Query: stroke

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Condition: Ischemic Stroke
Drug: Actos

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Total 49 results found since Jan 2013.

Medical Management for Secondary Stroke Prevention
This article reviews the evidence base and recommendations for medical management for secondary stroke prevention. RECENT FINDINGS Recent developments for secondary stroke prevention include evidence to support the use of short-term dual antiplatelet therapy after minor stroke and transient ischemic attack, direct oral anticoagulants for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, reversal agents for direct oral anticoagulant–associated hemorrhage, and aspirin rather than presumptive anticoagulation with a direct oral anticoagulant for embolic stroke of undetermined source. SUMMARY Most strokes are preventable. The mainstays ...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - April 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Pioglitazone and PPAR- γ modulating treatment in hypertensive and type 2 diabetic patients after ischemic stroke: a national cohort study
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (PPAR-γ) modulating treatment may have cardiovascular benefits in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients after ischemic stroke (IS). However, whether there are ad...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chi-Hung Liu, Tsong-Hai Lee, Yu-Sheng Lin, Pi-Shan Sung, Yi-Chia Wei and Yan-Rong Li Tags: Original investigation Source Type: research

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists for preventing recurrent stroke and other vascular events in people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack.
CONCLUSIONS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists probably reduce recurrent stroke and total events of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke, and may improve insulin sensitivity and the stabilisation of carotid plaques. Their effects on adverse events are uncertain. Our conclusions should be interpreted with caution considering the small number and the quality of the included studies. Further well-designed, double-blind RCTs with large samples are required to assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - October 9, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Liu J, Wang LN Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Activation of The Metabolic Master Regulator PPAR γ - A Potential PIOneering Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
The objective is a data-driven approach to set the preclinical and clinical study record straight. The convincing recent clinical trial data on the lack of significant toxicity in high risk populations justify the timely conduction of clinical studies in order to achieve "repurposing" or "repositioning" of pioglitazone for the treatment of clinical PAH. PMID: 31577451 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - October 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hansmann G, Calvier L, Risbano MG, Chan SY Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Effect of pioglitazone in acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes mellitus: a nested case –control study
Pioglitazone is an oral antidiabetic drug with multiple pleiotropic actions. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with pioglitazone reduces cardiovascular risk in patients who have had an is...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 31, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Min-Hee Woo, Hye Sun Lee and Jinkwon Kim Tags: Original investigation Source Type: research

