Query: siRNA

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Total 13766 results found since Jan 2013.

Optimal model ‐based control of non‐viral siRNA delivery
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, EarlyView.
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - May 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Elnaz Jamili , Vivek Dua Source Type: research

Oct4 suppresses IR ‑induced premature senescence in breast cancer cells through STAT3- and NF‑κB-mediated IL‑24 production.
Oct4 suppresses IR‑induced premature senescence in breast cancer cells through STAT3- and NF‑κB-mediated IL‑24 production. Int J Oncol. 2018 May 02;: Authors: Kim JY, Kim JC, Lee JY, Park MJ Abstract Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are a small subpopulation of breast cancer cells that have been proposed to be a primary cause of failure of therapies, including ionizing radiation (IR). Their embryonic stem-like signature is associated with poor clinical outcome. In the present study, the function of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), an embryonic stem cell factor, in the resistance ...
Source: International Journal of Oncology - May 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kim JY, Kim JC, Lee JY, Park MJ Tags: Int J Oncol Source Type: research

Expression of annexin  II and stromal tenascin C promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition and correlates with distant metastasis in pancreatic cancer.
In conclusion, the results demonstrated that ANX2 and stromal TNC regulated invasion in addition to stemness and anoikis resistance, which are crucial for metastasis in the progression of PDAC. These results indicate the potential of the ANX2‑TNC axis as a therapeutic target for PDAC metastasis. PMID: 29749431 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine - May 2, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Yoneura N, Takano S, Yoshitomi H, Nakata Y, Shimazaki R, Kagawa S, Furukawa K, Takayashiki T, Kuboki S, Miyazaki M, Ohtsuka M Tags: Int J Mol Med Source Type: research

Rutaecarpine Suppresses Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis of Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells in Hypoxia Possibly Through HIF-1α–Dependent Pathways
Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that Rut exerted protective effects on HPASMCs against hypoxia partly through the HIF-1α–dependent signaling pathway.
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology - May 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of microRNA-154 targeting WHSC1 on cell proliferation of human skin squamous cell carcinoma through mediating the P53 signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that up-regulation of miR-154 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human skin SCC cells by down-regulating WHSC1 and blocking the P53 signaling pathway. PMID: 29727714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chen HQ, Gao D Tags: Int J Biochem Cell Biol Source Type: research

Mutation Frequencies in HIV-1 Genome in Regions Containing Efficient RNAi Targets As Calculated from Ultra-Deep Sequencing Data.
Abstract HIV-1 is one of the most variable viruses. The development of gene therapy technology using RNAi for AIDS/HIV-1 treatment is a potential alternative for traditional anti-retroviral therapy. Anti-HIV-1 siRNA should aim to exploit the most conserved viral targets. Using the deep sequencing of potential RNAi targets in 100-nt HIV-1 genome fragments from the clinical HIV-1 subtype A isolates in Russia, we found that the frequencies of all possible transversions and transitions in certain RNAi targets are 3-38 times lower than in adjacent sequences. Therefore, these targets are conserved. We propose the develo...
Source: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia - May 1, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Kretova OV, Gorbacheva MA, Fedoseeva DM, Kravatsky YV, Chechetkin VR, Tchurikov NA Tags: Mol Biol (Mosk) Source Type: research

MID1-PP2A complex functions as new insights in human lung adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the MID1-PP2A complex plays an important role in lung adenocarcinoma, influencing cell cycle progression, proliferation and apoptosis. Our findings showed a novel molecular mechanism of lung tumorigenesis that may provide new insights for anti-tumor therapies. PMID: 29450633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - May 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhang L, Li J, Lv X, Guo T, Li W, Zhang J Tags: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol Source Type: research

Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) Catalyzes Lipid Peroxidation of Oleic Acid-Induced HepG2 Cells
AbstractNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic hepatic disease associated with excessive accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes. As the disease progresses, oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of hepatic lipid peroxidation. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), a subtype of the cytochrome P450 family, has been shown to be a vital modulator in production of reactive oxygen species. However, the exact role of CYP1A1 in NAFLD is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CYP1A1 on lipid peroxidation in oleic acid (OA)-treated human hepatoma cells (HepG2). We found that the...
Source: Biochemistry (Moscow) - May 1, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Hydroxysafflor yellow A reprograms TLR9 signalling pathway in ischaemic cortex after cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion.
Abstract Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) was reported to suppress inflammation in ischaemic microglia. However, the mechanism through which HSYA inhibits inflammation caused by cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion injury remains unknown. Here, we have mimicked acute cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion injury by subjecting male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes and have demonstrated that toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) was upregulated from day 3 after reperfusion, accompanied by the persistent activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway from 6 hours to day 7. HSYA w...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - May 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gong Z, Pan J, Li X, Wang H, He L, Peng Y Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

GSE103846 Transcriptome analysis of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) upon siRNA-mediated knockdown of hESC-essential genes
Contributors : Atilgan Yilmaz ; Mordecai Peretz ; Nissim BenvenistySeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensThe maintenance of pluripotency requires the coordinated expression of a set of essential genes. Thorough identification of these genes is vital for gaining a better understanding of the pluripotent state. To this end, we have recently generated a genome-wide loss-of-function library in haploid human pluripotent stem cells utilizing the bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology using nearly 180,000 single guide RNAs (sgRN...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - April 30, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research

GSE99728 Genes differentially regulated by miR-489
Contributors : Mithil Soni ; Yogin Patel ; Hexin ChenSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensTo investigate genes regulated by miR-489, gene expression analysis was carried out between control siRNA and miR-489 mimic transfected cells.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - April 30, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research

ASAP Reducing the Cytotoxicity of Lipid Nanoparticles Associated with a Fusogenic Cationic Lipid in a Natural Killer Cell Line by Introducing a Polycation-Based siRNA Core
Molecular PharmaceuticsDOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b01166
Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics - April 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takashi Nakamura, Koharu Yamada, Yuki Fujiwara, Yusuke Sato, Hideyoshi Harashima Source Type: research

Methacholine induces extracellular matrix production by human airway smooth muscle cells through β-catenin signaling
This study attempted to investigate the role of methacholine in promoting ECM production by human ASMCs (HASMCs) and the underlying mechanism. We found that methacholine induced the expression of collagen I protein and multiple ECM genes. β-catenin signaling was activated in this process upon GSK3β phosphorylation, leading to upregulation of total and active β-catenin. Silencing β-catenin by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) or with the β-catenin inhibitor, PKF115-584, decreased collagen I expression. Conversely, overexpression of active β-catenin by adenoviruses carrying the S33Y-β-catenin mutant increased the...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - April 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

ERK5/KLF2 activation is involved in the reducing effects of puerarin on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and atherosclerotic lesion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
Abstract Puerarin has properties of anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, which has been demonstrated protective effects in atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, the detail molecular mechanism still remains unclear. Here, we determined whether the atheroprotective effect of puerarin was by reducing monocyte adhesion and explored the underlying mechanism. The results showed that puerarin dose- and time-dependently reduced oxLDL-induced monocyte THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs and the expression of adhesion-related genes such as VCAM-1, ICAM-1, MCP-1 and IL-8 in HUVECs. Puerarin activated ERK5 phospho...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - April 30, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Deng Y, Lei T, Li H, Mo X, Wang Z, Ou H Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research

Gpr97 Exacerbates AKI by Mediating Sema3A Signaling
Conclusions Gpr97 is an important mediator of AKI, and pharmacologic targeting of Gpr97-mediated Sema3A signaling at multiple levels may provide a novel approach for the treatment of AKI.
Source: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN - April 30, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fang, W., Wang, Z., Li, Q., Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Sun, Y., Tang, W., Ma, C., Sun, J., Li, N., Yi, F. Tags: Basic Research Source Type: research

Blocking IL-6/GP130 signaling inhibits cell viability/proliferation, glycolysis, and colony forming activity in human pancreatic cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that IL-6 stimulates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, survival and glycolysis, and supported persistent IL-6 signaling is a viable therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer using IL-6/GP130 inhibitors. PMID: 29714141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Cancer Drug Targets - April 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chen X, Tian J, Su GH, Lin J Tags: Curr Cancer Drug Targets Source Type: research

