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Total 87 results found since Jan 2013.

Effect of compression ratio on a single cylinder diesel engine operated with Ternary fuel
The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of an engine by using diesel–biodiesel-ethanol (Ternary fuel) into the present VCR (Variable Compression Ratio) single-cylinder four-stroke water-cooled diesel engine. In this investigation, palm oil is taken as biodiesel. The world needs biodiesel due to the deficiency of fossil fuels. The best choice is selecting the biodiesel and ethanol because they are available from the renewable feedstock, non-toxicity to the environment and it is eco-friendly. In blending stage B30 as a blend chosen because it contains 70% of diesel, 20% of biodiesel as palm oil an...
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - January 1, 2020 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Carbon monoxide attenuates vasospasm and improves neurobehavioral function after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of hemorrhagic stroke and is a serious medical condition caused by bleeding usually due to a ruptured aneurysm. Oxidative stress and inflammation from hemoglobin and heme released from lysed red blood cells are some postulated causes of vasospasm during SAH, which could lead to delayed cerebral ischemia. At low amounts, carbon monoxide (CO) gas may be neuroprotective through anti-inflammation, anti-cell death, and restoration of normal blood flow. Hence, this study focuses on a noninvasive strategy to treat SAH by using CO as therapeutic medical gas. Mic...
Source: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics - September 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kamat PK, Ahmad AS, Doré S Tags: Arch Biochem Biophys Source Type: research

Health Tip: Causes of Amnesia
-- Amnesia is a temporary loss of memory. Those with amnesia can forget facts, information and experiences, says Mayo Clinic. Mayo mentions these potential causes of amnesia: Stroke. Brain inflammation. Heart attack. Carbon monoxide...
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - September 5, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

Emission reduction techniques in CI engine with catalytic converter
The objective of this research work is to control the NOx emission and to develop a low-cost three way catalytic converter. This catalytic converter is assembled in the exhaust manifold region of a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine. The emissions from the engine are measured using a five gas analyser and the results are tabulated.
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - August 22, 2019 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Yet Another Health Problem Linked to Air Pollution: Eye Disease
It’s no secret that air pollution isn’t good for your health. In particular, exposure to the byproducts of burning the fuel that powers most of our motor vehicles has been linked to higher risk of lung cancer, respiratory infections, stroke and heart disease, as well as an increased risk of death from these conditions. A new study now adds another worrisome pollution-related risk: eye disease. Dr. Suh-Hang Hank Juo, from the center for myopia and eye disease at China Medical University in Taiwan, and his colleagues documented for the first time in a large population that exposure to two common air pollutants&md...
Source: TIME: Health - August 22, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized health macular degeneration Pollution Source Type: news

Performance and emission reduction characteristics of cerium oxide nanoparticle-water emulsion biofuel in diesel engine with modified coated piston.
Abstract In the present scenario, the utilization of petroleum fuel is expanding forcefully worldwide in the vitality store and plays a highly hazardous role in the ecological system. Biofuel stands out among the most tenable keys for this issue. The lemongrass oil is used as a biofuel because of low density and viscosity when compared with diesel. The lemongrass oil is extracted by steam distillation process. In the present investigation, partially stabilized zirconium, due to its higher thermal conductivity, is selected as coating material. The top surface of the piston and the inlet and exhaust valves are coate...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Perumal Venkatesan E, Kandhasamy A, Sivalingam A, Kumar AS, Ramalingam K, Joshua PJT, Balasubramanian D Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Performance study of a single cylinder diesel engine using diesel with Pongamia pinnata and Camelina sativa seed oil blends
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Materials Today: ProceedingsAuthor(s): G. Murali, M. Anusha, M. ArunkumarAbstractCurrent paper studies the renewable energy of Camelina sativa biodiesel fuel which is having new fuel properties. Here Camelina sativa seed oil and Pongamia with equal proportions was used in the form of blends at various proportions with diesel. The blending ratios were taken as 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% respectively, used as fuel in a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine. Further the engine emissions of different fuel usage have been investigated. The results shows that SFC incre...
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - July 12, 2019 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Application and prospects of butylphthalide for the treatment of neurologic diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacologic mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacologic effects await further study. PMID: 31205106 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - June 18, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Chen XQ, Qiu K, Liu H, He Q, Bai JH, Lu W Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research