The VGVAPG Peptide Regulates the Production of Nitric Oxide Synthases and Reactive Oxygen Species in Mouse Astrocyte Cells In Vitro.
Abstract The products of elastin degradation, namely elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), are detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid of healthy individuals and in patients after ischemic stroke, and their number increases with age. Depending on their concentrations, both nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) take part either in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury or in neurovascular protection after ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of VGVAPG peptide on ROS and NO production and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNos), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szychowski KA, Gmiński J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Potential New Horizons for the Prevention of Cerebrovascular Diseases and Dementia
In this issue ofJAMA Neurology, Spence et al discuss the effect of pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent that has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and myocardial infarction in patients with insulin resistance, in patients with prediabetes. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria, ie, a hemoglobin A1c level of 5.7% to 6.4% or a fasting plasma glucose level of 100 to 125 mg/dL. Data were taken from the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) study, an international randomized clinical trial performed in patients with previous stroke or transient ischem...
Source: JAMA Neurology - February 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Heart Failure After Ischemic Stroke or TIA in Insulin-Resistant Patients Without Diabetes Treated with Pioglitazone.
Conclusions -In IRIS, with surveillance and dose adjustments, pioglitazone did not increase risk of HF, and conferred net cardiovascular benefit in patients with insulin resistance and cerebrovascular disease. The risk of HF with pioglitazone was not modified by baseline HF risk. The IRIS experience may be instructive for maximizing the net benefit of this therapy. Clinical Trial Registration -URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT00091949. PMID: 29934374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation - June 22, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Young LH, Viscoli CM, Schwartz GG, Inzucchi SE, Curtis JP, Gorman MJ, Furie KL, Conwit R, Spatz E, Lovejoy A, Abbott JD, Jacoby DL, Kolansky DM, Ling FS, Pfau SE, Kernan WN, IRIS Investigators Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Leptin, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Abstract Leptin, an adipokine that is implicated in the control of food intake via appetite suppression, may also stimulate oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis, arterial stiffness, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. These leptin-induced effects may predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. In the present review we discuss the evidence linking leptin levels with the presence, severity and/or prognosis of both coronary artery disease and non-cardiac vascular diseases such as stroke, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) as well as with chroni...
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - June 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Katsiki N, Mikhailidis DP, Banach M Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists for preventing recurrent stroke and other vascular events in people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack.
CONCLUSIONS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists probably reduce recurrent stroke and total events of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke, and may improve insulin sensitivity and the stabilisation of carotid plaques. Their effects on adverse events are uncertain. Our conclusions should be interpreted with caution considering the small number and the quality of the included studies. Further well-designed, double-blind RCTs with large samples are required to assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - December 2, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Liu J, Wang LN Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Which Patients With Ischemic Stroke and Insulin Resistance May Benefit From Pioglitazone?
The Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke (IRIS) trial has reported that treating insulin resistance with the peroxisome proliferator –activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone hydrochloride reduced recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) by about one-fourth compared with placebo (pioglitazone, 9.0% vs placebo, 11.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.93) in 3876 patients with recent (<6 months) ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and insulin resistance but without diabetes, heart failure, or bladder cancer. Pioglitazone was also associated with less incident diabetes vs placebo (3.8% vs ...
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Targeting Pioglitazone Therapy After Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
This secondary analysis of the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke trial estimates the relative and absolute effectiveness of pioglitazone after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in subgroups of patients defined by pretreatment risk for stroke or myocardial infarction.
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pioglitazone Prevents Stroke in Patients with a Recent TIA or Ischemic Stroke: A Planned Secondary Analysis of the IRIS Trial.
Conclusions -Pioglitazone was effective for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke in non-diabetic patients with insulin resistance. Clinical Trial Registration -URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00091949. PMID: 29084736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation - October 30, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yaghi S, Furie KL, Viscoli CM, Kamel H, Gorman M, Dearborn J, Young LH, Inzucchi SE, Lovejoy AM, Kasner SE, Conwit R, Kernan WN, IRIS Trial Investigators Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Response by Young et al to Letters Regarding Article, "Cardiac Outcomes After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Effects of Pioglitazone in Patients With Insulin Resistance Without Diabetes Mellitus".
PMID: 29038213 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Circulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Young LH, Viscoli CM, Inzucchi SE, Kernan WN Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Letter by Jin-Shan and Xue-Bin Regarding Article, "Cardiac Outcomes After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Effects of Pioglitazone in Patients With Insulin Resistance Without Diabetes Mellitus".
PMID: 29038212 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Circulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jin-Shan H, Xue-Bin L Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Letter by Musso et al Regarding Article, "Cardiac Outcomes After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Effects of Pioglitazone in Patients With Insulin Resistance Without Diabetes Mellitus".
PMID: 29038211 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Circulation - October 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Musso G, Cassader M, Gambino R Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Smoking cessation and outcome after ischemic stroke or TIA
Conclusion: Cessation of cigarette smoking after an ischemic stroke or TIA was associated with significant health benefits over 4.8 years in the IRIS trial cohort.
Source: Neurology - October 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Epstein, K. A., Viscoli, C. M., Spence, J. D., Young, L. H., Inzucchi, S. E., Gorman, M., Gerstenhaber, B., Guarino, P. D., Dixit, A., Furie, K. L., Kernan, W. N., For the IRIS Trial Investigators Tags: Stroke prevention, Prognosis, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, Infarction ARTICLE Source Type: research

Antidiabetic drugs and stroke risk. Current evidence.
Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, the risk for stroke is twice that of patients without diabetes, and diabetes may be responsible for >8% of first ischemic strokes. Therefore, the way to prevent stroke in these patients has become an important issue. Traditionally, glucose-lowering drugs had not been shown to protect against stroke. Moreover, several antidiabetic drugs (i.e., sulfonylureas, rosiglitazone) have been reported to be associated with increased risks of CVD and stroke. On the contrary, data on...
Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine - September 20, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Castilla-Guerra L, Fernandez-Moreno MDC, Leon-Jimenez D, Carmona-Nimo E Tags: Eur J Intern Med Source Type: research

