Query: stroke

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Condition: Encephalitis

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Total 147 results found since Jan 2013.

French Intensive Care Society, International congress - Réanimation 2016.
C, Sauneuf B, Verrier P, Pottier V, Orabona M, Samba D, Viquesnel G, Lermuzeaux M, Hazera P, Hanouz JL, Parienti JJ, Du Cheyron D, Demoule A, Clavel M, Rolland-Debord C, Perbet S, Terzi N, Kouatchet A, Wallet F, Roze H, Vargas F, Guérin C, Dellamonica J, Jaber S, Similowski T, Quenot JP, Binquet C, Vinsonneau C, Barbar SD, Vinault S, Deckert V, Lemaire S, Hssain AA, Bruyère R, Souweine B, Lagrost L, Adrie C, Jung B, Daurat A, De Jong A, Chanques G, Mahul M, Monnin M, Molinari N, Lheureux O, Trepo E, Hites M, Cotton F, Wolff F, Surin R, Créteur J, Vincent JL, Gustot T, Jacobs F, Taccone FS, Neuville M, Timsit JF, El-Hel...
Source: Australian Family Physician - June 1, 2016 Category: Primary Care Authors: Jaillette E, Girault C, Brunin G, Zerimech F, Chiche A, Broucqsault-Dedrie C, Fayolle C, Minacori F, Alves I, Barrailler S, Robriquet L, Delaporte E, Thellier D, Delcourte C, Duhamel A, Nseir S, Valette X, Desmeulles I, Savary B, Masson R, Seguin A, Daubi Tags: Ann Intensive Care Source Type: research

Clinical implications for Translocator Protein (TSPO) imaging using 123ICLINDE SPECT: A feasible approach
Conclusions The preliminary results imply that [123I]CLINDE-SPECT is a feasible approach for TSPO imaging in neurological disorders associated with microglial activation and/or increased TSPO expression. The development of methods that do not need arterial blood sampling for quantification of TSPO will be important to ease implementation in a daily clinical setting. Further clinical studies are needed to determine the precise role of TSPO imaging in predicting clinical outcome and treatment response.
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - May 24, 2016 Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Thomsen, G., Jensen, P., Feng, L., Knudsen, L., Knudsen, G., Pinborg, L. Tags: Neurosciences/Neurology. Miscellaneous Source Type: research

Leucine-Rich Glioma Inactivated-1 and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Autoimmune Encephalitis Associated with Ischemic Stroke: A Case Report
Marisa McGinley, Sarkis Morales-Vidal, Sean Ruland
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - May 9, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral venous thrombosis during tuberculous meningoencephalitis.
Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare disease characterized by its clinical polymorphism and multiplicity of risk factors. Infections represent less than 10% of etiologies. Tuberculosis is not a common etiology, only a few observations are published in the literature. Between January 2005 and March 2015, 61 patients were hospitalized for neuro-meningeal tuberculosis. Among them, three young women had presented one or more cerebral venous sinus thromboses. No clinical feature was observed in these patients; vascular localizations were varied: sagittal sinus (2 cases), lateral sinus (2 cases) and transver...
Source: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires - April 15, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Guenifi W, Boukhrissa H, Gasmi A, Rais M, Ouyahia A, Hachani A, Diab N, Mechakra S, Lacheheb A Tags: J Mal Vasc Source Type: research

What Genetics are Associated with Multiple Sclerosis?
Discussion Multiple sclerosis (MS) is “a chronic degenerative, often episodic disease of the central nervous system marked by patchy destruction of the myelin that surrounds and insulates nerve fibers, usually appearing in young adulthood and manifested by one or more mild to severe neural and muscular impairments, as spastic weakness in one or more limbs, local sensory losses, bladder dysfunction, or visual disturbances.” It is a chronic disease and therefore symptoms must occur more than once. The first episode is called an acute demyelinating attack. Fifteen to forty-five percent of children with their first...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - April 4, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Presenting as Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus: A Case Report (P1.333)
CONCLUSIONS: Non-convulsive status epilepticus is an extremely rare presentation of prion disease. To date, there have only been three reported cases in the literature. This case highlights the need to consider prion disease as an etiology in NCSE and NORSE.Disclosure: Dr. Alobaidy has nothing to disclose. Dr. Parker has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bershad has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Alobaidy, A., Parker, A., Bershad, E. Tags: Fungal and Other Infectious Disorders Source Type: research