Breathing: Ambient Air Pollution and Health - Part II.
Authors: Schulz H, Karrasch S, Bölke G, Cyrys J, Hornberg C, Pickford R, Schneider A, Witt C, Hoffmann B Abstract The second part of the DGP-statement on adverse health effects of ambient air pollution provides an overview of the current ambient air quality in Germany and its development in the past 20 years. Further, effects of air pollution on the cardiovascular system und underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are introduced. Air pollutants form a highly complex and dynamic system of thousands of organic and inorganic components from natural and anthropogenic sources. The pollutants are produced locally or in...
Source: Pneumologie - June 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Pneumologie Source Type: research

What Causes Facial Nerve Palsy?
Discussion Facial nerve palsy has been known for centuries, but in 1821 unilateral facial nerve paralysis was described by Sir Charles Bell. Bell’s palsy (BP) is a unilateral, acute facial paralysis that is clinically diagnosed after other etiologies have been excluded by appropriate history, physical examination and/or laboratory testing or imaging. Symptoms include abnormal movement of facial nerve. It can be associated with changes in facial sensation, hearing, taste or excessive tearing. The right and left sides are equally affected but bilateral BP is rare (0.3%). Paralysis can be complete or incomplete at prese...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - June 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Application and prospects of butylphthalide for the treatment of neurological diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacological mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacological effects await further study.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. PMID: 31107716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - May 13, 2019 Category: General Medicine Authors: Chen XQ, Qiu K, Liu H, He Q, Bai JH, Lu W Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research

Benefits and risks of oxygen therapy during acute medical illness: Just a matter of dose!
Authors: Allardet-Servent J, Sicard G, Metz V, Chiche L Abstract Oxygen therapy is used to reverse hypoxemia since more than a century. Current usage is broader and includes routine oxygen administration despite normoxemia which may result in prolonged periods of hyperoxemia. While systematic oxygen therapy was expected to be of benefit in some ischemic diseases such as stroke or acute myocardial infarction, recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have challenged this hypothesis by showing the absence of clinical improvement. Although oxygen is known to be toxic at high inspired oxygen fractions, a recent meta-a...
Source: Revue de Medecine Interne - May 7, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Rev Med Interne Source Type: research

Numerical evaluation of pollutant emissions of a two-stroke linear engine.
This study introduced a green engine called free-piston linear engine (FPLE), and performed an evaluation on the pollutant emissions of a diesel FPLE by comparison with a corresponding conventional crankshaft engine (CCE). The combustion reaction and pollutant formation were described by a comprehensive model which considers the special operation mechanism of the FPLE. The effect of dynamic and fuel quantity on the unclean combustion products of the FPLE and the CCE was compared. Results indicate that in the case of the fuel quantity of 7.1 mg condition, the pollutant forming in the FPLE is generally later than that in CC...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - April 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Yuan C, Zhang P, Liu Y Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Is Aberrant Reno-Renal Reflex Control of Blood Pressure a Contributor to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Hypertension?
This study demonstrated unaltered vascular conductance in response to lumbar sympathetic stimulation in CIH-exposed rats. Aortic compliance was increased and estimated blood volume was unchanged in CIH-exposed rats. Increased blood pressure was related to an increase in cardiac output, which was confirmed by echocardiography (Lucking et al., 2014). It is suggested therefore that hypertension in the CIH model can be evoked by over-excitation of the cardiac arm of sympathetic nervous system (SNS), even before mechanisms of enhanced peripheral vasoconstriction and endothelial dysfunction are initiated (Naghshin et al., 2009)....
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 24, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Investigating the combined effect of thermal barrier coating and antioxidants on pine oil in DI diesel engine.
Abstract The present study presented an inclusive analysis of engine exhaust emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biofuel. Biofuel used in this investigation was obtained by steam distillation from pine oil. A single-cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine was used for this purpose. In this work, performance characteristics like brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were analysed. The engine pollutants, namely nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke, were examined. In addition, combustion characteristics li...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - April 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Viswanathan K, Balasubramanian D, Subramanian T, Varuvel EG Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Generation of biodiesel from industrial wastewater using oleaginous yeast: performance and emission characteristics of microbial biodiesel and its blends on a compression injection diesel engine.
Abstract Microbial-derived biodiesel was tested on a lab scale CI diesel engine for carrying out exhaust emission and performance characteristics. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke fixed compression ratio engine when fueled with microbial bio-diesel and its 10-30% blends with diesel (on a volume basis) were investigated and compared with conventional diesel. The bio-diesel was obtained from microbes which were grown by combining distillery spent wash with lignocellulosic hydrolysate at nutrient deprived conditions. The microbes consumed the wastes and conver...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - February 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tamilalagan A, Singaram J, Rajamohan S Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