Arrayed CRISPR screen with image-based assay reliably uncovers host genes required for coxsackievirus infection METHOD
Pooled CRISPR screens based on lentiviral systems have been widely applied to identify the effect of gene knockout on cellular phenotype. Although many screens were successful, they also have the limitation that genes conferring mild phenotypes or those essential for growth can be overlooked, as every genetic perturbation is incorporated in the same population. Arrayed screens, on the other hand, incorporate a single genetic perturbation in each well and could overcome these limitations. However, arrayed screens based on siRNA-mediated knockdown were recently criticized for low reproducibility caused by incomplete inhibiti...
Source: Genome Research - April 30, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kim, H. S., Lee, K., Kim, S.-J., Cho, S., Shin, H. J., Kim, C., Kim, J.-S. Tags: METHOD Source Type: research

Nestin is highly expressed in fetal spinal cord isolated from placenta previa patients and promotes inflammation by enhancing NF- κB activity.
Conclusions Nestin is highly expressed and the interaction between nestin and CDK5 might lead to the progress of placenta previa through its regulation on NF-κB. PMID: 29697001 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomarkers - April 28, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Biomarkers Source Type: research

The siRNA ‐mediated downregulation of PD‐1 alone or simultaneously with CTLA‐4 shows enhanced in‐vitro CAR‐T cell functionality for further clinical development towards the potential use in immunotherapy of melanoma
Experimental Dermatology,Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
Source: Experimental Dermatology - April 28, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: Bianca Simon , Dennis C Harrer , Beatrice Schuler ‐Thurner , Niels Schaft , Gerold Schuler , Jan Dörrie , Ugur Uslu Source Type: research

Characterization of the essential role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 (BMP9) in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through RNA interference
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018 Source:Genes & Diseases Author(s): Shujuan Yan, Ruyi Zhang, Ke Wu, Jing Cui, Shifeng Huang, Xiaojuan Ji, Liping An, Chengfu Yuan, Cheng Gong, Linghuan Zhang, Wei Liu, Yixiao Feng, Bo Zhang, Zhengyu Dai, Yi Shen, Xi Wang, Wenping Luo, Bo Liu, Rex C. Haydon, Michael J. Lee, Russell R. Reid, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf, Qiong Shi, Hue H. Luu, Tong-Chuan He, Yaguang Weng Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells and capable of differentiating into multiple cell types including osteoblastic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages. We previously identified BMP9 as...
Source: Genes and Diseases - April 28, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

661 Understanding the role of ABCA12 in the pathogenesis of harlequin ichthyosis
Mutations in the ABCA12 gene cause Harlequin Ichthyosis (HI), the most severe ARCI, with a defective skin barrier. The aim of this study was to identify essential pathways involved in HI pathomechanisms, responsible for aberrant epidermal differentiation. We performed RNA-seq on calcium-induced primary keratinocytes with siRNA knockdown of ABCA12 and identified 118 genes significantly down-regulated and 36 genes significantly up-regulated. Functional annotation clustering analysis showed changes in epidermal differentiation, fatty acid metabolism, cytokine and interferon signaling.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: F. Enjalbert, P. Dewan, M.P. Caley, B. Fell, M. Morse, D. Kelsell, A. Enright, E.A. O'Toole Tags: Epidermal Structure and Barrier Function Source Type: research

496 RXI-109 treatment to reduce the formation of hypertrophic dermal scars
RXI-109 is being developed to target and reduce connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key regulator of the dermal scarring pathway, to reduce hypertrophic scarring. RXI-109 is a modified small interfering RNA (siRNA) that is designed to enter cells efficiently and reduce CTGF through RNA interference (RNAi). In the US, there are currently no drugs approved to prevent hypertrophic scar formation. A phase 2a clinical study was conducted with RXI-109 to evaluate its impact on the reduction of hypertrophic scar formation after scar revision surgery.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: L. Barefoot, M. Survi, J. Cardia, K. Bulock, G. Dispersyn Tags: Clinical Research: Pathophysiology and Therapeutics Source Type: research

