Query: stroke

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Condition: Encephalitis

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Total 146 results found since Jan 2013.

Pediatric Acute Stroke Protocol Activation in a Children's Hospital Emergency Department Brief Reports
Conclusions— Of pediatric brain attacks, 24% were stroke, 2% were transient ischemic attack, and 14% were other neurological emergencies. Together, 40% had a stroke or other neurological emergency, underscoring the need for prompt evaluation and management of children with brain attacks.
Source: Stroke - July 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Ladner, T. R., Mahdi, J., Gindville, M. C., Gordon, A., Harris, Z. L., Crossman, K., Pruthi, S., Abramo, T. J., Jordan, L. C. Tags: Emergency treatment of Stroke, Stroke in Children and the Young Brief Reports Source Type: research

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Stroke after Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment in Miller–Fisher Syndrome/Bickerstaff Brain Stem Encephalitis Overlap Syndrome
The association of a posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) without arterial hypertension with autoimmune-mediated inflammatory neuropathies such as Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare and poorly understood phenomenon. To date, PRES has been described as initial manifestation, coincidental finding, or adverse event subsequent to immunomodulatory treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in cases of axonal and demyelinating GBS as well as in Miller–Fisher syndrome (MFS). We here report a case of MFS/Bickerstaff brain stem encephalitis (BBE)–overlap syndrome and nonhypertensive PRES that occurr...
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Henning R. Stetefeld, Helmar C. Lehmann, Gereon R. Fink, Lothar Burghaus Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Encephalitis as a Cause of Ischemic Stroke: Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature
Our objective is to describe a patient who developed an ischemic stroke as a complication of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis and to review the literature.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - November 2, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Panagiotis Zis, Panagiota Stritsou, Panagiotis Angelidakis, Antonios Tavernarakis Source Type: research

Tick-borne Encephalitis: Stroke-like Presentation
We report a unique case of clinical symptoms and radiological findings compatible with a stroke-like inflammatory lesion in the thalamus, suggesting microangiopathy from TBEV. Our case shows that TBEV could be a possible cause of stroke-like lesions.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Andreas Eleftheriou, Fredrik Lundin, Evangelos Alexandros Petropoulos Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR ANTIBODIES IN NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES: Anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, Anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, Anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, Anti-mGluR1 antibodies or Anti-mGluR5 antibodies are present in subpopulations of patients with either: Epilepsy, Encephalitis, Cerebellar Ataxia, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, Schizophrenia, Mania or Stroke. These autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies can bind neurons in few brain regions, activate glutamate receptors, decrease glutamate receptor's expression, impair glutamate-induced signaling and function, activate Blood Brain Barrier endothelial cells, kill neurons, damage the brain, induce behavioral/psychiatric/cognitive abnormalities and Ataxia in animal models, and can be removed or silenced in some patients by immunotherapy.
Abstract Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the Central Nervous System (CNS), and it is crucially needed for numerous key neuronal functions. Yet, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage by excitotoxicity-detrimental over activation of glutamate receptors. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is the main pathological process taking place in many types of acute and chronic CNS diseases and injuries. In recent years, it became clear that not only excess glutamate can cause massive brain damage, but that several types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, that are present in ...
Source: Herpes - August 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Levite M Tags: J Neural Transm Source Type: research