A comprehensive study on emission and performance characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with nanoparticle-blended biodiesel.
Abstract The present work is aimed to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of mahua biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with copper oxide nanoparticle at various particle sizes (10 and 20 nm) and the results compared with conventional diesel fuel (BD). Experiments were conducted in a four-stroke, single-cylinder, constant speed, and naturally aspirated research diesel engine with an eddy current dynamometer. Conventional transesterification process is carried out to convert the raw mahua oil into mahua oil biodiesel (BD100). Copper oxide (CuO) was chosen as a nanoparticle; the mass fraction of 100 ppm...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - February 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Devarajan Y, Nagappan B, Subbiah G Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Enhancement in combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel, biodiesel, and its blends by using nanoadditive.
This article presents the results of investigations carried out to evaluate the improvement in combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with neat petro-diesel (PD), soybean biodiesel (SB), and 50% SB blended PD (PD50SB) by using carbon nanotube (CNT) as an additive. The acid-alkaline-based transesterification process with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a catalyst was applied to derive the methyl ester of SB. A mass fraction of 100 ppm CNT nanoparticle was blended with base fuels by using an ultrasonicator and the physiochemical properties were measured based on EN standards. The measured...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - February 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Vellaiyan S Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Production of biodiesel from Cordiamyxa bio-oil using BaMoO4-Ce2O3 nanoparticles as an alternative fuel for Diesel Engine
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Materials LettersAuthor(s): M. KarthikeyanAbstractIn recent years, the production of biodiesel has rapidly increased due to its benefits and to resolve the problem findings present in environmental pollution. In, this study barium salts doped with cerium oxide are used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the production of biodiesel from Cordiamyxa oil. The synthesized BaMoO4-Ce2O3 nanocatalyst has characterized by XRD (X-ray powder diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) analysis. Methanol to a molar ratio of oil from 12:1 to 16:1 has studied and got the opt...
Source: Materials Letters - February 3, 2019 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Effects of Partial Addition of Butanol in a Rubber seed Oil Methyl Ester Diesel Blend
Publication date: 2018Source: Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 5, Issue 11, Part 2Author(s): V.V. Patil, R.S. PatilAbstractExperiments were conducted to obtain the performance and emission characteristics of rubber seed oil methyl ester (ROME) - diesel blend with partial addition of butanol [ROME (40%) + Diesel (40%) + Butanol (20%)] in a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine at constant speed. Performance and emission characteristics of butanol added in ROME-diesel blend were compared with the characteristics of diesel-butanol blend [Diesel (80%) + Butanol (20%)] and diesel (100%), by varying the load on engine [n...
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - December 6, 2018 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Experimental investigation on engine characteristics fueled with waste HDPE oil and study on NO x emission variation using thermal imager.
Abstract For heavy duty applications like power generation and transportation, the best option is the compression ignition engines, but the major concerns are the rising prices and environmental issues due to the rapid depleting sources of conventional fossil fuels. The present investigation is to study the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder four-stroke, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine runs with an alternate fuel as waste high density polyethylene plastic oil (HDPE) obtained by catalytic pyrolysis. At constant speed, test fuels have been experimented successfully to determine t...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - December 4, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Peer MS, Peer MN Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Influence of ultra-endurance exercise on alveolar-capillary recruitment and lung diffusion
Conclusion: The data suggest a transient decrease in DLco following ultraendurance exercise is related to pulmonary de-recruitment; however, alveolar-capillary recruitment during low-intensity exercise remains relatively preserved.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - November 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stewart, G., Fermoyle, C., Wheatley, C., Ziegler, B., Johnson, B. Tags: Clinical respiratory physiology, exercise and functional imaging Source Type: research

