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Total 45 results found since Jan 2013.

Association of glucose-lowering medications with cardiovascular outcomes: an umbrella review and evidence map
We examined the association between glucose-lowering medications and a broad range of cardiovascular outcomes, and assessed the strength of evidence for these associations.MethodsFor this umbrella review we searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials examining the cardiovascular safety of glucose-lowering medications. Cardiovascular outcomes examined included major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, unstable angina, and atrial fibrillation. For each meta-analysis, we estimat...
Source: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pioglitazone for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with or at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Pioglitazone should be considered in patients with or at high risk of T2DM for the prevention of cardiovascular endpoints, especially in those with a history of established CVD who might benefit the most. Robust reductions in progression of renal disease are seen regardless of baseline renal function degree. PMID: 31822895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Zhou Y, Huang Y, Ji X, Wang X, Shen L, Wang Y Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists for preventing recurrent stroke and other vascular events in people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack.
CONCLUSIONS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists probably reduce recurrent stroke and total events of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke, and may improve insulin sensitivity and the stabilisation of carotid plaques. Their effects on adverse events are uncertain. Our conclusions should be interpreted with caution considering the small number and the quality of the included studies. Further well-designed, double-blind RCTs with large samples are required to assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - October 9, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Liu J, Wang LN Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Cardiovascular effects of pioglitazone or sulphonylureas according to pretreatment risk: moving towards personalized care.
CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to identify patients with type 2 diabetes early in the stage of their disease and largely free from evident cardiovascular disease, in whom add-on pioglitazone to metformin confers cardiovascular protection as compared to sulphonylureas. PMID: 31058962 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Vaccaro O, Lucisano G, Masulli M, Bonora E, Del Prato S, Rivellese AA, Giorda CB, Mocarelli P, Squatrito S, Maggioni AP, Riccardi G, Nicolucci A, TOSCA.IT investigators Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Protection with Anti-hyperglycemic Agents
AbstractDiabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Conversely, CV disease is responsible for a majority of the deaths in patients with diabetes. Many drug trials have concentrated on blood glucose (hemoglobin A1c) reduction. This strategy, while reducing microvascular outcomes like nephropathy and neuropathy, has little or no effect on reducing macrovascular events like heart attack, stroke, and heart failure. It has been postulated that hypoglycemia may counterbalance some of the beneficial effects of anti-hyperglycemic agents, but this is not proven. Further, trial evidence for thiazolidine...
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - February 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pioglitazone Therapy in Patients With Stroke and Prediabetes
This post hoc analysis of Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke (IRIS) randomized clinical trial assesses the association of pioglitazone vs placebo with recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular events.
Source: JAMA Neurology - February 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Potential New Horizons for the Prevention of Cerebrovascular Diseases and Dementia
In this issue ofJAMA Neurology, Spence et al discuss the effect of pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent that has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and myocardial infarction in patients with insulin resistance, in patients with prediabetes. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria, ie, a hemoglobin A1c level of 5.7% to 6.4% or a fasting plasma glucose level of 100 to 125 mg/dL. Data were taken from the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) study, an international randomized clinical trial performed in patients with previous stroke or transient ischem...
Source: JAMA Neurology - February 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Heart Failure After Ischemic Stroke or TIA in Insulin-Resistant Patients Without Diabetes Treated with Pioglitazone.
Conclusions -In IRIS, with surveillance and dose adjustments, pioglitazone did not increase risk of HF, and conferred net cardiovascular benefit in patients with insulin resistance and cerebrovascular disease. The risk of HF with pioglitazone was not modified by baseline HF risk. The IRIS experience may be instructive for maximizing the net benefit of this therapy. Clinical Trial Registration -URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT00091949. PMID: 29934374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation - June 22, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Young LH, Viscoli CM, Schwartz GG, Inzucchi SE, Curtis JP, Gorman MJ, Furie KL, Conwit R, Spatz E, Lovejoy A, Abbott JD, Jacoby DL, Kolansky DM, Ling FS, Pfau SE, Kernan WN, IRIS Investigators Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Newer Anti-Diabetic Medications in High-Risk Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review the cardiovascular and renal outcomes and safety of newer anti-diabetic medications in high-risk patients. We examine the outcomes of the IRIS, EMPA-REG OUTCOME, CANVAS, LEADER, SAVOR-TIMI 53, and EXAMINE trials demonstrating the cardiovascular and renal benefits of thiazolidinediones, SGLT2 inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, and DPP-4 inhibitors.Recent FindingsDiabetes mellitus is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease with rising prevalence and disease burden. The microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes are well-recognized and include increased risk of cardiovascula...
Source: Current Cardiology Reports - June 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists for preventing recurrent stroke and other vascular events in people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack.
CONCLUSIONS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists probably reduce recurrent stroke and total events of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke, and may improve insulin sensitivity and the stabilisation of carotid plaques. Their effects on adverse events are uncertain. Our conclusions should be interpreted with caution considering the small number and the quality of the included studies. Further well-designed, double-blind RCTs with large samples are required to assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - December 2, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Liu J, Wang LN Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Which Patients With Ischemic Stroke and Insulin Resistance May Benefit From Pioglitazone?
The Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke (IRIS) trial has reported that treating insulin resistance with the peroxisome proliferator –activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone hydrochloride reduced recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) by about one-fourth compared with placebo (pioglitazone, 9.0% vs placebo, 11.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.93) in 3876 patients with recent (<6 months) ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and insulin resistance but without diabetes, heart failure, or bladder cancer. Pioglitazone was also associated with less incident diabetes vs placebo (3.8% vs ...
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Targeting Pioglitazone Therapy After Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
This secondary analysis of the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke trial estimates the relative and absolute effectiveness of pioglitazone after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in subgroups of patients defined by pretreatment risk for stroke or myocardial infarction.
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pioglitazone Prevents Stroke in Patients with a Recent TIA or Ischemic Stroke: A Planned Secondary Analysis of the IRIS Trial.
Conclusions -Pioglitazone was effective for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke in non-diabetic patients with insulin resistance. Clinical Trial Registration -URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00091949. PMID: 29084736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation - October 30, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yaghi S, Furie KL, Viscoli CM, Kamel H, Gorman M, Dearborn J, Young LH, Inzucchi SE, Lovejoy AM, Kasner SE, Conwit R, Kernan WN, IRIS Trial Investigators Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Smoking cessation and outcome after ischemic stroke or TIA
Conclusion: Cessation of cigarette smoking after an ischemic stroke or TIA was associated with significant health benefits over 4.8 years in the IRIS trial cohort.
Source: Neurology - October 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Epstein, K. A., Viscoli, C. M., Spence, J. D., Young, L. H., Inzucchi, S. E., Gorman, M., Gerstenhaber, B., Guarino, P. D., Dixit, A., Furie, K. L., Kernan, W. N., For the IRIS Trial Investigators Tags: Stroke prevention, Prognosis, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, Infarction ARTICLE Source Type: research