Encephalitis Lethargica
Encephalitis lethargica information page compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
Source: NINDS Disorders: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - October 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Meningitis and Encephalitis
Encephalitis and meningitis information page compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
Source: NINDS Disorders: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - October 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rasmussen's Encephalitis
Rasmussen's encephalitis information sheet compiled by NINDS, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Source: NINDS Disorders: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - October 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early temperature and mortality in critically ill patients with acute neurological diseases: trauma and stroke differ from infection
Conclusions The relationship between peak temperature in the first 24 h after ICU admission and in-hospital mortality differs for TBI/stroke compared to CNS infection. For CNS infection, increased temperature is not associated with increased risk of death.
Source: Intensive Care Medicine - February 2, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Varicella-Zoster Vasculitis Presenting with Cerebellar Hemorrhage
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is known as one of the rare, but important, causes of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Most previously reported VZV-related hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral vasculitis are associated with anterior circulation because VZV spreads from trigeminal ganglia to the anterior circulation of Willis. The present study presents a patient with cerebellar hemorrhage, who was diagnosed with VZV encephalitis and vasculitis of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kazuya Matsuo, Yoichi Uozumi, Hirohito Miyamoto, Shotaro Tatsumi, Eiji Kohmura Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Encephalopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke (MELAS) presenting as an apparent neoplastic process (P5.015)
CONCLUSION: MELAS can mimic more common disorders. The slow onset of her symptoms and the MRI's appearance led to suspicion for neoplasm. This is the first report to our knowledge where MELAS has presented as such. Documentation of this and other unusual presentations of mitochondrial disease is crucial to appropriate diagnosis of the condition.Disclosure: Dr. Rothstein has nothing to disclose. Dr. Haq has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rothstein, A., Haq, I. Tags: Aging, Dementia, Cognitive, and Behavioral Neurology ePosters Source Type: research

Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) with stroke like symptoms. A case report. (P5.104)
Conclusion: Clinicians should consider SREAT in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with stroke like symptoms/vasculitis especially if investigations fail to establish a diagnosis.Disclosure: Dr. Javalkar has nothing to disclose. Dr. Abbas has nothing to disclose. Dr. Harris has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Javalkar, V., Abbas, S., Harris, M. Tags: Edema, Encephalopathy, and Encephalitis Source Type: research

A reversible stroke-like splenial lesion in viral encephalopathy.
CONCLUSION: Our case confirmed with previous findings that a reversible stroke-like splenial lesion could be seen in virus related encephalopathy and regarded as a good prognosis marker. Transient intramyelinic edema or inflammatory infiltrate is the possible mechanism and further studies enrolling more related cases will be needed to confirm our finding. PMID: 24030090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica - December 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Neurol Taiwan Source Type: research

Administration of Uric Acid in the Emergency Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke
Abstract Oxidative stress is one of the main mechanisms implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine catabolism in humans, and it is the main endogenous antioxidant in blood. Low circulating UA levels have been associated with an increased prevalence and worse clinical course of several neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases of the CNS, including Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, the exogenous administration of UA exerts robust neuroprotective properties in experimental m...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - December 28, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic limbic and extra-limbic encephalitis secondary to a thymoma mimicking an acute stroke.
PMID: 26795210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences - January 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Reginold W, Ninan K, Coret-Simon J, Haider E Tags: Can J Neurol Sci Source Type: research

Hashimoto encephalopathy presenting with stroke-like episodes in an adolescent female: a case report and literature review
Hashimoto encephalitis (HE) is a rare form of encephalopathy thought to be of autoimmune etiology. Cognitive changes and seizures are the most commonly reported presenting manifestation. Stroke-like episodes have been reported to occur during the disease process as well. To our knowledge we report the first know case of pediatric HE presenting with stroke-like symptoms.
Source: Pediatric Neurology - March 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Brett R. Graham, Natalie Shiff, Munier Nour, Simona Hasal, Richard Huntsman, Salah Almubarak Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

HSV-2 Encephalitis Presenting as Multifocal Ischemic Stroke (P4.375)
CONCLUSION A high index of suspicion needs to be maintained to diagnose infectious vasculitis. A history of immunosuppression and headache preceding cerebral infarction were important factors that ultimately led to the appropriate work up and diagnosis in this case. Lumbar puncture and prompt initiation of antiviral treatment is essential in stroke case of suspected CNS infection with HSV-2.Disclosure: Dr. Zhang has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sumida has nothing to disclose. Dr. Margolesky has nothing to disclose. Dr. Tornes has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ramos has nothing to disclose. Dr. Koch has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang, F., Sumida, A., Margolesky, J., Tornes, L., Ramos, A., Koch, S. Tags: Cerebrovascular Case Reports Source Type: research