Therapeutic Targeting of the Carotid Body for Treating Sleep Apnea in a Pre-clinical Mouse Model.
Authors: Peng YJ, Zhang X, Nanduri J, Prabhakar NR Abstract Sleep apnea with periodic cessation of breathing during sleep is a highly prevalent respiratory disorder affecting an estimated 10% of adults. Patients with sleep apnea exhibit several co-morbidities including hypertension, stroke, disrupted sleep, and neurocognitive and metabolic complications. Emerging evidence suggests that a hyperactive carotid body (CB) chemo reflex is an important driver of apneas in sleep apnea patients. Gasotransmitters carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) play important roles in oxygen sensing by the CB. We tested the h...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - October 27, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Association between long-term exposure of ambient air pollutants and cardiometabolic diseases: A 2012 Korean Community Health Survey
ConclusionLong-term exposure to PM10, NO2, CO, SO2, and O3 may be a risk factor of cardiometabolic disease in Korean adults.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - October 5, 2018 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

Combustion, performance, and emission analysis of diesel engine fueled with water-biodiesel emulsion fuel and nanoadditive.
Abstract The present study is aimed to analyze the combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of water-emulsified soybean biodiesel fueled diesel engine with alumina nanoadditive and the results compared with conventional diesel fuel (BD). Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder, four-stroke, variable compression ratio, and natural aspirated diesel engine with an eddy current dynamometer at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. Water-soybean biodiesel emulsion fuel was prepared using a mechanical agitator, in which the water concentration was limited to 10%, whereas soybean biodiesel (SB) and surfactan...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - September 28, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Vellaiyan S, Subbiah A, Chockalingam P Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Quantitative imaging mass spectroscopy reveals roles of heme oxygenase-2 for protecting against transhemispheric diaschisis in the brain ischemia.
In conclusion, these findings suggest that heme oxygenase-2 is involved in mechanisms by which not only protects against compromised energy metabolism of the ipsilateral hemisphere but also ameliorates transhemispheric diaschisis of the contralateral hemisphere in ischemic brain. PMID: 30087547 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition - August 10, 2018 Category: Nutrition Tags: J Clin Biochem Nutr Source Type: research

