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Condition: Encephalitis

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Total 144 results found since Jan 2013.

Assessment of pre-specified adverse events following varicella vaccine: A population-based self-controlled risk interval study.
CONCLUSIONS: We detected a small risk of incidental pneumonia associated with varicella vaccine in the 6th week after immunization. There was no increase in the risk of other pre-specified adverse events. PMID: 32046891 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - February 8, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liu CH, Yeh YC, Huang WT, Chie WC, Chan KA Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Therapeutic management of stroke-like episodes varies from that of encephalitis
Conclusions: SLLs are a frequent manifestation of MIDs. They undergo dynamic changes in the acute and chronic stage. They need to be differentiated from ischemic stroke as they are differentially treated.
Source: Medicine - February 1, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Economic Evaluation Study Source Type: research

Qing-Kai-Ling Injection Induces Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction via the Activation of Anaphylatoxin C3
Conclusion: QKLI-IHR is complement activation-related pseudoallergy, rather than an IgE-mediated allergy. QKLI activates C3 and might consequently provoke mast cells to release histamine, which is a principal effector of its IHR. The pseudoallergic reaction induced by QKLI was attributed to the extract of Isatidis Radix. This study suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for the prophylaxis and treatment of QKLI-IHR.
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury with neurological features: Beware of the star fruit and its caramboxin
We present a case of a 51-year-old male with paresis and altered mental status. Screening for neurological diseases such as stroke, Guillain-Barre, meningitis and encephalitis were negative. In the evolution, he developed acute kidney failure and was submitted to 4 dialysis sessions. After talking to the family, we discovered he had ingested over 50 star fruits prior to the acute neurologic deficits. He recovered renal function so a renal biopsy was not required. Physicians should actively look for star fruit ingestion history in patients presenting with unexplained acute kidney injury with or without neurological features...
Source: Indian Journal of Nephrology - January 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Matheo A . M. Stumpf Adriana F. M. Schuinski Gilberto Baroni Maikel Ramthun Source Type: research

Adult onset MELAS Syndrome Presenting as A Mimic of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.
CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation and imaging studies of MELAS in adults are variable and may mimic those of HSE. Antiviral therapy should be administered until the diagnosis of MELAS is definitive. Infection and metformin may have also precipitated MELAS manifestation in this patient. Clinicians should avoid potential mitochondrial-toxic drugs in these patients. PMID: 31867706 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica - December 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Neurol Taiwan Source Type: research

Mumps encephalitis with bilateral hippocampal lesions preceding parotitis
Bilateral hippocampal lesions can be a feature in both infectious and autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Although rare, mumps meningoencephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral hippocampal lesions, especially in the presence of symptoms suggestive of systemic and/or CNS infection.
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - December 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chee, Y. C., Ong, B. H. Tags: MRI, Encephalitis, All Clinical Neurology, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, EEG; see Epilepsy/Seizures Case Source Type: research

Predictive value of serum creatinine/cystatin C in neurocritically ill patients
ConclusionsSerum Cr/CysC ratio at admission could be used as a predictor of long ‐term poor prognosis in neurocritically ill patients.
Source: Brain and Behavior - November 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shengnan Wang, Ling Xie, Jiawei Xu, Yanhong Hu, Yongming Wu, Zhenzhou Lin, Suyue Pan Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

164 Dementia, a Familial Affair
ConclusionThis case highlights the importance of genetics shaping phenotypes and that consideration should always be given to a full relevant family history.  It also shows a rare case of rapidly progressive dementia confirmed due to CJD with a likely underlying familial predisposition.
Source: Age and Ageing - September 16, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Central Nervous System Opportunistic Infections
Semin Neurol 2019; 39: 383-390 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1687842Opportunistic infections of the central nervous system are classically associated with immunosuppression arising from infection with human immunodeficiency virus and with various hematologic malignancies. However, over the past few years, they are increasingly associated with transplantation and various immunosuppressive treatments used to treat autoimmune diseases. They cause significant morbidity and mortality and remain a diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical signs and symptoms of infection and mimicry by various noninfectious causes. The pathogens a...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Agnihotri, Shruti P. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Neurological complications associated with dengue virus infection.
CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of neurological complications from dengue virus is broad. There are no reliable data on its real incidence because most of the studies published to date are isolated series or cases. PMID: 31310001 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista de Neurologia - July 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Carod-Artal FJ Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research