Which Patients With Ischemic Stroke and Insulin Resistance May Benefit From Pioglitazone?
The Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke (IRIS) trial has reported that treating insulin resistance with the peroxisome proliferator –activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone hydrochloride reduced recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) by about one-fourth compared with placebo (pioglitazone, 9.0% vs placebo, 11.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.93) in 3876 patients with recent (<6 months) ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and insulin resistance but without diabetes, heart failure, or bladder cancer. Pioglitazone was also associated with less incident diabetes vs placebo (3.8% vs ...
Source: JAMA Neurology - September 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Targeting Pioglitazone Therapy After Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
This secondary analysis of the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke trial estimates the relative and absolute effectiveness of pioglitazone after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in subgroups of patients defined by pretreatment risk for stroke or myocardial infarction.
Source: JAMA Neurology - September 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Response by Lee et al to Letter Regarding Article, “Pioglitazone for Secondary Stroke Prevention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” Letter to the Editor
Source: Stroke - June 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Meng Lee, Jeffrey L. Saver, Bruce Ovbiagele Tags: Meta Analysis, Ischemic Stroke Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Impact of glucose-lowering therapies on risk of stroke in type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased risk of stroke compared with people without diabetes. However, the effects of glucose-lowering drugs on risk of ischaemic stroke in T2D have been less extensively investigated than in coronary heart disease. Some evidence, including the UKPDS, has suggested a reduced risk of stroke with metformin, although the number of studies is limited. Inhibition of the KATP channels increases ischaemic brain lesions in animals. This is in agreement with a recent meta-analysis showing an increased risk of stroke with sulphonylureas vs. various comparators as both m...
Source: Diabetes and Metabolism - May 15, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bonnet F, Scheen AJ Tags: Diabetes Metab Source Type: research

Response by Lee and Ovbiagele to Letter Regarding Article, “Pioglitazone for Secondary Stroke Prevention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis” Letter to the Editor
Source: Stroke - April 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Meng Lee, Bruce Ovbiagele Tags: Meta Analysis, Ischemic Stroke Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Cardiac Outcomes After Ischemic Stroke or TIA: Effects of Pioglitazone in Patients with Insulin Resistance Without Diabetes.
Conclusions -Among patients with insulin resistance without diabetes, pioglitazone reduced the risk for acute coronary syndromes after a recent cerebrovascular event. Pioglitazone appeared to have its most prominent effect in preventing spontaneous type 1 MI's. Clinical Trial Registration - https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00091949 US Food & Drug Administration IND: 64,622; EudraCT#2008-005546-23. PMID: 28246237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation - February 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Young LH, Viscoli CM, Curtis JP, Inzucchi SE, Schwartz GG, Lovejoy AM, Furie KL, Gorman MJ, Conwit RA, Abbott JD, Jacoby DL, Kolansky DM, Pfau SE, Ling FS, Kernan WN, IRIS Investigators Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Pioglitazone for Secondary Stroke Prevention Clinical Sciences
Conclusions—Pioglitazone reduces recurrent stroke and major vascular events in ischemic stroke patients with insulin resistance, prediabetes, and diabetes mellitus.
Source: Stroke - January 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Meng Lee, Jeffrey L. Saver, Hung-Wei Liao, Chun-Hsien Lin, Bruce Ovbiagele Tags: Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, Type 2, Secondary Prevention, Meta Analysis, Cerebrovascular Disease/Stroke Original Contributions Source Type: research

Pioglitazone and risk for bone fracture: safety data from a randomized clinical trial - Viscoli CM, Inzucchi SE, Young LH, Insogna KL, Conwit R, Furie KL, Gorman M, Kelly MA, Lovejoy AM, Kernan WN.
CONTEXT: Pioglitazone reduces cardiovascular risk in non-diabetic patients after an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) but is associated with increased risk for bone fracture. OBJECTIVE: To characterize fractures associated with pio...
Source: SafetyLit - December 17, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news