4 Cases of Aseptic Encephalitis Mimicking Right Middle Cerebral Artery Syndrome (P6.028)
We present 4 cases of presumed aseptic encephalitis in Southern California all causing a transient right MCA syndrome (eyes deviated to the right, left hemianopia, left hemiparesis, and inattention), with 3 of them presenting within a 10 day period, and all within a geographic radius of 40 miles. None of these cases had right MCA vascular occlusions, ischemic infarcts on imaging or severe hyperglycemia. All patients had near-complete resolution of the right MCA syndromes between 3-12 days. 2 of 4 cases developed complex or secondary generalized partial motor seizures requiring treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Every pati...
Source: Neurology - April 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Way, C., Sangha, N. Tags: Ischemic Stroke Diagnosis Source Type: research

Acute Diffusion-Weighted MRI Abnormalities in Status Epilepticus (P4.190)
Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the abnormality on diffusion-weighted MRI and residual brain atrophy in status epilepticus is more frequent than previous study. These abnormalities may reflect the epileptogenic hyperexcitation and propagation of ictal discharge.Disclosure: Dr. Son has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Son, J. Tags: Epilepsy/Clinical Neurophysiology: Imaging Source Type: research

A Case of Transient Global Amnesia: A Review and How It May Shed Further Insight into the Neurobiology of Delusions
Conclusion In closing, our patient’s episode of TGA combined with her emotional and perceptual response lends credence to the proposal of a “fear/paranoia” circuit in the genesis of paranoid delusions—a circuit incorporating amygdala, frontal, and parietal cortices. Here, neutral or irrelevant stimuli, thoughts, and percepts come to engender fear and anxiety, while dysfunction in frontoparietal circuitry engenders inappropriate social predictions and maladaptive inferences about the intentions of others.[54] Hippocampus relays information about contextual information based on past experiences and the current situat...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - April 1, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: ICN Online Editor Tags: Anxiety Disorders Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology Case Report Cognition Current Issue Dementia Medical Issues Neurologic Systems and Symptoms Psychiatry Schizophrenia delusions hippocampus neurobiology Transient global amnesia Source Type: research

Presentation and Rehabilitation In A Patient With Toxoplasmosis Encephalitis: A Case Study and Review
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016 Source:PM&R Author(s): Ryan Mattie, Zack McCormick, Henry Huie Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic infection that often presents in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The infection can cause severe and potentially fatal encephalitis due to the reactivation of latent infections in the setting of immune suppression. Diagnosing toxoplasmosis encephalitis in immunocompromised patients is often difficult because the signs and symptoms can be non-specific, but making a diagnosis of TE is even more challenging in a patient who is not known to...
Source: PMandR - January 22, 2016 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Infectious Mononucleosis Complicated with Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Case Report.
CONCLUSION: Although IM is known to be self-limited, it could contribute to acute cerebral infarction, which is a rare IM neurological complication. PMID: 26179687 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica - December 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Neurol Taiwan Source Type: research

Conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI of the hippocampus.
Authors: Szabo K, Förster A, Gass A Abstract The human hippocampus is a highly complex structure located on the medial surface of the cerebral hemispheres as a part of the intralimbic gyrus. For clinical purposes, in addition to routine transverse MRI slices, acquisitions parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus need to be performed to fully appreciate its curved anatomy. Clinicians should be acquainted with the normal appearance of the hippocampus regarding size, shape, symmetry, and signal as well as with the width and form of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces surrounding the hippocampus to be...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - December 2, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Neurologic Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
This article reviews the neurologic complications caused by HIV infection, associated comorbidities, or antiretroviral drugs that are commonly encountered by neurologists. DISCLAIMER: This article was written by Dr Avindra Nath in his personal capacity. The views expressed are his own and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the United States government.
Source: CONTINUUM - December 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Selective neuronal vulnerability of human hippocampal CA1 neurons: lesion evolution, temporal course, and pattern of hippocampal damage in diffusion-weighted MR imaging
Deuschl & Olav Jansen
Source: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism - October 30, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Thorsten BartschJuliane DöhringSigrid ReuterCarsten FinkeAxel RohrHenriette BrauerGünther DeuschlOlav Jansen Tags: CA1 encephalitis hippocampus memory stroke vulnerability Source Type: research