Tick-borne Encephalitis: Stroke-like Presentation
We report a unique case of clinical symptoms and radiological findings compatible with a stroke-like inflammatory lesion in the thalamus, suggesting microangiopathy from TBEV. Our case shows that TBEV could be a possible cause of stroke-like lesions.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Andreas Eleftheriou, Fredrik Lundin, Evangelos Alexandros Petropoulos Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

What Causes Facial Nerve Palsy?
Discussion Facial nerve palsy has been known for centuries, but in 1821 unilateral facial nerve paralysis was described by Sir Charles Bell. Bell’s palsy (BP) is a unilateral, acute facial paralysis that is clinically diagnosed after other etiologies have been excluded by appropriate history, physical examination and/or laboratory testing or imaging. Symptoms include abnormal movement of facial nerve. It can be associated with changes in facial sensation, hearing, taste or excessive tearing. The right and left sides are equally affected but bilateral BP is rare (0.3%). Paralysis can be complete or incomplete at prese...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - June 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Neurological Perspectives of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema
Background: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is characterized by acute respiratory distress triggered by acute, severe compromise of the central nervous system (CNS). This review aims at summarizing and discussing recent and previous findings about the type and frequency of CNS triggers of NPE, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients experiencing NPE.Key Messages: NPE is diagnosed in the presence of pink, frothy sputum, pulmonary edema, bilateral opacities on X-ray, PaO2:PiO2 #x3c;200 mm Hg, acute CNS compromise with increased intra-cranial pressure, rapid resolution within 48 –72 h, and the absence o...
Source: European Neurology - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Late-onset Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like Episodes Presenting With Auditory Agnosia
Conclusions: MELAS is a disorder with clinical variability. Neuroimaging studies during stroke-like episodes in MELAS can provide significant clues to the underlying disorder. Although patients typically present in childhood, the first stroke-like episode can occur later in life in some patients, potentially related to a lower heteroplasmy level.
Source: The Neurologist - May 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Case Report/Case Series Source Type: research

Clinical Improvement Following Stroke Promptly Reverses Post-stroke Cellular Immune Alterations
Conclusions: SIIA are detectable on admission of acute stroke patients. While it was assumed that post-stroke immunosuppression is rapidly reversed with improvement this is the first data set that shows that improvement actually is associated with a rapid reversal of SIIA demonstrating that SIIA require a constant signal to persist. The observation that HMGB-1 serum concentrations were similar in improved and non-improved cohorts argues against a role for this pro-inflammatory mediator in the maintenance of SIIA. Serum miRNA observed to be regulated in stroke in other publications was counter regulated with improvement in ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - May 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurological Involvement in Primary Systemic Vasculitis
Conclusion Neurological involvement is a common complication of PSV (Table 1), and neurologists play an important role in the identification and diagnosis of PSV patients with otherwise unexplained neurological symptoms as their chief complaint. This article summarizes the neurological manifestations of PSV and hopes to improve neuroscientists' understanding of this broad range of diseases. TABLE 1 Table 1. Common CNS and PNS involvements of primary systemic vasculitis. Author Contributions SZ conceived the article and wrote the manuscript. DY and GT reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cryptotanshinone Attenuates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/ Recovery-Induced Injury in an in vitro Model of Neurovascular Unit
Conclusions Despite the above limitations, we indicate that the protective mechanism of CTs against OGD/R damage might exert via inhibiting neuron apoptosis and attenuating BBB disruption. Furthermore, we also clarified that CTs inhibited neuronal apoptosis possibly by blocking the activation of MAPK signaling pathways, and CTs alleviating BBB disruption may associated with the regulation of TJPs and MMP-9 in our experiment. Accordingly, CTs will represent a novel and potent candidate for the treatment of CIRI in the future. Ethics Statement This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of China�...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Connecting Metainflammation and Neuroinflammation Through the PTN-MK-RPTP β/ζ Axis: Relevance in Therapeutic Development
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - April 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: The Lancet NeurologyAuthor(s): Valery L Feigin, Emma Nichols, Tahiya Alam, Marlena S Bannick, Ettore Beghi, Natacha Blake, William J Culpepper, E Ray Dorsey, Alexis Elbaz, Richard G Ellenbogen, James L Fisher, Christina Fitzmaurice, Giorgia Giussani, Linda Glennie, Spencer L James, Catherine Owens Johnson, Nicholas J Kassebaum, Giancarlo Logroscino, Benoît Marin, W Cliff Mountjoy-VenningSummaryBackgroundNeurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Inj...
Source: The Lancet Neurology - March 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rapidly Progressive Intracranial Vasculopathy in Graft Versus Host Disease
We report a previously undescribed noninflammatory vasculopathy causing multifocal intracranial arterial occlusions and cerebral infarctions in a man following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, which we propose to be a central nervous system manifestation of graft versus host disease.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Theodore Bowen, Shawn A. Silver, Cathy Sila Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