Pioglitazone and Risk for Bone Fracture: Safety Data from a Randomized Clinical Trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Fractures affected 8.8% of placebo-treated patients within five years after an ischemic stroke or TIA. Pioglitazone increased the absolute fracture risk by 1.6%-4.9% and the relative risk by 47-60%, depending on fracture classification. Our analysis suggests that treatments to improve bone health and prevent falls may help optimize the risk/benefit ratio for pioglitazone. PMID: 27935736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 9, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Viscoli CM, Inzucchi SE, Young LH, Insogna KL, Conwit R, Furie KL, Gorman M, Kelly MA, Lovejoy AM, Kernan WN, IRIS Trial Investigators Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pioglitazone Prevents Diabetes in Patients With Insulin Resistance and Cerebrovascular Disease
CONCLUSIONS Among patients with insulin resistance but without diabetes who had had a recent ischemic stroke or TIA, pioglitazone decreased the risk of diabetes while also reducing the risk of subsequent ischemic events. Pioglitazone is the first medication shown to prevent both progression to diabetes and major cardiovascular events as prespecified outcomes in a single trial.
Source: Diabetes Care - September 22, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Inzucchi, S. E.; Viscoli, C. M.; Young, L. H.; Furie, K. L.; Gorman, M.; Lovejoy, A. M.; Dagogo-Jack, S.; Ismail-Beigi, F.; Korytkowski, M. T.; Pratley, R. E.; Schwartz, G. G.; Kernan, W. N.; for the IRIS Trial Investigators Tags: Clinical Care/Education/Nutrition/Psychosocial Research Source Type: research

Pioglitazone in patients with insulin resistance after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: A comment on the IRIS trial
Pioglitazone, an antidiabetic drug, also exerts several cardiometabolic benefits including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, vasoprotective and hypolipidemic effects. These pioglitazone-related benefits have been observed in different patient populations such as those with prediabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With regard to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, there is conflicting evidence.Recently, the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial reported a significant pioglitazone-induced decrease in CV morbidity in patients with insulin ...
Source: Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications - September 18, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis Source Type: research

Pioglitazone after Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 375, Issue 7, Page 702-704, August 2016.
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - August 17, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Pioglitazone After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
In patients without diabetes but who have insulin resistance along with a recent history of ischemic stroke or TIA, the risk of stroke or myocardial infarction was lower among those patients who received pioglitazone than among those who received placebo.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - June 24, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: W.N. Kernan, C.M. Viscoli, K.L. Furie Tags: Abstract Source Type: research

EMPA-REG and Other Cardiovascular Outcome Trials of Glucose-lowering Agents: Implications for Future Treatment Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Abstract During the last decade, the armamentarium for glucose-lowering drugs has increased enormously by the development of DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors, allowing individualization of antidiabetic therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Some combinations can now be used without an increased risk for severe hypoglycemia and weight gain. Following a request of the US Food and Drug Administration, many large cardiovascular (CV) outcome studies have been performed in patients with longstanding disease and established CV disease. In the majority of CV outcome studies, CV ris...
Source: Clinical Therapeutics - May 19, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Schernthaner G, Schernthaner-Reiter MH, Schernthaner GH Tags: Clin Ther Source Type: research

Cerebrovascular disease: Pioglitazone reduces risk of stroke or MI
Nature Reviews Cardiology 13, 182 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.34 Author: Karina Huynh Insulin resistance is present in >50% of patients without diabetes who have had an ischaemic stroke or a transient ischaemic attack (TIA). The IRIS trial investigators hypothesized that pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent, could reduce rates of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) after ischaemic stroke or
Source: Nature Reviews Cardiology - March 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Karina Huynh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

VIDEO: Post-stroke pioglitazone modestly protective against secondary vascular events
LOS ANGELES – Nondiabetic, insulin-resistant patients who started pioglitazone within 6 months of an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack had almost a 3% absolute risk reduction in secondary...
Source: Clinical Endocrinology News - February 19, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news