Hookah smoking raises cardiovascular risk comparable to traditional cigarette smoking, study finds
This study is believed to be the first to investigate the effects of hookah smoking on stiffening of the arteries. Studies have shown that as cigarette use continues to decline, hookah smoking is rising, especially among youth and particularly among college students.“We know that flavored tobacco products are frequently the first kind of tobacco product used by youth,” Rezk-Hanna said. “One of the major issues with hookah is the fact that the tobacco is flavored with fruit, candy and alcohol flavors, making hookah the most popular flavored tobacco produc t among this audience.”According to the Food and Drug Admini...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - August 3, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 protects against ischemic stroke by suppressing neuroinflammation and alleviating blood-brain barrier disruption
At low levels, carbon monoxide (CO) has been shown to have beneficial effects on multiple organs and tissues through its potential anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative properties. However,...
Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation - June 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jianping Wang, Di Zhang, Xiaojie Fu, Lie Yu, Zhengfang Lu, Yufeng Gao, Xianliang Liu, Jiang Man, Sijia Li, Nan Li, Xuemei Chen, Michael Hong, Qingwu Yang and Jian Wang Tags: Research Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulfide in physiological and pathological mechanisms in brain.
Abstract Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been widely known as a toxic gas for more than 300 years in scientific community. However, the understanding about this small molecule has changed recently as many physiological and pathological roles of H2S have been identified. Presently, H2S is considered as a third gasotransmitter and neuromodulator after carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO). H2S plays an important role in memory and cognition through mechanisms that involve long-term potentiation (LTP) and calcium homeostasis in the neuronal cells. The disturbances in endogenous H2S levels and trans-sulfuration pathwa...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - June 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kumar M, Sandhir R Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Associations Between Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide and Daily Cause-specific Mortality: Evidence from 272 Chinese Cities
Conclusions: The present study provided robust epidemiologic evidence of associations between day-to-day NO2 and mortality from total natural causes and main cardiorespiratory diseases that might be independent of other criteria air pollutants.
Source: Epidemiology - June 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Tags: Environmental Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cardiopulmonary factors affecting 6-min walk distance in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies
In conclusion, impaired DLCO due to interstitial lung disease was suggested to be a fundamental parameter affecting exercise capacity, in addition to heart involvement, in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.
Source: Rheumatology International - May 14, 2018 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Associations between short-term exposure to ambient sulfur dioxide and increased cause-specific mortality in 272 Chinese cities.
CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study demonstrated associations of daily SO2 concentrations with increased total and cardiorespiratory mortality, but the associations might not be independent from NO2. PMID: 29715611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Environment International - April 28, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Wang L, Liu C, Meng X, Niu Y, Lin Z, Liu Y, Liu J, Qi J, You J, Tse LA, Chen J, Zhou M, Chen R, Yin P, Kan H Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Performance and emission characteristics of a bio-lubricated two-stroke gasoline engine.
Abstract Two-stroke petrol engines find wide applications in the areas like chain saws, weed cutters, and power sprayers because of their compactness and higher power to weight ratio. In the present study, the feasibility of using vegetable-based lubricant instead of ordinary mineral 2 T oil is investigated. M15 (85% petrol + 15% methanol) and E15 (85% petrol + 15% ethanol) blend with gasoline are used as the fuel. Experiments were carried out in a two-stroke air-cooled engine equipped with a rope brake dynamometer. It is observed that the vegetable-based lubricant (sunflower oil) is miscible with the tested fuel...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - April 19, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kumar S, Dinesha P, Rosen MA Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Impact of antioxidant additives on the performance and emission characteristics of C.I engine fuelled with B20 blend of rice bran biodiesel.
Abstract This manuscript presents the impact of addition of antioxidant additives to rice bran biodiesel blend on the performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition (C.I) engine. Rice bran methyl ester (RBME) was produced from rice bran oil by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. An experimental investigation was conducted on a single-cylinder four-stroke C.I engine to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of rice bran methyl ester (RBME) blended with diesel at 20% by volume (B20) with and without addition of 1000 ppm of two monophenolic antioxidant additives, b...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - April 17, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Alagu K, Nagappan B, Jayaraman J, Arul GnanaDhas A Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Effect of injection pressure on performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of diesel-acetylene-fuelled single cylinder stationary CI engine.
Abstract In this paper, the effect of injection pressure on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a diesel-acetylene fuelled single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) diesel engine with a rated power of 3.5 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm was studied. Experiments were performed in dual-fuel mode at four different injection pressures of 180, 190, 200, and 210 bar with a flow rate of 120 LPH of acetylene and results were compared with that of baseline diesel operation. Experimental results showed that highest brake thermal efficiency of 27.57% was achieved at injection pressure of...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - December 30, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Srivastava AK, Soni SL, Sharma D, Jain NL Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Comparative studies on the performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with neem oil and pumpkin seed oil biodiesel with and without fuel preheater.
Abstract In the present experimental analysis, two non-edible oils namely neem oil and pumpkin seed oil were considered. They are converted into respective biodiesels namely neem oil methyl ester (B1) and pumpkin seed oil methyl ester (B2) through transesterification process and their physical and chemical properties were examined using ASTM standards. Diesel was used as a baseline fuel in Kirloskar TV1 model direct injection four stroke diesel engine. A fuel preheater was designed and fabricated to operate at various temperatures (60, 70, and 80 °C). Diesel showed higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) than biod...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - December 1, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ramakrishnan M, Rathinam TM, Viswanathan K Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Ambient Ozone Pollution and Daily Mortality: A Nationwide Study in 272 Chinese Cities
Conclusions: Our findings provide robust evidence of higher nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in association with short-term exposure to ambient ozone in China. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1849 Received: 4 March 2017 Revised: 3 October 2017 Accepted: 20 October 2017 Published: 21 November 2017 Address correspondence to H. Kan, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, P.O. Box 249, 130 Dong-An Road, Shanghai 200032, China. Telephone: 86 (21) 5423 7908. Email: kanh@fudan.edu.cn and M. Zhou, National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chines...
Source: EHP Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Daniil Lyalko Tags: Research Source Type: research