Which Patients With Ischemic Stroke and Insulin Resistance May Benefit From Pioglitazone?
The Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke (IRIS) trial has reported that treating insulin resistance with the peroxisome proliferator –activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone hydrochloride reduced recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) by about one-fourth compared with placebo (pioglitazone, 9.0% vs placebo, 11.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.93) in 3876 patients with recent (<6 months) ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and insulin resistance but without diabetes, heart failure, or bladder cancer. Pioglitazone was also associated with less incident diabetes vs placebo (3.8% vs ...
Source: JAMA Neurology - September 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Targeting Pioglitazone Therapy After Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
This secondary analysis of the Insulin Resistance Intervention After Stroke trial estimates the relative and absolute effectiveness of pioglitazone after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in subgroups of patients defined by pretreatment risk for stroke or myocardial infarction.
Source: JAMA Neurology - September 18, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects on the incidence of cardiovascular events of the addition of pioglitazone versus sulfonylureas in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin (TOSCA.IT): a randomised, multicentre trial
This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00700856. Findings Between Sept 18, 2008, and Jan 15, 2014, 3028 patients were randomly assigned and included in the analyses. 1535 were assigned to pioglitazone and 1493 to sulfonylureas (glibenclamide 24 [2%], glimepiride 723 [48%], gliclazide 745 [50%]). At baseline, 335 (11%) participants had a previous cardiovascular event. The study was stopped early on the basis of a futility analysis after a median follow-up of 57·3 months. The primary outcome occurred in 105 patients (1·5 per 100 person-years) who were given pioglitazone and 108 (1·5 per 100 person-yea...
Source: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology - September 14, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes: Has the Dawn of a New Era Arrived?
Hyperglycemia is the major risk factor for microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the principal cause of death, and lowering HbA1c has only a modest effect on reducing CVD risk and mortality. The recently published LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 trials demonstrate that, in T2D patients with high CVD risk, the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists liraglutide and semaglutide reduce the primary major adverse cardiac events (MACE) end point (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke) by 13% and 24%, respectively. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME, ...
Source: Diabetes Care - June 21, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Abdul-Ghani, M.; DeFronzo, R. A.; Del Prato, S.; Chilton, R.; Singh, R.; Ryder, R. E. J. Tags: Epidemiology-Diabetes Complications Perspectives in Care Source Type: research