922 HIV-1 trans-infection of T-cells via dendritic cells requires endosomal sorting and polarized trafficking to the virological synapse
Dendritic cells (DC) are the 'sentinels' of the immune system and play an essential role in the presentation of antigenic material to T-cells. Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) is taken into DC evading degradation and transported to a virological synapse (VS) to promote T-cell infection. DC studies have led to the identification of several restriction factors that aid viral transmission, however how the virus is trafficked through the cell to the VS within DC is still unclear. A high-throughput siRNA method was developed in monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDC) to identify membrane trafficking proteins involved in t...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: R. Bayliss, J. Wheeldon, S. Caucheteux, C. Niessen, V. Piguet Tags: Innate Immunity, Microbiology, Inflammation Source Type: research

894 Poly(I:C) and GAG inhibit exogenous HSV1 infection in the barrier dysfunctional 3D epidermal model
Skin barrier dysfunction often induces severe herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection that is known as Kaposi's varicelliform eruption (KVE). KVE often occurs on patients with atopic dermatitis or genetic skin disease such as Dariers disease (DD). The mechanism of KVE has not been clearly proved, and the preventive methods have not been found. We previously established a skin barrier dysfunctional 3D model using siRNA of ATP2A2 of which gene mutation is confirmed in DD. This 3D model has dyskeratosis and TEM observation clearly revealed epidermal cleft that is caused by the absence of desmosome at intercellular space in ATP2A...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: E. Sato, K. Hiromatsu, K. Murata, S. Imafuku Tags: Innate Immunity, Microbiology, Inflammation Source Type: research

861 CCN2/Connective tissue growth factor regulates G1 to S phase cell cycle progression in human skin fibroblasts
We report here the unexpected observation that CCN2 functions as a critical regulator of cell cycle progression in primary cultured human skin fibroblasts. Depletion of CCN2 in fibroblasts, by siRNA-mediated knockdown, resulted in near-complete inhibition of proliferation.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: T. Quan, Z. Qin, T. Purohit, Y. Shao, J. Baldassare, J.J. Voorhees, G.J. Fisher Tags: Growth Factors, Cell Adhesion and Matrix Biology Source Type: research

812 Type VII collagen and Nesprin 2, LINCing the basement membrane to altered cell cycle and increased DNA damage
Epidermolysis Bullosa is a severe blistering disease caused by mutations in basement membrane genes and is characterised by severe blistering of the skin and increased predisposition to cancer. To investigate the role of the skin basement membrane, siRNA knockdown of type IV, VII and XVII collagens was performed in primary keratinocytes. Global transcriptomic analysis was carried out using RNA-Seq. Dysregulation of genes involved in DNA damage and cell cycle control was seen in cells with Col7 and Col17 knockdown.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: S. Marsh, M.P. Caley, V. Martins, M. Chen, J. McGrath, M. Barnes, E.A. O'Toole Tags: Genetic Disease, Gene Regulation, and Gene Therapy Source Type: research

1063 Topically applied NanoFlares to measure gene expression in vivo: Proof-of-concept
Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) are topical agents that penetrate human skin to knock down genes via antisense and siRNA pathways. NanoFlares, SNAs that release sequence-specific fluorescence when binding to intracellular mRNA targets, measure mRNA levels in live cells. We hypothesized that NanoFlares could be topically applied to measure gene expression in vivo. As proof-of-concept, we detected connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), known to be increased in hypertrophic scars and keloids. Using fibroblasts from normal skin, keloids, hypertrophic scars and peri-scar tissue, we found that: a) NanoFlares are specific; b) exp...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: A.S. Paller, D. Yeo, C. Wiraja, C. Mirkin, C. Xu Tags: Pharmacology and Drug Development Source Type: research