New-Onset Geriatric Epilepsy in China: A Single-Center Study.
Conclusions: Autoimmune encephalitis is becoming an increasing risk factor of subsequent epilepsy in older people. Older patients with new epilepsy are more likely to respond to antiepileptic drugs, and drug-resistant epilepsy is uncommon. PMID: 30539903 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - December 14, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Chen JH, Zhou XQ, Lu Q, Jin LR, Huang Y Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus encephalitis radiographically mimicking lateral medullary stroke
Cytomegalovirus encephalitis may demonstrate unique MRI characteristics that allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment.
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - December 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li, D., van Gaal, S. Tags: MRI, Encephalitis, Viral infections, HIV, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke Case Source Type: research

Dramatic improvement after decompressive craniectomy in a fulminant stroke-like case of herpes simplex encephalitis.
PMID: 30528146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Presse Medicale - December 7, 2018 Category: General Medicine Authors: Sellier A, Joubert C, Desse N, Bernard C, Faivre A, Dagain A Tags: Presse Med Source Type: research

Methylenecyclopropyl glycine, not pesticide exposure as the primary etiological factor underlying Hypoglycemic Encephalopathy in Muzaffarpur, India.
Abstract Some districts of Bihar, especially Muzzaffarpur district, have been known to be affected by annual outbreak, called locally as Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) which became one of the major health concerns in Bihar, due to its high fatality and complications. Several hypotheses like bat virus, heat stroke, pesticide exposure and the presence of a compound - methylenecyclopropyl glycine (MCPG) in Litchi have been proposed by different investigators for AES. When the investigators examined the symptoms, signs and the epidemiological data, bat virus and heat stroke hypothesis were ruled out. Two major hypo...
Source: Toxicology Letters - October 30, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Asthana S, Dixit S, Srivastava A, Kumar A, Singh SP, Tripathi A, Das M Tags: Toxicol Lett Source Type: research

A Pediatric and Neonatal Critical Care Transport Team's Standard of Care for Suspected Stroke of a Pediatric Patient
ConclusionThere has been an increase in rapid diagnosis, early recognition and treatment of pediatric patients with acute ischemic stroke and other stroke mimickers that required emergent intervention following implementation of our Stroke Alert Protocol, Clinical Practice Guideline, Suspected Stroke Checklist and tPA Administration and monitoring Guideline for Pediatric and Neonatal Critical Care Transport.
Source: Air Medical Journal - October 13, 2018 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis: rare neurological sequelae of chickenpox infection
Anuradha Mehta, Aanchal Arora, Manoj Sharma, Rupali Malik, Yogesh Chandra PorwalAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2018 21(3):228-232 Chickenpox (varicella) is primarily a disease of childhood which occurs due to infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Primary VZV infection is rare in adults due to exposure in early childhood in our country. In adults, it is associated with some serious systemic and neurological complications which can follow both primary infection and reactivation of VZV. Neurological sequelae caused by primary VZV infection are rare and include encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, myelitis, acute c...
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - September 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Anuradha Mehta Aanchal Arora Manoj Sharma Rupali Malik Yogesh Chandra Porwal Source Type: research