Cardiac Outcomes After Ischemic Stroke or TIA: Effects of Pioglitazone in Patients with Insulin Resistance Without Diabetes.
Conclusions -Among patients with insulin resistance without diabetes, pioglitazone reduced the risk for acute coronary syndromes after a recent cerebrovascular event. Pioglitazone appeared to have its most prominent effect in preventing spontaneous type 1 MI's. Clinical Trial Registration - https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00091949 US Food & Drug Administration IND: 64,622; EudraCT#2008-005546-23. PMID: 28246237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation - February 28, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Young LH, Viscoli CM, Curtis JP, Inzucchi SE, Schwartz GG, Lovejoy AM, Furie KL, Gorman MJ, Conwit RA, Abbott JD, Jacoby DL, Kolansky DM, Pfau SE, Ling FS, Kernan WN, IRIS Investigators Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Pioglitazone for Secondary Stroke Prevention Clinical Sciences
Conclusions—Pioglitazone reduces recurrent stroke and major vascular events in ischemic stroke patients with insulin resistance, prediabetes, and diabetes mellitus.
Source: Stroke - January 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Meng Lee, Jeffrey L. Saver, Hung-Wei Liao, Chun-Hsien Lin, Bruce Ovbiagele Tags: Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, Type 2, Secondary Prevention, Meta Analysis, Cerebrovascular Disease/Stroke Original Contributions Source Type: research

Antidiabetic agents and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart diseases.
This article reviews evidence of benefits and risk of antidiabetic agents in cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, with a focus on medications approved by the FDA since 2008. Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE and Current Content database (both 1966 to October 1, 2016) using the search terms insulin, metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, acarbose, miglitol, albiglutide, exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, pramlintide, meglitinide, alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, colesevalam, bromocriptine, mortality,...
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - January 19, 2017 Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research

Pioglitazone and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with insulin resistance, pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions Pioglitazone was associated with reduced risk of MACE in people with insulin resistance, pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus. However, the risks of heart failure, bone fracture, oedema and weight gain were increased.
Source: BMJ Open - January 5, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Liao, H.-W., Saver, J. L., Wu, Y.-L., Chen, T.-H., Lee, M., Ovbiagele, B. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Source Type: research

Expensive New Diabetes Drugs Add Nothing But Cost And Complications
This is the fourth in an ongoing series of blogs exposing the rampant misuse of the medications so aggressively promoted by greedy drug companies. I am very lucky in having the perfect partner in this truth-vs-power effort to contradict Pharma propaganda with evidence based fact. Dick Bijl is President of the International Society of Drug Bulletins (ISDB), an impressive association of 53 national drug bulletins from all around the world, each of which publishes the best available data on the pluses and minuses of different medications. Drug bulletins help patients and doctors see through the misleading misinformation ge...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - November 17, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: news