Unusual case of recurrent SMART (stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy) syndrome
Ramnath Santosh Ramanathan, Gayathri Sreedher, Konark Malhotra, Zain Guduru, Deeksha Agarwal, Mary Flaherty, Timothy Leichliter, Sandeep RanaAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2016 19(3):399-401Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy. A 53-year-old female initially presented with headache, confusion and left homonymous hemianopia. Her medical history was notable for cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which was treated with radiation in 1987. Her initial brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) revealed cortical enhancement in the right te...
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - July 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramnath Santosh Ramanathan Gayathri Sreedher Konark Malhotra Zain Guduru Deeksha Agarwal Mary Flaherty Timothy Leichliter Sandeep Rana Source Type: research

Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Brain Biopsy for Suspected Primary Central Nervous System Angiitis Brief Reports
Conclusions— Brain biopsy leads to pathological confirmation of vasculitis in a minority of suspected PACNS cases but alternative diagnoses are often identified. Importantly, rare but meaningful complications may occur.
Source: Stroke - July 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Torres, J., Loomis, C., Cucchiara, B., Smith, M., Messe, S. Tags: Cerebrovascular Disease/Stroke Brief Reports Source Type: research

Misdiagnosis of CADASIL: A single Medical Center experience (P1.251)
Conclusions:CADASIL is the most prevalent monogenic cerebral small-vessel arteriopathy. Despite wide availability of genetic testing, misdiagnosis and delay diagnosis are common. We encourage for enhanced awareness of CADASIL among patients with migraines with aura, recurrent TIAs or subcortical ischemic strokes, and mood disorder, in order to provide appropriate multidisciplinary treatment, psychological support and genetic counselingStudy Supported by: n/aDisclosure: Dr. Ortiz-Garcia has nothing to disclose. Dr. Orjuela has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sweis has nothing to disclose. Dr. Biller has received personal compensat...
Source: Neurology - April 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ortiz-Garcia, J., Orjuela, K., Sweis, R., Biller, J. Tags: Genetic Stroke Syndromes, Biomarkers, and Translational/Basic Research Source Type: research

Neurotoxocariasis, a treatable infectious etiology of Stroke (P3.318)
Conclusions:Toxocara infection is an uncommon but treatable etiology of stroke, and should be particularly considered in patients with eosinophilia, positive serology, myocarditis and embolic strokes.Disclosure: Dr. Garcia Monco has nothing to disclose. Dr. Azkune Calle has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ruisanchez nieva has nothing to disclose. Dr. Anguizola Tamayo has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pardina Vilella has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bocos Portillo has nothing to disclose. Dr. Gomez-Beldarrain has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Monco, J. G., Calle, I. A., nieva, A. R., Tamayo, D. A., Vilella, L. P., Portillo, J. B., Gomez-Beldarrain, M. Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Disease of the Nervous System Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Pneumocephalus: Is the needle size significant?
Discussion. Pneumocephalus is defined by two mechanisms: a ball-valve and an inverted bottle concept.1 The ball-valve type implies positive pressure events, such as coughing or valsalva maneuvers, that prevent air escape. Tension pneumocephalus is included in this mechanism, causing a parenchymal mass effect. The inverted bottle theory includes a negative intracranial pressure gradient following cerebrospinal fluid drainage, relieved by air influx. A small pneumocephalus is usually sealed by blood clots or granulation, allowing spontaneous reabsorption and resolution.[1] Otherwise, the lateral positioning of a patient duri...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - February 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: ICN Online Editor Tags: Assessment Tools CNS Infections Current Issue Letters to the Editor Neurologic Systems and Symptoms Neurology Stroke Traumatic Brain Injury epidural needle size Pneumocephalus spinal tap Source Type: research