Associations between Ambient Fine Particulate Oxidative Potential and Cardiorespiratory Emergency Department Visits
Conclusions: Lag 0–2 OPDTT was associated with ED visits for multiple cardiorespiratory outcomes, providing support for the utility of OPDTT as a measure of fine particle toxicity. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1545 Received: 23 December 2016 Revised: 4 August 2017 Accepted: 12 August 2017 Published: 26 October 2017 Please address correspondence to J.Y. Abrams, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NCEZID/DHCPP, 1600 Clifton Rd. NE, CDC Mailstop A30, Atlanta, GA 30333 USA. Telephone: (404) 639-5121. Email: jabrams@cdc.gov Supplemental Material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1545). The authors ...
Source: EHP Research - October 26, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Daniil Lyalko Tags: Research Source Type: research

After Natural Disasters, Risk of Death and Injury Rises
ATLANTA (AP) — Irma's deadly rampage is over but authorities say the risk of deaths and injuries rises significantly after natural disasters. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says all kinds of hazards can endanger storm survivors, returning evacuees, emergency responders and cleanup crews. "The aftermath of disasters such as Hurricanes Harvey and Irma can be just as dangerous as the storms themselves," notes CDC Director Brenda Fitzgerald. And Orlando Fire Department Lt. Aaron Rhodes, notes stress and fatigue can lead to trouble after a disaster: "For one, people get tired, people get fr...
Source: JEMS Patient Care - September 14, 2017 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Associated Press Tags: Major Incidents Patient Care News Source Type: news

Carbon Monoxide Preserves Circadian Rhythm to Reduce the Severity of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice Basic Sciences
Conclusions—Clock gene expression regulates, in part, the severity of SAH and requires myeloid HO-1 activity to clear the erythrocyte burden and inhibit neuronal apoptosis. Exposure to CO rescues the loss of HO-1 and thus merits further investigation in patients with SAH.
Source: Stroke - August 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nils Schallner, Judith-Lisa Lieberum, David Gallo, Robert H. LeBlanc III, Patrick M. Fuller, Khalid A. Hanafy, Leo E. Otterbein Tags: Inflammation, Translational Studies, Intracranial Hemorrhage Original Contributions Source Type: research

Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of twin-cylinder common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends.
The objective of the paper is to assess the potential to employ oxygenated fuel, i.e., n-butanol and its blends with the neat diesel from 0 to 30% by volume. The experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is carried out to estimate the performance, combustion, and exhaust emission characteristics of n-butanol-diesel blends for various injection timings (9°, 12°, 15°, and 18°) using modern twin-cylinder, four-stroke, common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Experimental results reveal the increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by ~ 4.5, 6, and 8% for butanol-diesel blends of 10% (Bu10), 20% (B...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - August 25, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Lamani VT, Yadav AK, Gottekere KN Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Effect of small proportion of butanol additive on the performance, emission, and combustion of Australian native first- and second-generation biodiesel in a diesel engine.
Abstract This paper aims to investigate the effect of the addition of 5% alcohol (butanol) with biodiesel-diesel blends on the performance, emissions, and combustion of a naturally aspirated four stroke multi-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds (1200 to 2400 rpm) under full load conditions. Three types of local Australian biodiesel, namely macadamia biodiesel (MB), rice bran biodiesel (RB), and waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCB), were used for this study, and the data was compared with results for conventional diesel fuel (B0). Performance results showed that the addition of butanol with diesel-biodi...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - August 12, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Rahman MM, Rasul MG, Hassan NMS, Azad AK, Uddin MN Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Association between ambient air pollution and hospitalization for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in China: A multicity case-crossover study.
Abstract There is growing interest in the association between ambient air pollution and stroke, but few studies have investigated the association in developing countries. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between levels of ambient air pollutants and hospital admission for stroke in China. A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2015 in 14 large Chinese cities among 200,958 ischemic stroke and 41,746 hemorrhagic stroke hospitalizations. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the percentage changes in stroke admissions in relation to inte...
Source: Environmental Pollution - June 24, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Liu H, Tian Y, Xu Y, Huang Z, Huang C, Hu Y, Zhang J Tags: Environ Pollut Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 189: Gaseous Air Pollution and the Risk for Stroke Admissions: A Case-Crossover Study in Beijing, China
Conclusions: NO2 and SO2 were positively associated with stroke admissions, with stronger effects in warm seasons and with patients>65 years. The associations of CO and ozone with stroke admissions differed across seasons.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - February 14, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Fangfang Huang Yanxia Luo Peng Tan Qin Xu Lixin Tao Jin Guo Feng Zhang Xueqin Xie Xiuhua Guo Tags: Article Source Type: research