Pioglitazone Prevents Diabetes in Patients With Insulin Resistance and Cerebrovascular Disease
CONCLUSIONS Among patients with insulin resistance but without diabetes who had had a recent ischemic stroke or TIA, pioglitazone decreased the risk of diabetes while also reducing the risk of subsequent ischemic events. Pioglitazone is the first medication shown to prevent both progression to diabetes and major cardiovascular events as prespecified outcomes in a single trial.
Source: Diabetes Care - September 22, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Inzucchi, S. E.; Viscoli, C. M.; Young, L. H.; Furie, K. L.; Gorman, M.; Lovejoy, A. M.; Dagogo-Jack, S.; Ismail-Beigi, F.; Korytkowski, M. T.; Pratley, R. E.; Schwartz, G. G.; Kernan, W. N.; for the IRIS Trial Investigators Tags: Clinical Care/Education/Nutrition/Psychosocial Research Source Type: research

3 Drugs with the Most Severe Side Effects
Image Source Drugs have been known to have some sort of side effects on patients. Most of them are not often discussed in the health tabloids. While other drugs have side effects that are very nominal when compared to the benefits the patient derives from their usage, others have side effects that can impact the lives of their users forever. The most common side effects people experience from drug usage are gastrointestinal related issues which include constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Some other drugs can leave you feeling tired and dizzy for a short period of time. Combining these drugs with simple aspirin will usuall...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - August 20, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Pioglitazone After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
In patients without diabetes but who have insulin resistance along with a recent history of ischemic stroke or TIA, the risk of stroke or myocardial infarction was lower among those patients who received pioglitazone than among those who received placebo.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - June 24, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: W.N. Kernan, C.M. Viscoli, K.L. Furie Tags: Abstract Source Type: research

EMPA-REG and Other Cardiovascular Outcome Trials of Glucose-lowering Agents: Implications for Future Treatment Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Abstract During the last decade, the armamentarium for glucose-lowering drugs has increased enormously by the development of DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors, allowing individualization of antidiabetic therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Some combinations can now be used without an increased risk for severe hypoglycemia and weight gain. Following a request of the US Food and Drug Administration, many large cardiovascular (CV) outcome studies have been performed in patients with longstanding disease and established CV disease. In the majority of CV outcome studies, CV ris...
Source: Clinical Therapeutics - May 19, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Schernthaner G, Schernthaner-Reiter MH, Schernthaner GH Tags: Clin Ther Source Type: research

Diabetes drug pioglitazone could get personal: Neither panacea, nor peril
When I was in training, one of my beloved mentors declared, “I never use a drug until it’s been on the market for 20 years.” I was young enough then that I couldn’t fathom being a doctor for 20 years, let alone waiting two decades to use a new drug. As my career has progressed, I’ve seen many new drugs released to the market. Some of them are truly miraculous, bringing people longer, healthier, and more productive lives. Many of them have not withstood the test of time. More than a few have even been taken off the market. Even though the Food and Drug Administration diligently reviews each new medicine before it...
Source: New Harvard Health Information - May 5, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Lori Wiviott Tishler, MD, MPH Tags: Diabetes Drugs and Supplements pioglitazone thiazolidinediones Source Type: news

Revitalization of pioglitazone: the optimum agent to be combined with a sodium‐glucose co‐transporter‐2 inhibitor
The recently completed EMPA‐REG study showed that empagliflozin significantly decreased the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) endpoint, which comprised cardiovascular death, non‐fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, in patients with high‐risk type 2 diabetes (T2DM), primarily through a reduction in cardiovascular death, without a significant decrease in either MI or stroke. In the PROactive study, pioglitazone decreased the MACE endpoint by a similar degree to that observed in the EMPA‐REG study, through a marked reduction in both recurrent MI and stroke and a modest reduction in cardiovascular death. Thes...
Source: Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism - April 6, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Authors: R. A. DeFronzo, R. Chilton, L. Norton, G. Clarke, R. E. J. Ryder, M. Abdul‐Ghani Tags: PERSPECTIVE Source Type: research