Diabetes drug may prevent recurring strokes
Pioglitazone, a drug used for type 2 diabetes, may prevent recurrent stroke and heart attacks in people with insulin resistance but without diabetes. The results of the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial, presented at the International Stroke Conference 2016 in Los Angeles and published in the New England Journal of Medicine, suggest a potential new method to prevent stroke and heart attack in high-risk patients who have already had one stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Source: World Pharma News - February 18, 2016 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Research Research and Development Source Type: news

Pioglitazone after Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
New England Journal of Medicine, Ahead of Print.
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - February 17, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Diabetes drug may prevent recurring strokes
Pioglitazone, a drug used for type 2 diabetes, may prevent recurrent stroke and heart attacks in people with insulin resistance but without diabetes. The results of the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial, presented at the International Stroke Conference 2016 in Los Angeles and published in the New England Journal of Medicine, suggest a potential new method to prevent stroke and heart attack in high-risk patients who have already had one stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Source: NINDS Press Releases and News: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - February 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: news

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists for preventing recurrent stroke and other vascular events in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack.
CONCLUSIONS: PPAR-γ agonists appear to reduce recurrent stroke and total events of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke, and improve insulin sensitivity and the stabilisation of carotid plaques. There is evidence of limited quality that they are well tolerated. However, the conclusions should be interpreted with caution considering the small number and the quality of the included studies. In future, well-designed, double-blind RCTs with large samples are required to assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular events in p...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - October 29, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Liu J, Wang LN Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Hyperglycemia and PPAR{gamma} Antagonistically Influence Macrophage Polarization and Infarct Healing After Ischemic Stroke Basic Sciences
Conclusions— Hyperglycemia and macrophage-specific PPAR activation exert opposing effects on MO/MP polarization in ischemic stroke lesions and, thereby, critically determine the risk of hemorrhagic infarct transformation.
Source: Stroke - September 28, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Gliem, M., Klotz, L., van Rooijen, N., Hartung, H.-P., Jander, S. Tags: Animal models of human disease, Coumarins, Other diabetes, Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage, Acute Cerebral Infarction, Anticoagulants Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of pioglitazone against transient cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury in diabetic rats: Modulation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic biomarkers.
CONCLUSIONS: Pioglitazone is endowed with neuroprotective properties which are probably mediated by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms hence may provide a successful agent for the management of ischemic stroke. PMID: 26398383 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Pharmacological Reports - September 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: El-Sahar AE, Safar MM, Zaki HF, Attia AS, Ain-Shoka AA Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Effects of Pioglitazone for Secondary Stroke Prevention in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Newly Diagnosed Diabetes: The J-SPIRIT Study.
CONCLUSIONS: While this study was too underpowered to determine the effect of pioglitazone, the result failed to show beneficial effects in patients of ischemic stroke or TIA with impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed diabetes. PMID: 26269002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis - August 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: J Atheroscler Thromb Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risks associated with second‐line oral antidiabetic agents added to metformin in patients with Type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study
ConclusionThere were no differences in overall cardiovascular risks among several add‐on second‐line oral antidiabetic agents; however, glinide plus metformin and α‐glucosidase inhibitors plus metformin combination therapies might be associated with lower risks of acute myocardial infarction.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Diabetic Medicine - May 1, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Y.‐C. Chang, L.‐M. Chuang, J.‐W. Lin, S.‐T. Chen, M.‐S. Lai, C.‐H. Chang Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Pioglitazone for secondary prevention after ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack: Rationale and design of the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke Trial
Publication date: December 2014 Source:American Heart Journal, Volume 168, Issue 6 Author(s): Catherine M. Viscoli , Lawrence M. Brass , Antonio Carolei , Robin Conwit , Gary A. Ford , Karen L. Furie , Mark Gorman , Peter D. Guarino , Silvio E. Inzucchi , Anne M. Lovejoy , Mark W. Parsons , Peter N. Peduzzi , Peter A. Ringleb , Gregory G. Schwartz , J. David Spence , David Tanne , Lawrence H. Young , Walter N. Kernan Background Recurrent vascular events remain a major source of morbidity and mortality after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The IRIS Trial is evaluating an approach to secondary prevention based o...
Source: American Heart Journal - November 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research