761 Topically-delivered gene suppressing nanocontruct targets IL-17RA for psoriasis
Activated interleukin (IL)-23/Th17 signaling is critical for psoriasis pathogenesis, and systemic IL-17 inhibitors are highly effective therapy. However, most patients have mild to moderate disease and no targeted topical therapeutic option. We developed a topically-delivered gene regulating nanoconstruct, comprised of antisense DNA or siRNA in a dense spherical configuration. These spherical nucleic acids or SNAs penetrate the skin barrier to knock down cutaneous gene targets. We generated anti-human and anti-mouse liposomal DNA SNAs targeting the IL-17A receptor (ILRA) and tested their efficacy in reducing IL17RA and imp...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: H. Liu, R. Kang, K. Bagnowski, J. Yu, X. Cheng, S. Radecki, W. Daniel, D. Giljohann, A.S. Paller Tags: Genetic Disease, Gene Regulation, and Gene Therapy Source Type: research

1173 Inducible DNA repair of UV photoproducts depends on vitamin D receptor
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) initiates vitamin D synthesis by converting 7-dehydrocholesterol to pre-vitamin D3 that is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3) and then 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3). However, UV also generates DNA damage that is repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER). We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D signaling elicits compensatory responses to the DNA damage incurred during vitamin D synthesis. Treatment of human keratinocytes with either UVB or with 1,25D3 or 25D3 induced the DNA damage recognition protein, XPC, and induction was suppressed by either siRNA targeting the vitamin D receptor ...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: A. Scandurra, C. Wong, T. Kaur Oberoi, D. Oh Tags: Photobiology Source Type: research

1421 Topical glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor speeds wound healing in diabetic mice
Non-healing foot ulcers develop in 10-25% of type 2 diabetics. We have previously shown that reduction in ganglioside GM3 by GM3 synthase (GM3S) gene knockdown or topically applied GM3S siRNA nanoconstructs normalizes wound healing in diet-induced obese (DIO) diabetic mice. The mechanism is reversal of IGF-1 and EGF receptor resistance, leading to accelerated keratinocyte migration and normal cutaneous innervation. A small molecule inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase (GCSI) also reduces GM3 and, given GCSI's small size, could be moved towards clinical trials of topical application should it replicate the ameliorative ef...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: I. Fogel, M.I. Guerrero-Zayas, X.Q. Wang, X. Cheng, A. Paller Tags: Tissue Regeneration and Wound Healing Source Type: research

1162 BMAL1 and CLOCK proteins in regulating the sensitivity of human keratinocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis
A diverse array of biological processes is under circadian controls. It has been reported that UV-induced apoptosis and DNA damage responses in mouse skin are time-of-day dependent and regulated by core clock proteins, including BMAL1, CLOCK, PERs, and CRYs. The aim of this study is to investigate the circadian controls of UV responses in human keratinocytes, using the siRNA-mediated loss-of-function approach. We found that low-dose (5 mJ/cm2) of UVB triggered an oscillation of BMAL1 and CLOCK mRNA expression in the immortal HaCat human keratinocyte cell line, as well as primary human keratinocytes.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: Y. Sun, P. Wang, J. Dai Tags: Photobiology Source Type: research

1157 Time for the human epidermal peripheral clock, role of opsins and cryptochromes
Independent regulation of the peripheral clock to the central clock may be promising for the treatment of skin disorders. Opsins (OPN) are photoentrainment GPCRs and Cryptochromes (CRYs) are transcription factors of the molecular circadian clock, both are blue light receptors, however their role in human skin is not clear. Expression of CRYs and OPNs in female facial and abdominal skin was compared by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Changes in the circadian clock of primary epidermal keratinocytes investigated by stabilisation of CRY with KL001 or by knockdown of CRY1 or OPN3 using siRNA.
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - April 27, 2018 Category: Dermatology Authors: I. Castellano-Pellicena, N.E. Uzunbajakava, B. Raafs, V. Botchkarev, MJulie Thornton Tags: Photobiology Source Type: research