A physician's story of his own illness: Aphasia from possible stroke but more likely from encephalitis.
PMID: 29686583 [PubMed]
Source: Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings - January 1, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lathan SR, Stuart D Tags: Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of arterial stroke mimics: a pictorial review
AbstractAcute ischaemic stroke represents the most common cause of new sudden neurological deficit, but other diseases mimicking stroke happen in about one-third of the cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best technique to identify those ‘stroke mimics’. In this article, we propose a diagnostic approach of those stroke mimics on MRI according to an algorithm based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which can be abnormal or normal, followed by the results of other common additional MRI sequences, such as T2 with gradient recall ed echo weighted imaging (T2-GRE) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Autoimmune limbic encephalitis in association with acute stroke
A 60-year-old woman with no known medical history presented with acute-onset altered mental status and aphasia. She was in her usual state of health until the time of presentation. She was found to have left middle and posterior cerebral artery (MCA and PCA) acute ischemic strokes and subsequently developed refractory status epilepticus. CT angiography showed moderate stenosis of the proximal left internal carotid artery (ICA), occlusion of the right ICA at its origin, and near-complete occlusion of the left vertebral artery (figure). Strokes were attributed to large-vessel atherosclerotic disease in the setting of multipl...
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - August 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kaas, B., Zeiler, S. R., Bahouth, M. N., Llinas, R. H., Probasco, J. C. Tags: All Immunology, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke Case Source Type: research

Hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis: rare neurological sequelae of chickenpox infection
Anuradha Mehta, Aanchal Arora, Manoj Sharma, Rupali Malik, Yogesh Chandra PorwalAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2018 21(3):228-232 Chickenpox (varicella) is primarily a disease of childhood which occurs due to infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Primary VZV infection is rare in adults due to exposure in early childhood in our country. In adults, it is associated with some serious systemic and neurological complications which can follow both primary infection and reactivation of VZV. Neurological sequelae caused by primary VZV infection are rare and include encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, myelitis, acute c...
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - September 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Anuradha Mehta Aanchal Arora Manoj Sharma Rupali Malik Yogesh Chandra Porwal Source Type: research

A Pediatric and Neonatal Critical Care Transport Team's Standard of Care for Suspected Stroke of a Pediatric Patient
ConclusionThere has been an increase in rapid diagnosis, early recognition and treatment of pediatric patients with acute ischemic stroke and other stroke mimickers that required emergent intervention following implementation of our Stroke Alert Protocol, Clinical Practice Guideline, Suspected Stroke Checklist and tPA Administration and monitoring Guideline for Pediatric and Neonatal Critical Care Transport.
Source: Air Medical Journal - October 13, 2018 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus encephalitis radiographically mimicking lateral medullary stroke
Cytomegalovirus encephalitis may demonstrate unique MRI characteristics that allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment.
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - December 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li, D., van Gaal, S. Tags: MRI, Encephalitis, Viral infections, HIV, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke Case Source Type: research

Dramatic improvement after decompressive craniectomy in a fulminant stroke-like case of herpes simplex encephalitis.
PMID: 30528146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Presse Medicale - December 7, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sellier A, Joubert C, Desse N, Bernard C, Faivre A, Dagain A Tags: Presse Med Source Type: research

Clinical Improvement Following Stroke Promptly Reverses Post-stroke Cellular Immune Alterations
Conclusions: SIIA are detectable on admission of acute stroke patients. While it was assumed that post-stroke immunosuppression is rapidly reversed with improvement this is the first data set that shows that improvement actually is associated with a rapid reversal of SIIA demonstrating that SIIA require a constant signal to persist. The observation that HMGB-1 serum concentrations were similar in improved and non-improved cohorts argues against a role for this pro-inflammatory mediator in the maintenance of SIIA. Serum miRNA observed to be regulated in stroke in other publications was counter regulated with improvement in ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - May 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Late-onset Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like Episodes Presenting With Auditory Agnosia
Conclusions: MELAS is a disorder with clinical variability. Neuroimaging studies during stroke-like episodes in MELAS can provide significant clues to the underlying disorder. Although patients typically present in childhood, the first stroke-like episode can occur later in life in some patients, potentially related to a lower heteroplasmy level.
Source: The Neurologist - May 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Report/Case Series Source Type: research

Therapeutic management of stroke-like episodes varies from that of encephalitis
Conclusions: SLLs are a frequent manifestation of MIDs. They undergo dynamic changes in the acute and chronic stage. They need to be differentiated from ischemic stroke as they are differentially treated.
Source: Medicine - February 1, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Economic Evaluation Study Source Type: research

HSV2 Encephalitis Presenting as Multifocal Hemorrhagic Stroke.
PMID: 32188516 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mak G, Lu JQ, de Sa Boasquevisque D, Perera K Tags: Can J Neurol Sci Source Type: research

