products that carry risk to the general population. PMID: 31713176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Toxicology - November 10, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Nacca N, Schult RF, Li L, Spink DC, Ginsberg G, Navarette K, Marraffa J Tags: J Med Toxicol Source Type: research
Rising Trends in Hospitalizations for Cardiovascular Events among Young Cannabis Users (18-39 Years) without Other Substance Abuse.
Conclusions: The rising trends in hospitalizations for acute cardiovascular events among young cannabis users without concomitant other substance abuse call for future prospective well-designed studies to assess cannabis-related short-and long-term cardiovascular implications while simultaneously developing focused interventions towards raising awareness among the young population regarding the potential deleterious effects of cannabis use. PMID: 31387198 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - August 4, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Desai R, Fong HK, Shah K, Kaur VP, Savani S, Gangani K, Damarlapally N, Goyal H Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Use in Warfighting: Benefits, Risks, and Future Prospects
Conclusion The aim of this paper was to examine whether military tDCS use can be efficacious and ethical in military settings. Our assessment is that tDCS offers a number of cognitive, motor, and perceptual enhancement opportunities which could provide value in military situations like training and operations. There is potential scope for use in a number of key areas that directly affect practical battlefield advantage and survivability, such as deceptive capabilities, risk-taking, threat detection, perception, and physiological improvement. Additionally, tDCS has the potential to improve command and control decision maki...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - April 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
C-Reactive Protein and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: This meta-analysis revealed that PD is associated with an increase of CRP levels. CRP might be a risk factor for PD or PD leads to an inflammatory response. Introduction Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most complex neuro-degenerative disorders next to Alzheimer's disease. It is characterized by bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, abnormal postural, and gait (1). PD has been recognized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta, whereas the exact etiology remains elusive (2). Previously, multiple inferences have reviewed the environmental a...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Connecting Metainflammation and Neuroinflammation Through the PTN-MK-RPTP β/ζ Axis: Relevance in Therapeutic Development
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - April 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
The Discovery and Development of Liraglutide and Semaglutide
We describe one such approach, albumin binding, and explain how it was applied in the development of the human GLP-1 analog liraglutide once daily and, subsequently, semaglutide once weekly. The pharmacology of these two long-acting GLP-1 analogs, in terms of improving glycemic control, reducing body weight and decreasing cardiovascular (CV) risk, is also reviewed, together with some novel biology. In addition, we describe the importance of accurate target (GLP-1 receptor) tissue expression analysis. Now an established class of agents, GLP-1-based therapies represent a significant advance in the treatment of T2D. All curr...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - April 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Epidemiology of khat (Catha edulis) consumption among university students: a meta-analysis - Ayano G, Yohannis K, Abraha M.
BACKGROUND: Khat is amphetamine-like substance commonly consumed by students when they wish to study for long hours especially during examination periods. Khat consumption is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular problems, stroke, myocardial in...
Source: SafetyLit - February 7, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
The efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for post-stroke aphasia.
Conclusions Current evidence suggests that drugs can improve the prognosis of post-stroke aphasia, such as donepezil, memantine. Donepezil has a significant effect in improving the ability of auditory comprehension, naming, repetition and oral expression. Memantine has a significant effect in improving the ability of naming, spontaneous speech and repetition. Bromocriptine showed no significant improvement in the treatment of aphasia after stroke. The trial for galantamine, amphetamine and levodopa in the treatment of aphasia after stroke is limited and inconclusive. PMID: 29984673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhang X, Shu B, Zhang D, Huang L, Fu Q, Du G Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Modafinil for the Improvement of Patient Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Conclusion. Modafinil is a central nervous system stimulant with well-established effectiveness in the treatment of narcolepsy and shift-work sleep disorder. There is conflicting evidence about the benefits of modafinil in the treatment of fatigue and EDS secondary to TBI. One randomized, controlled study states that modafinil does not significantly improve patient wakefulness, while another concludes that modafinil corrects EDS but not fatigue. An observational study provides evidence that modafinil increases alertness in fatigued patients with past medical history of brainstem diencephalic stroke or multiple sclerosis. ...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - April 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: ICNS Online Editor Tags: Current Issue Review excessive daytime sleep fatigue head injury modafinil stroke TBI traumatic brain injury Source Type: research
Pharmacotherapy and motor recovery after stroke.
Authors: Viale L, Catoira NP, Di Girolamo G, González CD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Stroke is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases worldwide, especially among the elderly population. There are various mechanisms that enhance motor recovery after a stroke. In clinical practice, we have the opportunity to enhance plasticity by designing specific rehabilitation programs. Areas covered: There are a variety of drugs commonly administered to people after the acute phase of a stroke. These drugs may modify motor performance. Herein reviewed is the evidence concerning motor enhancement or decline in stroke patients, p...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
Features and Outcomes of Methamphetamine Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: Meth-APAH is a severe and progressive form of PAH with poor outcomes. Future studies should focus on mechanisms of disease and potential therapeutic considerations. PMID: 28934596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zamanian RT, Hedlin H, Greuenwald P, Wilson DM, Segal JI, Jorden M, Kudelko K, Liu J, Hsi A, Rupp A, Sweatt AJ, Tuder R, Berry GJ, Rabinovitch M, Doyle RL, De Jesus Perez V, Kawut SM Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
CART modulates beta-amyloid metabolism-associated enzymes and attenuates memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice.