Cryo-EM Structure of Human Dicer and Its Complexes with a Pre-miRNA Substrate
Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018 Source:Cell Author(s): Zhongmin Liu, Jia Wang, Hang Cheng, Xin Ke, Lei Sun, Qiangfeng Cliff Zhang, Hong-Wei Wang Human Dicer (hDicer) is a multi-domain protein belonging to the RNase III family. It plays pivotal roles in small RNA biogenesis during the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway by processing a diverse range of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) precursors to generate ∼22 nt microRNA (miRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) products for sequence-directed gene silencing. In this work, we solved the cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of hDicer in complex with its co...
Source: Cell - April 27, 2018 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Structural and functional analyses reveal the contributions of the C- and N-lobes of Argonaute protein to selectivity of RNA target cleavage RNA
Some gene transcripts have cellular functions as regulatory noncoding RNAs. For example, ∼23-nucleotide (nt)–long siRNAs are loaded into Argonaute proteins. The resultant ribonucleoprotein assembly, the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), cleaves RNAs that are extensively base-paired with the loaded siRNA. To date, base complementarity is recognized as the major determinant of specific target cleavage (or slicing), but little is known about how Argonaute inspects base pairing before cleavage. A hallmark of Argonaute proteins is their bilobal structure, but despite the significance of this structure for curtailing sli...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - April 27, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Daniel M. Dayeh, Bradley C. Kruithoff, Kotaro Nakanishi Tags: RNA Source Type: research

Chitinase 3-like-1, a novel regulator of Th1/CTL responses, as a therapeutic target for increasing anti-tumor immunity.
This study first suggests that Chi3l1 is a novel regulator of Th1/CTL responses and could be a target for treating cancer to increase tumor immunity. PMID: 29699605 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: BMB Reports - April 27, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kim DH, Choi JM Tags: BMB Rep Source Type: research

Transcription factor 21 (TCF21) promotes proinflammatory interleukin 6 expression and extracellular matrix remodeling in visceral adipose stem cells Gene Regulation
The visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat pads are developmentally distinct white adipose tissue depots and contribute differently to inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity. The basic helix–loop–helix transcriptional regulator, transcription factor 21 (TCF21), is a marker gene for white adipose tissues and is abundantly expressed in VIS-derived adipose stem cells (ASCs), but not in SQ-derived ASCs. However, TCF21's role in regulating fat depot–specific gene expression and function is incompletely understood. Here, using siRNA-mediated Tcf21 knockdowns and lentiviral gene transfer of TCF21 in m...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - April 27, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Takeshi Akama, Tae-Hwa Chun Tags: Cell Biology Source Type: research

Notch3 is involved in adipogenesis of human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells.
Abstract Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) have tremendous therapeutic potential and the ability to offer insight into human development and disease. Here we subject human ASCs to siRNA-mediated knockdown of Notch3 cultured under both self-renewing and adipogenic differentiation conditions. Self-renewal was monitored by assessing viability and proliferation rates through staining and alamarBlue assays, respectively. Adipogenesis was measured through Oil-Red O staining, western blot and quantitative real-time RT-PCR that determined expression levels of multipotency and adipogenic markers over time. N...
Source: Biochimie - April 27, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sandel DA, Liu M, Ogbonnaya N, Newman JJ Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

HSPB8 promotes cancer cell growth by activating the ERK ‑CREB pathway and is indicative of a poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients.
In conclusion, we provide evidence that HSPB8 promotes cancer cell growth by activating the ERK‑CREB pathway and may serve as a potential prognostic factor in GC patients. PMID: 29693129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Oncology Reports - April 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research

MALAT1 affects ovarian cancer cell behavior and patient survival.
In conclusion, our results indicated that MALAT1 was overexpressed in EOC. Silencing of MALAT1 decreased EOC cell viability and inhibited EOC cell migration and invasion. These data revealed that MALAT1 may serve as a new therapeutic target of human EOC. PMID: 29693187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Oncology Reports - April 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research

Nanoparticles for the targeted treatment of infected cells
Current treatments for cancer and viral infection are limited remedies that often suppress cell or viral replication rather than eliminate diseased cells entirely from the body. A further limitation is that these therapies often compromise healthy cells as well, leaving problems of recurrence and side effects.Researchers atNCI ’s Nanobiology Program developed a novel therapeutic nanoparticle (NP) system harboring therapeutic small siRNA that can significantly enhance effectiveness and specificity of treatments by killing diseased cells.Nanoparticles attached to RNA/DNA hybrids encode recognition sites for target genes an...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - April 26, 2018 Category: Research Authors: ajoyprabhu3 Source Type: research