Management of Intracranial Pressure
Purpose of Review:: Intracranial pressure (ICP) can be elevated in traumatic brain injury, large artery acute ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, intracranial neoplasms, and diffuse cerebral disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis, and acute hepatic failure. Raised ICP is also known as intracranial hypertension and is defined as a sustained ICP of greater than 20 mm Hg. Recent Findings:: ICP must be measured through an invasive brain catheter, typically an external ventricular catheter that can drain CSF and measure ICP, or through an intraparenchymal ICP probe. Proper recognition of the clinical signs of elevated...
Source: CONTINUUM - October 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

E-086 non-ischemic etiologies by ct perfusion
ConclusionThe radiologist should be aware of the imaging findings of etiologies which may mimic an acute ischemic stroke on CT perfusion imaging.DisclosuresM. Chehab: None. J. Wilseck: None.
Source: Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery - July 26, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Chehab, M., Wilseck, J. Tags: SNIS 12th Annual Meeting Electronic Poster Abstracts Source Type: research

The Expression and Significance of the Plasma Let-7 Family in Anti- N -methyl- d -aspartate Receptor Encephalitis
Abstract The study aimed to investigate the expression and significance of the plasma let-7 family in anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Blood samples from 5 anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients and 5 negative controls were collected for microarray analysis. Blood samples from10 anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients, 10 anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients whose physical conditions have improved after 3 months of immunotherapy, 20 virus (meningitis) encephalitis patients, 20 tuberculosis (meningitis) encephalitis patients, 10 purulent (meningitis) encephalitis patients, 20 cerebral cysticercosis patient...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 23, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Selective neuronal vulnerability of human hippocampal CA1 neurons: lesion evolution, temporal course, and pattern of hippocampal damage in diffusion-weighted MR imaging
Deuschl & Olav Jansen
Source: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow - June 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Thorsten BartschJuliane DöhringSigrid ReuterCarsten FinkeAxel RohrHenriette BrauerGünther DeuschlOlav Jansen Tags: CA1 encephalitis hippocampus memory stroke vulnerability Source Type: research

De novo status epilepticus with isolated aphasia
Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging findings were only subtle, and EEG was without clear ictal pattern, so the diagnosis of aphasic status remains with some uncertainty. However, status epilepticus can mimic stroke symptoms and has to be considered in patients with aphasia even when no previous stroke or structural lesions are detectable and EEG shows no epileptic discharges. Epileptic origin is favored when CT or MR imaging reveal no hypoperfusion. In this case, MRI was superior to CT in detecting hyperperfusion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Status Epilepticus”.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - June 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

De novo status epilepticus with isolated aphasia.
CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging findings were only subtle, and EEG was without clear ictal pattern, so the diagnosis of aphasic status remains with some uncertainty. However, status epilepticus can mimic stroke symptoms and has to be considered in patients with aphasia even when no previous stroke or structural lesions are detectable and EEG shows no epileptic discharges. Epileptic origin is favored when CT or MR imaging reveal no hypoperfusion. In this case, MRI was superior to CT in detecting hyperperfusion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID: 26044094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - June 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Flügel D, Kim OC, Felbecker A, Tettenborn B Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research

Predictors of Poor Outcome in Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: Retrospective Analysis of Nationwide Inpatient Sample (S32.006)
CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted for neuroleptic malignant syndrome, every decade increment in age, acute kidney injury, seizures and respiratory failure were positive predictors of poor outcome. Every calendar year increase was a negative predictor of poor outcome. Study Supported by:Disclosure: Dr. Modi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Dharaiya has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Modi, S., Dharaiya, D. Tags: Movement Disorders: Tremor, Ataxia, and More Platform Blitz Source Type: research

Limbic Encephalitis Exacerbations and Remissions Charted by Microglial PET Scan: A Case Study (P4.104)
CONCLUSIONS: C-11-PK11195 PET imaging can be useful in the diagnosis of limbic encephalitis and for monitoring response to treatment. MALT lymphoma may also be associated with autoimmune or paraneoplastic encephalitis, especially in individuals with other predisposing factors to autoimmune disorders, such as Tourette’s and autoimmune thyroid disease. The reduction in microglial activity with both IVIG and anti-psychotics supports previous findings that anti-psychotics may act through anti-inflammatory pathways.Disclosure: Dr. Shatz has received research support from Janssen Pharmaceutica. Dr. Chugani has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Shatz, R., Chugani, H. Tags: Aging, Dementia, Cognitive, and Behavioral Neurology: Rapidly Progressive and Inflammatory Dementias Source Type: research