An unusual cause of cerebellar ataxia in an immunocompromised elderly patient
Conclusions: PVB19 CNS infection should be in the differential as a cause of cerebellar ataxia in immunocompromised patients. Recognition is critical to early institution of appropriate therapy. Our patient showed considerable improvement in ataxia after IVIG therapy.Highlights:
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - March 13, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sheetal Shroff, Carlos Kamiya-Matsuoka, Karin Woodman Tags: Short Communications Source Type: research

Varicella zoster encephalitis mimicking stroke
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - December 16, 2013 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Joaquín Valle Alonso, Javier Fonseca, Daniel López, Juan José Ochoa Source Type: research

Limbic encephalitis: Clinical spectrum and long-term outcome from a developing country perspective
Conclusion: Early recognition of LE is important based upon clinical, MRI data in the absence of antineuronal surface antibody screen in developing nations. Early institution of immunotherapy will help in improvement in outcome of these patients in long-term.
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - May 17, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sujit Abajirao JagtapGopal Krishna DasHarsha J. KambaleAshalatha RadhakrishnanM.D. Nair Source Type: research

Progressive limbic encephalopathy: Problems and prospects
Conclusion: All patients who present with new onset neuropsychiatric symptoms need to be evaluated for sub-acute infections, inflammation, autoimmune limbic encephalitis and paraneoplastic syndrome. A repeated 20 minute EEG is a very effective screening tool to detect organicity.
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - May 17, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sadanandavalli Retnaswami ChandraRoopa SeshadriYasha ChikabasaviahThomas Gregor Issac Source Type: research

Varicella zoster encephalitis mimicking stroke
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - December 16, 2013 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Joaquín Valle Alonso, Javier Fonseca, Daniel López, Juan José Ochoa Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

CNS disease triggering Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy
There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS disorders are epilepsy, stroke, infectious or immunological encephalitis/meningitis, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest not only as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, autonomic impairment, systolic dysfunction/heart failure, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension, but al...
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - August 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Josef Finsterer, Karim Wahbi Source Type: research

Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Monitoring in Non-TBI Patients: Special Considerations
Abstract The effect of intracranial pressure (ICP) and the role of ICP monitoring are best studied in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, a variety of acute neurologic illnesses e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, meningitis/encephalitis, and select metabolic disorders, e.g., liver failure and malignant, brain tumors can affect ICP. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature about ICP monitoring in conditions other than TBI and to provide recommendations how the technique may be used in patient management. A PubMed search between 1980 and September 2013 identifie...
Source: Neurocritical Care - September 11, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Central Nervous System Complications of Varicella-Zoster Virus
Conclusion: Neurologic complications of VZV infection continue to occur despite the availability of an effective vaccine. Neurologic symptom onset can predate the appearance of the VZV exanthem and in rare cases may occur in the absence of an exanthem.
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - July 24, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Michelle Science, Daune MacGregor, Susan E. Richardson, Sanjay Mahant, Dat Tran, Ari Bitnun Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Periodic Lateralized Epileptiform Discharges (PLEDs) in Patients With Neurosyphilis and HIV Infection.
Abstract Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) are an electroencephalographic pattern recorded in the setting of a variety of brain abnormalities. It is best recognized for its association with acute viral encephalitis, stroke, tumor, or latestatus epilepticus. However, there are other conditions that have been recognized as the underlying pathology for PLEDs such as alcohol withdrawal, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, anoxic brain injury, and hemiplegic migraine. However, there are only rare case reports of PLEDs in patients with neurosyphilis. Here, we report 2 patients presenting with encephalopathy an...
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - October 17, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takagaki K, Morales MK, Vitantonio D, Berkowitz F, Bell WL, Kumar PN, Motamedi GK Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research