Autoimmune limbic encephalitis in association with acute stroke
A 60-year-old woman with no known medical history presented with acute-onset altered mental status and aphasia. She was in her usual state of health until the time of presentation. She was found to have left middle and posterior cerebral artery (MCA and PCA) acute ischemic strokes and subsequently developed refractory status epilepticus. CT angiography showed moderate stenosis of the proximal left internal carotid artery (ICA), occlusion of the right ICA at its origin, and near-complete occlusion of the left vertebral artery (figure). Strokes were attributed to large-vessel atherosclerotic disease in the setting of multipl...
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - August 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kaas, B., Zeiler, S. R., Bahouth, M. N., Llinas, R. H., Probasco, J. C. Tags: All Immunology, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke Case Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of arterial stroke mimics: a pictorial review
AbstractAcute ischaemic stroke represents the most common cause of new sudden neurological deficit, but other diseases mimicking stroke happen in about one-third of the cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best technique to identify those ‘stroke mimics’. In this article, we propose a diagnostic approach of those stroke mimics on MRI according to an algorithm based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which can be abnormal or normal, followed by the results of other common additional MRI sequences, such as T2 with gradient recall ed echo weighted imaging (T2-GRE) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR...
Source: Insights into Imaging - June 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Pneumocephalus: Is the needle size significant?
Discussion. Pneumocephalus is defined by two mechanisms: a ball-valve and an inverted bottle concept.1 The ball-valve type implies positive pressure events, such as coughing or valsalva maneuvers, that prevent air escape. Tension pneumocephalus is included in this mechanism, causing a parenchymal mass effect. The inverted bottle theory includes a negative intracranial pressure gradient following cerebrospinal fluid drainage, relieved by air influx. A small pneumocephalus is usually sealed by blood clots or granulation, allowing spontaneous reabsorption and resolution.[1] Otherwise, the lateral positioning of a patient duri...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - February 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: ICN Online Editor Tags: Assessment Tools CNS Infections Current Issue Letters to the Editor Neurologic Systems and Symptoms Neurology Stroke Traumatic Brain Injury epidural needle size Pneumocephalus spinal tap Source Type: research

A physician's story of his own illness: Aphasia from possible stroke but more likely from encephalitis.
PMID: 29686583 [PubMed]
Source: Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings - January 1, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Lathan SR, Stuart D Tags: Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) Source Type: research

Misdiagnosis of CADASIL: A single Medical Center experience (P1.251)
Conclusions:CADASIL is the most prevalent monogenic cerebral small-vessel arteriopathy. Despite wide availability of genetic testing, misdiagnosis and delay diagnosis are common. We encourage for enhanced awareness of CADASIL among patients with migraines with aura, recurrent TIAs or subcortical ischemic strokes, and mood disorder, in order to provide appropriate multidisciplinary treatment, psychological support and genetic counselingStudy Supported by: n/aDisclosure: Dr. Ortiz-Garcia has nothing to disclose. Dr. Orjuela has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sweis has nothing to disclose. Dr. Biller has received personal compensat...
Source: Neurology - April 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ortiz-Garcia, J., Orjuela, K., Sweis, R., Biller, J. Tags: Genetic Stroke Syndromes, Biomarkers, and Translational/Basic Research Source Type: research

Neurotoxocariasis, a treatable infectious etiology of Stroke (P3.318)
Conclusions:Toxocara infection is an uncommon but treatable etiology of stroke, and should be particularly considered in patients with eosinophilia, positive serology, myocarditis and embolic strokes.Disclosure: Dr. Garcia Monco has nothing to disclose. Dr. Azkune Calle has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ruisanchez nieva has nothing to disclose. Dr. Anguizola Tamayo has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pardina Vilella has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bocos Portillo has nothing to disclose. Dr. Gomez-Beldarrain has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Monco, J. G., Calle, I. A., nieva, A. R., Tamayo, D. A., Vilella, L. P., Portillo, J. B., Gomez-Beldarrain, M. Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Disease of the Nervous System Source Type: research

Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Brain Biopsy for Suspected Primary Central Nervous System Angiitis Brief Reports
Conclusions— Brain biopsy leads to pathological confirmation of vasculitis in a minority of suspected PACNS cases but alternative diagnoses are often identified. Importantly, rare but meaningful complications may occur.
Source: Stroke - July 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Torres, J., Loomis, C., Cucchiara, B., Smith, M., Messe, S. Tags: Cerebrovascular Disease/Stroke Brief Reports Source Type: research