CONCLUSION: CART decreases the levels of soluble Aβ in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice by modulating the expression of Aβ metabolism-associated enzymes, which may be associated with the MAPK and AKT pathways. PMID: 28743230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurological Research - July 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research
Noradrenergic antagonists mitigate amphetamine-induced recovery.
Abstract Brain injury, including that due to stroke, leaves individuals with cognitive deficits that can disrupt daily aspect of living. As of now there are few treatments that shown limited amounts of success in improving functional outcome. The use of stimulants such as amphetamine have shown some success in improving outcome following brain injury. While the pharmacological mechanisms for amphetamine are known; the specific processes responsible for improving behavioral outcome following injury remain unknown. Understanding these mechanisms can help to refine the use of amphetamine as a potential treatment or l...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - July 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Hylin MJ, Brenneman MM, Corwin JV Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Effects of monoaminergic drugs on training-induced motor cortex plasticity in older adults.
Abstract Primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity is involved in motor learning and stroke motor recovery, and enhanced by increasing monoaminergic transmission. Age impacts these processes but there is a paucity of systematic studies on the effects of monoaminergic drugs in older adults. Here, in ten older adults (age 61+ 4 years, 4 males), we determine the effects of a single oral dose of carbidopa/levodopa (DOPA), d-amphetamine (AMPH), methylphenidate (MEPH) and placebo (PLAC) on M1 excitability and motor training-induced M1 plasticity. M1 plasticity is defined as training related long lasting changes in M1 excitab...
Source: Brain Research - June 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Kesar TM, Belagaje SR, Pergami P, Haut MW, Hobbs G, Buetefisch CM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research
Risk of stroke in prescription and other amphetamine ‐type stimulants use: A systematic review
Conclusions. This is the first systematic review on ATS and stroke. Limited epidemiological evidence suggests that ATS use increases stroke risk. Possible disparities in ATS effect across stroke type and higher effect in women deserve further clarification. Studies on non‐medical ATS use should be a priority. [Indave BI, Sordo L, Bravo MJ, Sarasa‐Renedo A, Fernández‐Balbuena S, De la Fuente L, Sonego M, Barrio G. Risk of stroke in prescription and other amphetamine‐type stimulants use: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000–000]
Source: Drug and Alcohol Review - May 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Authors: Blanca Iciar Indave, Luis Sordo, Mar ía José Bravo, Ana Sarasa‐Renedo, Sonia Fernández‐Balbuena, Luis De la Fuente, Michela Sonego, Gregorio Barrio Tags: Comprehensive Review Source Type: research
Methamphetamine-related brainstem haemorrhage
We report the case of an otherwise healthy 29-year-old woman who presented with a brainstem haemorrhage following intravenous methamphetamine use. Extensive investigation did not reveal an underlying pathology, and the development of symptoms was temporally related to methamphetamine injection. Although intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to methamphetamine use is well documented, this report describes a haemorrhage within the brainstem which is a rare location. While animal studies have demonstrated the potential of methamphetamines to produce brainstem haemorrhages, there has only been one previous report describing a ha...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - August 31, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Illicit Drug Related Acute Ischemic Stroke, The Impact of Age and Gender (P3.236)
Conclusions: Patient age and sex are poor predictors of illicit drug related acute ischemic stroke. There is underutilization of urine toxicology screening. Acute ischemic stroke standard labs should include urine toxicology screening.Disclosure: Dr. Alhatou has nothing to disclose. Dr. Kirkman has nothing to disclose. Dr. Siddiqui has nothing to disclose. Dr. Alhatou has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Alhatou, M., Kirkman, T., Siddiqui, H., Alhatou, A. Tags: Stroke in the Young Source Type: research
Procedural learning as a measure of functional impairment in a mouse model of ischemic stroke.
Abstract Basal ganglia stroke is often associated with functional deficits in patients, including difficulties to learn and execute new motor skills (procedural learning). To measure procedural learning in a murine model of stroke (30min. right MCAO), we submitted C57Bl/6J mice to various sensorimotor tests, then to an operant procedure (Serial Order Learning) specifically assessing the ability to learn a simple motor sequence. Results showed that MCAO affected the performance in some of the sensorimotor tests (accelerated rotating rod and amphetamine rotation test) and the way animals learned a motor sequence. Th...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - March 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Linden J, Beeck LV, Plumier JC, Ferrara A Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Neuropharmacology of Poststroke Motor and Speech Recovery.