Inferior Cerebellar Peduncular Lesion Causes a Distinct Vestibular Syndrome (P1.332)
CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral ICP lesion at the pontine level mimics acute peripheral vestibular disorders. However, directional dissociation between OTR/SVV tilt and body lateropulsion with normal head impulse or caloric tests may be a sign distinguishing lesions involving unilateral ICP at the pontine level from those affecting other vestibular structures. Study Supported by:Disclosure: Dr. Choi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Choi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Lee has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Choi, K.-D., Choi, J.-H., Lee, S.-H. Tags: Neuro-ophthalmology/Neuro-otology I Source Type: research

Inferior cerebellar peduncular lesion causes a distinct vestibular syndrome
ConclusionsA unilateral ICP lesion at the pontine level leads to the development of isolated AVS. However, a negative head impulse test and directional dissociation between OTR/SVV tilt and body lateropulsion may distinguish lesions involving unilateral ICP at the pontine level from those affecting other vestibular structures.
Source: European Journal of Neurology - April 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: J.‐H. Choi, J.‐D. Seo, Y. R. Choi, M.‐J. Kim, H.‐J. Kim, J. S. Kim, K.‐D. Choi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Rasmussen's Encephalitis: A case report
Rasmussen’s encephalitis (RE) is a rare neurological disorder of inflammatory aetiology characterised by encephalitis, intractable seizures, hemiparesis, variable motor deficits, and dementia. It is not commonly considered in the clinical differential diagnosis of a patient with a past history of a stroke-like episode presenting with status epilepticus. It is suspected mainly in children in whom the disease is more common. Here we report a case of an adult man presenting with a common symptom of seizure caused by Rasmussen’s encephalitis.
Source: Australasian Medical Journal - AMJ - March 28, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy during fumarate monotherapy of psoriasis
In September 2013, a 69-year-old Caucasian man who was anti–JC virus (JCV) antibody positive was admitted to our hospital with slowly progressing right hemiparesis and aphasia lasting for approximately 6 months. Medical history revealed arterial hypertension, biological aortic valve replacement, and psoriasis vulgaris, treated with 3–6 tablets daily of dimethylfumarate (DMF; 120 mg)/ethylhydrogenfumarate (EHF; 95 mg) (Fumaderm, Biogen Idec, Ismaning, Germany) since December 2008 (table e-1 at Neurology.org/nn). No other immunosuppressive pretreatment had been given. In April/May 2013, the patient recognized a s...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - March 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hoepner, R., Faissner, S., Klasing, A., Schneider, R., Metz, I., Bellenberg, B., Lukas, C., Altmeyer, P., Gold, R., Chan, A. Tags: Multiple sclerosis, Encephalitis, Viral infections Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Central sleep apnea in a patient with dengue encephalitis
We report for the first time a case of Central sleep apnea in a patient with dengue encephalopathy. This is a case report of a 50 year old male who had presented with fever, body ache, headache and altered mental status. A diagnosis of dengue fever was made on the basis of IgM antibodies in serum and encephalopathy was attributed to dengue encephalitis in the absence of another etiological cause of encephalopathy. Persistent hyper somnolence and desaturation despite resolution of fever led to a polysomnographic evaluation, which revealed significant central sleep apnea. Hypersomnia, a primary complaint of excessive sleepin...
Source: Apollo Medicine - March 5, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Decompressive Craniectomy in Neurocritical Care
Opinion statement Decompressive craniectomy (DC) involves the removal of a portion of the skull in the setting of life threatening brain edema or potentially uncontrollable intracranial pressures. Often performed on an emergent basis, evaluation and arrangement for DC should be swift and decisive. However, the evidence base for DC in the wide range of conditions for which it is currently performed is still developing. The procedure is associated with a number of complications and ethical considerations; thus, its place in contemporary practice remains controversial. While randomized trials conducted in the last d...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Neurology - January 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral myiasis
An 85-year-old patient was admitted to the emergency room septic with fetid odor in the right orbit, where enucleation of the right eye had been performed 8 years prior. Physical inspection noted the presence of larvae within the right orbit. After a CT scan (figure 1), the patient underwent surgical treatment (figure 2). Intraoperative cultures revealed encephalitis caused by myiasis. The patient died due to complications caused by sepsis 2 weeks after the procedure.
Source: Neurology - January 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Holanda, L. F., Pereira, B. J. A., de Holanda, C. V. M., de Oliveira, J. G. Tags: CT, Parasitic infections, Coma, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, Critical care NEUROIMAGES Source Type: research