A role for the complement alternative pathway in the pathology of multiple sclerosis grey matter lesions
In multiple sclerosis (MS), pathology of cortical and deep grey matter structures is predictive of a more rapid transit to the progressive phase and a more disabling disease. As all aspects of the complement system are activated in white matter (WM) lesions of progressive MS, we aim to understand the role of complement in the pathogenesis of grey matter (GM) lesions. We analysed the expression of classical (C1q, C4d), alternative (C3b–iC3b, Bb) and terminal (TCC) pathways of complement activation in post-mortem tissue from 22 progressive (13 SPMS, 9 male, median age at death 50years (38–66)); 8 inflammatory controls (v...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - October 15, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lewis M. Watkins, Samantha Loveless, James Neal, Mark I. Rees, Neil Robertson, Richard Reynolds, B. Paul Morgan, Owain W. Howell Tags: 324 Source Type: research

Young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy and progressive focal cortical atrophy — What is the diagnosis?
We report the case of a young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy that progressed rapidly as evidenced by the development of progressive focal cortical atrophy. She underwent biopsy that showed perinatal ischemia and a prominent inflammatory response, including T-cell infiltration and microglial activation. There was no consensus reached on the final diagnosis although the hypothesis of dual pathology (adult variant of Rasmussen's encephalitis and perinatal stroke) was considered. The possible role of inflammation in the progression of epilepsy caused by a “static” lesion (perinatal stroke) is discussed.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior Case Reports - November 1, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Occurrence of communication and swallowing problems in neurological disorders: Analysis of forty patients
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that speech, language and swallowing problems are frequent in individuals with neurological conditions. Speech language pathologist plays an important role as a member of the rehabilitation team in a neurological setup with respect to identifying these problems and initiating intervention at the earliest. Hence, it is necessary for speech language pathologist to be well versed with the features each disorder may present with in terms of communication and swallowing. Content Type Journal ArticlePages -DOI 10.3233/NRE-141165Authors Mansi Pankaj Jani, B.Y.L. Nair Hospital, Maharashtra, Indi...
Source: NeuroRehabilitation - October 15, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: NeuroRehabilitation Source Type: research

Semantic memory: Which side are you on?
We present two patients in whom the combination of lesion site and cognitive performance was uniquely informative about the organisation and functional anatomy of semantic memory. One had had a single lobar stroke with an unusual distribution, largely destroying the whole of the left temporal lobe ventral to the superior temporal sulcus. The other patient had had herpes simplex encephalitis with destruction that was confined to the left cerebral hemisphere. The lesion again mainly encompassed the left temporal lobe, but also extended to the left inferior frontal gyrus. Cognitive outcomes in the two patients were compared w...
Source: Neuropsychologia - November 24, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in neurological critical care
Conclusion: PSH is an unusual complication in neurocritical care. It prolonged the hospitalization and hampers recovery. The other life-threatening conditions that mimic PSH should be excluded. The association with JE and tuberculous meningitis was not previously described in literature.
Source: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine - January 6, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Rajesh VermaPrithvi GiriImran Rizvi Source Type: research

Relationship of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis and
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that delivers weak polarizing direct currents (1–2mA) to the cortex using two electrodes placed on the scalp. During recent years, tDCS has been used for various neurologic disorders such as stroke, chronic pain, Parkinson's disease and depression [1–11]. Common side effects, though infrequent include mild tingling, fatigue, pruritus, headache, nausea and insomnia [12]. While it is well-known that herpes simplex virus reactivation may be triggered by trauma [13] (i.e surgery and UV–radiation), to date there has been no reporte...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - January 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Yuanbin Yang, Juan Xiao, Haiqing Song, Ralph Wang, Mohammed Hussain, Weiqun Song Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Relationship of herpes simplex encephalitis and transcranial direct current stimulation–a case report
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that delivers weak polarizing direct currents (1–2mA) to the cortex using two electrodes placed on the scalp. During recent years, tDCS has been used for various neurologic disorders such as stroke, chronic pain, Parkinson’s disease and depression [1–11]. Common side effects, though infrequent include mild tingling, fatigue, pruritus, headache, nausea and insomnia [12]. While it is well-known that herpes simplex virus reactivation may be triggered by trauma [13] (i.e., surgery and UV – radiation), to date there has been no r...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - January 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Yuanbin Yang, Juan Xiao, Haiqing Song, Ralph Wang, Mohammed Hussain, Weiqun Song Tags: Case report Source Type: research