Unusual case of recurrent SMART (stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy) syndrome
Ramnath Santosh Ramanathan, Gayathri Sreedher, Konark Malhotra, Zain Guduru, Deeksha Agarwal, Mary Flaherty, Timothy Leichliter, Sandeep RanaAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2016 19(3):399-401Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy. A 53-year-old female initially presented with headache, confusion and left homonymous hemianopia. Her medical history was notable for cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which was treated with radiation in 1987. Her initial brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) revealed cortical enhancement in the right te...
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - July 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramnath Santosh Ramanathan Gayathri Sreedher Konark Malhotra Zain Guduru Deeksha Agarwal Mary Flaherty Timothy Leichliter Sandeep Rana Source Type: research

HSV-2 Encephalitis Presenting as Multifocal Ischemic Stroke (P4.375)
CONCLUSION A high index of suspicion needs to be maintained to diagnose infectious vasculitis. A history of immunosuppression and headache preceding cerebral infarction were important factors that ultimately led to the appropriate work up and diagnosis in this case. Lumbar puncture and prompt initiation of antiviral treatment is essential in stroke case of suspected CNS infection with HSV-2.Disclosure: Dr. Zhang has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sumida has nothing to disclose. Dr. Margolesky has nothing to disclose. Dr. Tornes has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ramos has nothing to disclose. Dr. Koch has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang, F., Sumida, A., Margolesky, J., Tornes, L., Ramos, A., Koch, S. Tags: Cerebrovascular Case Reports Source Type: research

Hashimoto encephalopathy presenting with stroke-like episodes in an adolescent female: a case report and literature review
Hashimoto encephalitis (HE) is a rare form of encephalopathy thought to be of autoimmune etiology. Cognitive changes and seizures are the most commonly reported presenting manifestation. Stroke-like episodes have been reported to occur during the disease process as well. To our knowledge we report the first know case of pediatric HE presenting with stroke-like symptoms.
Source: Pediatric Neurology - March 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Brett R. Graham, Natalie Shiff, Munier Nour, Simona Hasal, Richard Huntsman, Salah Almubarak Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic limbic and extra-limbic encephalitis secondary to a thymoma mimicking an acute stroke.
PMID: 26795210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences - January 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Reginold W, Ninan K, Coret-Simon J, Haider E Tags: Can J Neurol Sci Source Type: research

Administration of Uric Acid in the Emergency Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke
Abstract Oxidative stress is one of the main mechanisms implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Uric acid (UA) is the end product of purine catabolism in humans, and it is the main endogenous antioxidant in blood. Low circulating UA levels have been associated with an increased prevalence and worse clinical course of several neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases of the CNS, including Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, the exogenous administration of UA exerts robust neuroprotective properties in experimental m...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - December 28, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A reversible stroke-like splenial lesion in viral encephalopathy.
CONCLUSION: Our case confirmed with previous findings that a reversible stroke-like splenial lesion could be seen in virus related encephalopathy and regarded as a good prognosis marker. Transient intramyelinic edema or inflammatory infiltrate is the possible mechanism and further studies enrolling more related cases will be needed to confirm our finding. PMID: 24030090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica - December 12, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Neurol Taiwan Source Type: research

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Encephalitis as a Cause of Ischemic Stroke: Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature
Our objective is to describe a patient who developed an ischemic stroke as a complication of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis and to review the literature.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - November 2, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Panagiotis Zis, Panagiota Stritsou, Panagiotis Angelidakis, Antonios Tavernarakis Source Type: research

Pediatric Acute Stroke Protocol Activation in a Children's Hospital Emergency Department Brief Reports
Conclusions— Of pediatric brain attacks, 24% were stroke, 2% were transient ischemic attack, and 14% were other neurological emergencies. Together, 40% had a stroke or other neurological emergency, underscoring the need for prompt evaluation and management of children with brain attacks.
Source: Stroke - July 27, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Ladner, T. R., Mahdi, J., Gindville, M. C., Gordon, A., Harris, Z. L., Crossman, K., Pruthi, S., Abramo, T. J., Jordan, L. C. Tags: Emergency treatment of Stroke, Stroke in Children and the Young Brief Reports Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Encephalopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke (MELAS) presenting as an apparent neoplastic process (P5.015)
CONCLUSION: MELAS can mimic more common disorders. The slow onset of her symptoms and the MRI's appearance led to suspicion for neoplasm. This is the first report to our knowledge where MELAS has presented as such. Documentation of this and other unusual presentations of mitochondrial disease is crucial to appropriate diagnosis of the condition.Disclosure: Dr. Rothstein has nothing to disclose. Dr. Haq has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Rothstein, A., Haq, I. Tags: Aging, Dementia, Cognitive, and Behavioral Neurology ePosters Source Type: research

Steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) with stroke like symptoms. A case report. (P5.104)
Conclusion: Clinicians should consider SREAT in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with stroke like symptoms/vasculitis especially if investigations fail to establish a diagnosis.Disclosure: Dr. Javalkar has nothing to disclose. Dr. Abbas has nothing to disclose. Dr. Harris has nothing to disclose.
Source: Neurology - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Javalkar, V., Abbas, S., Harris, M. Tags: Edema, Encephalopathy, and Encephalitis Source Type: research

Varicella-Zoster Vasculitis Presenting with Cerebellar Hemorrhage
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is known as one of the rare, but important, causes of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Most previously reported VZV-related hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral vasculitis are associated with anterior circulation because VZV spreads from trigeminal ganglia to the anterior circulation of Willis. The present study presents a patient with cerebellar hemorrhage, who was diagnosed with VZV encephalitis and vasculitis of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery.
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 31, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kazuya Matsuo, Yoichi Uozumi, Hirohito Miyamoto, Shotaro Tatsumi, Eiji Kohmura Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Early temperature and mortality in critically ill patients with acute neurological diseases: trauma and stroke differ from infection
Conclusions The relationship between peak temperature in the first 24 h after ICU admission and in-hospital mortality differs for TBI/stroke compared to CNS infection. For CNS infection, increased temperature is not associated with increased risk of death.
Source: Intensive Care Medicine - February 2, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Encephalitis Lethargica
Encephalitis lethargica information page compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
Source: NINDS Disorders: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - October 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Meningitis and Encephalitis
Encephalitis and meningitis information page compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).
Source: NINDS Disorders: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - October 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rasmussen's Encephalitis
Rasmussen's encephalitis information sheet compiled by NINDS, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Source: NINDS Disorders: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - October 26, 2014 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome and Stroke after Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment in Miller–Fisher Syndrome/Bickerstaff Brain Stem Encephalitis Overlap Syndrome
The association of a posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) without arterial hypertension with autoimmune-mediated inflammatory neuropathies such as Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare and poorly understood phenomenon. To date, PRES has been described as initial manifestation, coincidental finding, or adverse event subsequent to immunomodulatory treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in cases of axonal and demyelinating GBS as well as in Miller–Fisher syndrome (MFS). We here report a case of MFS/Bickerstaff brain stem encephalitis (BBE)–overlap syndrome and nonhypertensive PRES that occurr...
Source: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 22, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Henning R. Stetefeld, Helmar C. Lehmann, Gereon R. Fink, Lothar Burghaus Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR ANTIBODIES IN NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES: Anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, Anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, Anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, Anti-mGluR1 antibodies or Anti-mGluR5 antibodies are present in subpopulations of patients with either: Epilepsy, Encephalitis, Cerebellar Ataxia, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, Schizophrenia, Mania or Stroke. These autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies can bind neurons in few brain regions, activate glutamate receptors, decrease glutamate receptor's expression, impair glutamate-induced signaling and function, activate Blood Brain Barrier endothelial cells, kill neurons, damage the brain, induce behavioral/psychiatric/cognitive abnormalities and Ataxia in animal models, and can be removed or silenced in some patients by immunotherapy.
Abstract Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the Central Nervous System (CNS), and it is crucially needed for numerous key neuronal functions. Yet, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage by excitotoxicity-detrimental over activation of glutamate receptors. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is the main pathological process taking place in many types of acute and chronic CNS diseases and injuries. In recent years, it became clear that not only excess glutamate can cause massive brain damage, but that several types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, that are present in ...
Source: Herpes - August 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Levite M Tags: J Neural Transm Source Type: research