Relationship of herpes simplex encephalitis and transcranial direct current stimulation–a case report
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that delivers weak polarizing direct currents (1–2mA) to the cortex using two electrodes placed on the scalp. During recent years, tDCS has been used for various neurologic disorders such as stroke, chronic pain, Parkinson’s disease and depression [1–11]. Common side effects, though infrequent include mild tingling, fatigue, pruritus, headache, nausea and insomnia [12]. While it is well-known that herpes simplex virus reactivation may be triggered by trauma [13] (i.e., surgery and UV – radiation), to date there has been no r...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - January 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Yuanbin Yang, Juan Xiao, Haiqing Song, Ralph Wang, Mohammed Hussain, Weiqun Song Tags: Case report Source Type: research

Relationship of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis and
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that delivers weak polarizing direct currents (1–2mA) to the cortex using two electrodes placed on the scalp. During recent years, tDCS has been used for various neurologic disorders such as stroke, chronic pain, Parkinson's disease and depression [1–11]. Common side effects, though infrequent include mild tingling, fatigue, pruritus, headache, nausea and insomnia [12]. While it is well-known that herpes simplex virus reactivation may be triggered by trauma [13] (i.e surgery and UV–radiation), to date there has been no reporte...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - January 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Yuanbin Yang, Juan Xiao, Haiqing Song, Ralph Wang, Mohammed Hussain, Weiqun Song Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in neurological critical care
Conclusion: PSH is an unusual complication in neurocritical care. It prolonged the hospitalization and hampers recovery. The other life-threatening conditions that mimic PSH should be excluded. The association with JE and tuberculous meningitis was not previously described in literature.
Source: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine - January 6, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Rajesh VermaPrithvi GiriImran Rizvi Source Type: research

Semantic memory: Which side are you on?
We present two patients in whom the combination of lesion site and cognitive performance was uniquely informative about the organisation and functional anatomy of semantic memory. One had had a single lobar stroke with an unusual distribution, largely destroying the whole of the left temporal lobe ventral to the superior temporal sulcus. The other patient had had herpes simplex encephalitis with destruction that was confined to the left cerebral hemisphere. The lesion again mainly encompassed the left temporal lobe, but also extended to the left inferior frontal gyrus. Cognitive outcomes in the two patients were compared w...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy and progressive focal cortical atrophy — What is the diagnosis?
We report the case of a young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy that progressed rapidly as evidenced by the development of progressive focal cortical atrophy. She underwent biopsy that showed perinatal ischemia and a prominent inflammatory response, including T-cell infiltration and microglial activation. There was no consensus reached on the final diagnosis although the hypothesis of dual pathology (adult variant of Rasmussen's encephalitis and perinatal stroke) was considered. The possible role of inflammation in the progression of epilepsy caused by a “static” lesion (perinatal stroke) is discussed.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior Case Reports - November 1, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Periodic Lateralized Epileptiform Discharges (PLEDs) in Patients With Neurosyphilis and HIV Infection.
Abstract Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) are an electroencephalographic pattern recorded in the setting of a variety of brain abnormalities. It is best recognized for its association with acute viral encephalitis, stroke, tumor, or latestatus epilepticus. However, there are other conditions that have been recognized as the underlying pathology for PLEDs such as alcohol withdrawal, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, anoxic brain injury, and hemiplegic migraine. However, there are only rare case reports of PLEDs in patients with neurosyphilis. Here, we report 2 patients presenting with encephalopathy an...
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - October 17, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takagaki K, Morales MK, Vitantonio D, Berkowitz F, Bell WL, Kumar PN, Motamedi GK Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research