Association of Exhaled Carbon Monoxide With Stroke Incidence and Subclinical Vascular Brain Injury: Framingham Heart Study Clinical Sciences
Conclusions— In this large, community-based sample of individuals without clinical stroke/transient ischemic attack at baseline, higher exhaled CO was associated with a greater burden of subclinical cerebrovascular disease cross-sectionally and with increased risk of stroke/transient ischemic attack prospectively. Further investigation is necessary to explore the biological mechanisms linking elevated CO with stroke.
Source: Stroke - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Nayor, M., Enserro, D. M., Beiser, A. S., Cheng, S., DeCarli, C., Vasan, R. S., Seshadri, S. Tags: Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, Primary Prevention, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ischemic Stroke Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Association between ischemic stroke and carbon monoxide poisoning: A population-based retrospective cohort analysis.
CONCLUSION: CO poisoning is associated with a long-term risk of increased incident ischemic stroke. Further study on the mechanism of ischemic stroke for CO poisoning affects is needed. PMID: 26703428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine - December 15, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Lin CW, Chen WK, Hung DZ, Chen YW, Lin CL, Sung FC, Kao CH Tags: Eur J Intern Med Source Type: research

Carbon Monoxide and Stroke: A Time Series Study of Ambient Air Pollution and Emergency Hospitalizations
Recent experimental and clinical studies suggested that exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) at low concentrations may have beneficial neuroprotective effects under certain circumstances. However, population-based epidemiological studies of environmentally relevant CO exposure generated mixed findings. The present study aimed to examine the short-term association of ambient CO with emergency stroke hospitalizations.
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - August 1, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Linwei Tian, Hong Qiu, Vivian C. Pun, Kin-Fai Ho, Chi Sing Chan, Ignatius T.S. Yu Source Type: research

Strong association between air pollution and stroke mortality.
Authors: Abstract Exposure to air pollution is linked to a higher risk of anxiety and stroke, according to two studies. In a review of the evidence on air pollution and stroke, researchers from the University of Edinburgh analysed 103 observational studies covering 28 countries. The review looked at gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen and ozone) and particulate matter (particles or droplets of pollutants such as smoke, dust and soot). PMID: 25850478 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Nursing Standard - April 8, 2015 Category: Nursing Tags: Nurs Stand Source Type: research

Study finds link between air pollution and stroke risk
Conclusion This study showed a clear link between rises in gas and particle pollution and the chances of being admitted to hospital or dying because of a stroke. The researchers showed the link was strongest on the day of exposure to raised pollution levels. But this study has some limitations. While systematic reviews are a good way to summarise all the research that has been published on a topic, they are only as good as the individual studies they include. About two-thirds of the studies used a time series design, which the researchers say is less effective in taking account of trends such as the season of year, rathe...
Source: NHS News Feed - March 25, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Lifestyle/exercise Neurology Source Type: news