Cerebrovascular disease: Pioglitazone reduces risk of stroke or MI
Nature Reviews Cardiology 13, 182 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.34 Author: Karina Huynh Insulin resistance is present in >50% of patients without diabetes who have had an ischaemic stroke or a transient ischaemic attack (TIA). The IRIS trial investigators hypothesized that pioglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent, could reduce rates of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) after ischaemic stroke or
Source: Nature Reviews Cardiology - March 3, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Karina Huynh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

New front opens in battle against stroke
Medical scientists have vetted a potentially powerful new tool for helping prevent stroke and heart attack. In a study, researchers show that pioglitazone, a member of the insulin-sensitizing class of medications called thiazolidinediones, reduced the risk of stroke or heart attack by almost a quarter in patients who had previously suffered a stroke or mini-stroke.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - February 25, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: news

Revitalization of Pioglitazone: The Optimal Agent to be Combined with an SGLT2 Inhibitor
ABSTRACT The recently completed EMPA‐REG study demonstrated that empagliflozin significantly decreased the MACE endpoint (cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, stroke) in high risk type 2 diabetic patients, primarily due to a reduction in cardiovascular death, without a significant decrease in either myocardial infarction or stroke. In PROactive, pioglitazone decreased the MACE endpoint by a similar degree to that in EMPA‐REG, due to a marked reduction in both recurrent myocardial infarction and stroke and a modest reduction in cardiovascular death. These observations suggest that pioglitazone might be an ideal agent to c...
Source: Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism - February 25, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ralph A. DeFronzo, Robert Chilton, Luke Norton, Geoffrey Clarke, Robert E.J. Ryder, Muhammad Abdul‐Ghani Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Diabetes drug may prevent recurring strokes
Pioglitazone, a drug used for type 2 diabetes, may prevent recurrent stroke and heart attacks in people with insulin resistance but without diabetes. The results of the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial, presented at the International Stroke Conference 2016 in Los Angeles and published in the New England Journal of Medicine, suggest a potential new method to prevent stroke and heart attack in high-risk patients who have already had one stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Source: World Pharma News - February 18, 2016 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Research Research and Development Source Type: news

Diabetes drug may prevent heart attack, recurring stroke
Stephen FellerNEW HAVEN, Conn., Feb. 17 (UPI) -- The diabetes drug Actos was shown to lower the risk of recurring stroke and heart attack in a large clinical trial of insulin-resistant stroke patients.
Source: Health News - UPI.com - February 17, 2016 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

IRIS: Diabetes Drug Reduces Recurrent Stroke, MIIRIS: Diabetes Drug Reduces Recurrent Stroke, MI
A randomized trial shows that in patients with insulin resistance but no diabetes and a history of recent stroke or TIA, pioglitazone reduced recurrent stroke and myocardial infarction vs placebo. Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Neurology and Neurosurgery Headlines - February 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery News Source Type: news

Diabetes drug may prevent recurring strokes
Pioglitazone, a drug used for type 2 diabetes, may prevent recurrent stroke and heart attacks in people with insulin resistance but without diabetes. The results of the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial, presented at the International Stroke Conference 2016 in Los Angeles and published in the New England Journal of Medicine, suggest a potential new method to prevent stroke and heart attack in high-risk patients who have already had one stroke or transient ischemic attack.
Source: NINDS Press Releases and News: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - February 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: news

Ten‐year observational follow‐up of PROactive: a randomized cardiovascular outcomes trial evaluating pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes
ConclusionsThe trends of macrovascular benefits of pioglitazone compared with placebo during PROactive did not persist in the absence of continued pioglitazone during this 10‐year follow‐up. Trends of decreased bladder cancer and increased prostate cancer were observed in the pioglitazone group during follow‐up; however, these imbalances should be interpreted with caution because of the limitations of the observational study design.
Source: Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism - January 8, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Authors: E. Erdmann, S. Harding, H. Lam, A. Perez Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