Occurrence of communication and swallowing problems in neurological disorders: Analysis of forty patients
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that speech, language and swallowing problems are frequent in individuals with neurological conditions. Speech language pathologist plays an important role as a member of the rehabilitation team in a neurological setup with respect to identifying these problems and initiating intervention at the earliest. Hence, it is necessary for speech language pathologist to be well versed with the features each disorder may present with in terms of communication and swallowing. Content Type Journal ArticlePages -DOI 10.3233/NRE-141165Authors Mansi Pankaj Jani, B.Y.L. Nair Hospital, Maharashtra, Indi...
Source: NeuroRehabilitation - October 15, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: NeuroRehabilitation Source Type: research

A role for the complement alternative pathway in the pathology of multiple sclerosis grey matter lesions
In multiple sclerosis (MS), pathology of cortical and deep grey matter structures is predictive of a more rapid transit to the progressive phase and a more disabling disease. As all aspects of the complement system are activated in white matter (WM) lesions of progressive MS, we aim to understand the role of complement in the pathogenesis of grey matter (GM) lesions. We analysed the expression of classical (C1q, C4d), alternative (C3b–iC3b, Bb) and terminal (TCC) pathways of complement activation in post-mortem tissue from 22 progressive (13 SPMS, 9 male, median age at death 50years (38–66)); 8 inflammatory controls (v...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 15, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lewis M. Watkins, Samantha Loveless, James Neal, Mark I. Rees, Neil Robertson, Richard Reynolds, B. Paul Morgan, Owain W. Howell Tags: 324 Source Type: research

Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Monitoring in Non-TBI Patients: Special Considerations
Abstract The effect of intracranial pressure (ICP) and the role of ICP monitoring are best studied in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, a variety of acute neurologic illnesses e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, meningitis/encephalitis, and select metabolic disorders, e.g., liver failure and malignant, brain tumors can affect ICP. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature about ICP monitoring in conditions other than TBI and to provide recommendations how the technique may be used in patient management. A PubMed search between 1980 and September 2013 identifie...
Source: Neurocritical Care - September 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CNS disease triggering Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy
There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS disorders are epilepsy, stroke, infectious or immunological encephalitis/meningitis, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest not only as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, autonomic impairment, systolic dysfunction/heart failure, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension, but al...
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - August 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Josef Finsterer, Karim Wahbi Source Type: research

Central Nervous System Complications of Varicella-Zoster Virus
Conclusion: Neurologic complications of VZV infection continue to occur despite the availability of an effective vaccine. Neurologic symptom onset can predate the appearance of the VZV exanthem and in rare cases may occur in the absence of an exanthem.
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 24, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michelle Science, Daune MacGregor, Susan E. Richardson, Sanjay Mahant, Dat Tran, Ari Bitnun Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Limbic encephalitis: Clinical spectrum and long-term outcome from a developing country perspective
Conclusion: Early recognition of LE is important based upon clinical, MRI data in the absence of antineuronal surface antibody screen in developing nations. Early institution of immunotherapy will help in improvement in outcome of these patients in long-term.
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - May 17, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sujit Abajirao JagtapGopal Krishna DasHarsha J. KambaleAshalatha RadhakrishnanM.D. Nair Source Type: research

Progressive limbic encephalopathy: Problems and prospects
Conclusion: All patients who present with new onset neuropsychiatric symptoms need to be evaluated for sub-acute infections, inflammation, autoimmune limbic encephalitis and paraneoplastic syndrome. A repeated 20 minute EEG is a very effective screening tool to detect organicity.
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - May 17, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sadanandavalli Retnaswami ChandraRoopa SeshadriYasha ChikabasaviahThomas Gregor Issac Source Type: research

An unusual cause of cerebellar ataxia in an immunocompromised elderly patient
Conclusions: PVB19 CNS infection should be in the differential as a cause of cerebellar ataxia in immunocompromised patients. Recognition is critical to early institution of appropriate therapy. Our patient showed considerable improvement in ataxia after IVIG therapy.Highlights:
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - March 13, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sheetal Shroff, Carlos Kamiya-Matsuoka, Karin Woodman Tags: Short Communications Source Type: research

Varicella zoster encephalitis mimicking stroke
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - December 16, 2013 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Joaquín Valle Alonso, Javier Fonseca, Daniel López, Juan José Ochoa Source Type: research