This article summarizes the published literature for pharmacologic agents used for the enhancement of motor and speech recovery after stroke. Amphetamine, levodopa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and piracetam were the most commonly used drugs. Pharmacologic augmentation of stroke motor and speech recovery seems promising but systematic, adequately powered, randomized, and double-blind clinical trials are needed. At this point, the use of these pharmacologic agents is not supported by class I evidence. PMID: 26522905 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Physica Medica - November 1, 2015 Category: Physics Authors: Keser Z, Francisco GE Tags: Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am Source Type: research
Neuropharmacology of Poststroke Motor and Speech Recovery
This article summarizes the published literature for pharmacologic agents used for the enhancement of motor and speech recovery after stroke. Amphetamine, levodopa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and piracetam were the most commonly used drugs. Pharmacologic augmentation of stroke motor and speech recovery seems promising but systematic, adequately powered, randomized, and double-blind clinical trials are needed. At this point, the use of these pharmacologic agents is not supported by class I evidence.
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - October 30, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Zafer Keser, Gerard E. Francisco Source Type: research
Unlabeled amphetamine isomer in sports supplement “probably” caused hemorrhagic stroke
3.5 out of 5 stars Hemorrhagic Stroke Probably Caused by Exercise Combined With a Sports Supplement Containing β-Methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA): A Case Report. Cohen P et al. Ann Intern Med 2015 May 12 [Epub ahead of print] Reference Last month, the FDA sent letters to 5 companies that manufacture so-called “dietary” or “sports” supplements, warning them that their products were mislabeled because they contained an unlisted ingredient. That ingredient, β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), is an isomer of amphetamine. Although the effects of BMPEA in humans have not been well studied, it has been ...
Source: The Poison Review - May 22, 2015 Category: Toxicology Authors: Leon Tags: Medical amphetamine beta-methylphenylethylamine BMPEA dietary supplement hemorrhagic stroke sports supplement Source Type: news
Stimulant in Sports Supplement Linked to Exercise-Induced StrokeStimulant in Sports Supplement Linked to Exercise-Induced Stroke
Synthetic amphetamine-like stimulant BMPEA is a probable cause of exercise-induced hemorrhagic stroke in a previously healthy woman, a new report concludes. Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news
Amphetamine-like dietary supplement linked to stroke
Experts warn about synthetic compound BMPEA, a potentially dangerous stimulant found in weight-loss supplements
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - May 13, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Amphetamine and other pharmacological agents in human and animal studies of recovery from stroke
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2015 Source:Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry Author(s): D. Walker-Batson , J. Mehta , P. Smith , M. Johnson Neuromodulation with pharmacological agents, including drugs of abuse such as amphetamine, when paired with behavioral experience, has been shown to positively modify outcomes in animal models of stroke. A number of clinical studies have tested the efficacy of a variety of drugs to enhance recovery of language deficit post-stroke. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) present pertinent animal studies supporting the use of dextro-amphetamine su...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - April 28, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Intracerebral Hemorrhage Associated with Oral Phenylephrine Use: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Conclusions: It is scientifically plausible that phenylephrine may cause strokes, consistent with the pharmacologic properties and adverse event profiles of similar amphetamine-like sympathomimetics. As RCVS has been well described in association with over-the-counter sympathomimetics, a likely, although not definitive, causal relationship between phenylephrine and ICH is proposed.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 25, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Brian E. Tark, Steven R. Messe, Clotilde Balucani, Steven R. Levine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide increases mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II activity and protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation in neurons.
This study demonstrated that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide, specifically CART55-102, increased the survival rate, but decreased the mortality of neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), in a dose-dependent manner. The above-mentioned effects of CART55-102 were most significant at 0.4nM. These results indicated that CART55-102 suppressed neurotoxicity and enhanced neuronal survival after oxygen-glucose deprivation. CART55-102(0.4nM) significantly diminished reactive oxygen species levels and markedly increased the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II in oxygen-glu...
Source: Brain Research - August 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sha D, Wang L, Zhang J, Qian L, Li Q, Li J, Qian J, Gu S, Han L, Xu P, Xu Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research
The use of stimulant medications for non-core aspects of ADHD and in other disorders.
Abstract Psychostimulants play a central role in the management of ADHD. Here we review the evidence pertaining to the use of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and related amphetamine salts, the prodrug lisdexamfetamine and modafinil for the management of comorbid ADHD and non-ADHD indications. There is a growing consensus that stimulant medications are helpful at improving the emotional dysregulation and lability, and oppositional and conduct symptoms that are often associated with ADHD. There is some evidence that psychostimulants may improve outcomes in those with treatment resistant depression, reduce negative s...
Source: Neuropharmacology - June 18, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sinita E, Coghill D Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
Does smoking marijuana cause stroke?
1.5 out of 5 stars Cannabis-related Stroke: Myth or Reality? Wolff V et al. Stroke 2013 Feb;44(2):558-63. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.671347. Epub 2012 Dec 27. No abstract available There have been scattered reports in the literature claiming an association between the use of cannabis and ischemia and/or hemorrhagic stroke. Although no convincing mechanism has been postulated, some suggest that use of marijuana or hashish and the occurrence of stroke may stem from the ability of cannabis to cause orthostatic hypotension, or possibly vasoconstriction. If such an association is real, it must be exceedingly rare. The purpose...
Source: The Poison Review - January 27, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Leon Tags: Medical cannabis cerebral vascular accident hashish marijuana neurotoxicity stroke Source Type: news