10‐Year Observational Follow‐Up of PROactive: a randomized cardiovascular outcomes trial evaluating pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes
ConclusionsThe trends of macrovascular benefits of pioglitazone compared with placebo during PROactive did not persist in the absence of continued pioglitazone during this 10‐year follow‐up. Trends of decreased bladder cancer and increased prostate cancer were observed in the pioglitazone group during follow‐up; however, these imbalances should be interpreted with caution due to limitations of the observational study design.
Source: Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism - November 23, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Erland Erdmann, Sarah Harding, Hung Lam, Alfonso Perez Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists for preventing recurrent stroke and other vascular events in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack.
CONCLUSIONS: PPAR-γ agonists appear to reduce recurrent stroke and total events of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke, and improve insulin sensitivity and the stabilisation of carotid plaques. There is evidence of limited quality that they are well tolerated. However, the conclusions should be interpreted with caution considering the small number and the quality of the included studies. In future, well-designed, double-blind RCTs with large samples are required to assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular events in p...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - October 29, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Liu J, Wang LN Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Number needed to harm in the post‐marketing safety evaluation: results for rosiglitazone and pioglitazone
ConclusionThe NNH values suggested an increased CV risk with rosiglitazone versus pioglitazone across several sources of information. The inclusion of objective metrics in post‐marketing drug's benefit–risk assessments could be of increased value and help RAs to make consistent decisions on drug safety. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Source: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety - September 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Diogo Mendes, Carlos Alves, Francisco Batel‐Marques Tags: Original Report Source Type: research

Cardiovascular safety of albiglutide in the Harmony programme: a meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2015 Source:The Lancet Diabetes &amp; Endocrinology Author(s): Miles Fisher, Mark C Petrie, Philip D Ambery, Jill Donaldson, John J V McMurray, June Ye Background Albiglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, a new class of drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes. We did a prospective meta-analysis of the cardiovascular safety of albiglutide as stipulated by the US Food and Drug Administration recommendations for the assessment of new treatments for diabetes. Methods We did a meta-analysis of eight phase 3 trials and one phase 2b trial in which patients wer...
Source: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology - August 12, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risks associated with second‐line oral antidiabetic agents added to metformin in patients with Type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study
ConclusionThere were no differences in overall cardiovascular risks among several add‐on second‐line oral antidiabetic agents; however, glinide plus metformin and α‐glucosidase inhibitors plus metformin combination therapies might be associated with lower risks of acute myocardial infarction.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Diabetic Medicine - May 1, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Y.‐C. Chang, L.‐M. Chuang, J.‐W. Lin, S.‐T. Chen, M.‐S. Lai, C.‐H. Chang Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Pioglitazone for secondary prevention after ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack: Rationale and design of the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke Trial
Publication date: December 2014 Source:American Heart Journal, Volume 168, Issue 6 Author(s): Catherine M. Viscoli , Lawrence M. Brass , Antonio Carolei , Robin Conwit , Gary A. Ford , Karen L. Furie , Mark Gorman , Peter D. Guarino , Silvio E. Inzucchi , Anne M. Lovejoy , Mark W. Parsons , Peter N. Peduzzi , Peter A. Ringleb , Gregory G. Schwartz , J. David Spence , David Tanne , Lawrence H. Young , Walter N. Kernan Background Recurrent vascular events remain a major source of morbidity and mortality after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The IRIS Trial is evaluating an approach to secondary prevention based o...
Source: American Heart Journal - November 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

FDA approves alogliptin for type 2 diabetes as three separate preparations
Source: FDA Area: News The FDA has approved alogliptin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as three separate preparations: alogliptin monotherapy; alogliptin in combination with metformin; and alogliptin in combination with pioglitazone.   Alogliptin stimulates insulin release following meals and was shown to be safe and effective as monotherapy in 14 clinical trials involving approximately 8,500 patients with type 2 diabetes.  Alogliptin monotherapy reduced glycosylated haemoglobin (HBA1c) by 0.4 to 0.6% compared to placebo following 26 weeks of treatment.   The FDA has requested additional data ...
Source: NeLM - News - January 28, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news