Selective Treatment of Cancer Cells, HIV and Other RNA Viruses
The National Cancer Institute seeks parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop therapeutic RNA switches.Targeted therapy in cancer or viral infections is a challenge because the disease state manifests itself mainly through differences in the cell interior, for example in a form of the presence of a certain RNA or protein in the cytoplasm.This technology, developed at the NCINanobiology Program, consists of designed RNA switches that activate the RNA interference pathway only in the presence of a trigger RNA or DNA to which they bind, in order to knock down a chosen gene that is not necessarily related to t...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - April 26, 2018 Category: Research Authors: ajoyprabhu3 Source Type: research

LncSOX4 serves an oncogenic role in the tumorigenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis.
Authors: Liu Y, Wang Y, Yao D, Cui D Abstract Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the primary causes of gynecological cancer mortality. Increasing evidence has suggested that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may serve a pivotal role in cancer development. To determine whether Lnc SRY‑box 4 (SOX4), an lncRNA, promotes the self‑renewal of liver tumor cells and contributes to the development of epithelial ovarian cancer, the present study investigated the expression of LncSOX4 in clinical epithelial ovarian cancer tissues and non‑cancer controls by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction a...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - April 26, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Silencing activating transcription factor 2 promotes the anticancer activity of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Authors: Luo L, Cai L, Luo L, Tang Z, Meng X Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of sorafenib combined with silencing of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. Huh‑7 HCC cell line was selected for the present study. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)‑ATF2 sequence was constructed to silence ATF2 expression. The experiment was divided into 6 groups: i) Control; ii) vector; iii) sorafenib (6.8 µM); iv) vector+sorafenib; v) siRNA‑ATF2; and vi) siRNA‑ATF2+sorafenib groups. Cell proli...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - April 26, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

Analysis of NFKB2 ‑mediated regulation of mechanisms underlying the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Analysis of NFKB2‑mediated regulation of mechanisms underlying the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mol Med Rep. 2018 Apr 20;: Authors: Zhang Y, Tong L, Chen S, Wu W, Wang L Abstract Nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) is widely involved in various lymphoid malignancies. However, its exact functional role and potential regulatory mechanisms in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory mechanism of NF‑κB in HL by analysis of a gene expression profile that was obtained from HL cells with or without NF‑κB subunit 2 (NFKB2) knockdown. The GSE64234 ...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - April 26, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research

MiR-1908 improves cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction by targeting TGF- β1.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-1908 can improve the myocardial fibrosis through the target gene TGF-β1. PMID: 29687863 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - April 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

MiR-154 promotes myocardial fibrosis through β-catenin signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-154 can inhibit GSK-3β expression by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which promotes myocardial fibrosis. PMID: 29687862 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - April 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

MST1 down-regulation in decreasing apoptosis of aortic dissection smooth muscle cell apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: MST1 up-regulation plays a role in facilitating VSMC apoptosis and AD pathogenesis. Down-regulation of MST1 decreased VSMC apoptosis and AD formation. PMID: 29687861 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - April 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Peroxiredoxin1 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer via p38MAPK signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: Down-regulation of PRDX1 in colorectal cancer SW480 cells could inhibit the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and induce cell apoptosis. This is very likely to be achieved by activating the p38MAPK-signaling pathway. PMID: 29687844 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - April 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

LncRNA PCAT-1 regulates the proliferation, metastasis and invasion of cervical cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA PCAT-1 siRNA transfected into cervical cancer cell lines can effectively lower the expression of lncRNA PCAT-1, while lncRNA PCAT-1 expression can inhibit the proliferation, metastasis and invasion abilities of cervical cancer cells. PMID: 29687842 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - April 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

MiR-17-5p promotes cervical cancer cell proliferation and metastasis by targeting transforming growth factor- β receptor 2.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-17-5p enhances cervical cancer proliferation and metastasis via targeting TGFBR2. It is proposed that targeting miR-17-5p may be a promising therapeutic approach for cervical cancer. PMID: 29687841 [PubMed - in process]
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - April 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research