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[Working Life] Learning from rejections
Author: Andy Tay (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Andy Tay Source Type: news

[New Products] New Products
A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Science Magazine (mailto:soleditor at aaas.org) Source Type: news

[Report] Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention
Cancers are caused by mutations that may be inherited, induced by environmental factors, or result from DNA replication errors (R). We studied the relationship between the number of normal stem cell divisions and the risk of 17 cancer types in 69 countries throughout the world. The data revealed a strong correlation (median = 0.80) between cancer incidence and normal stem cell divisions in all countries, regardless of their environment. The major role of R mutations in cancer etiology was supported by an independent approach, based solely on cancer genome sequencing and epidemiological data, which suggested that R mutation...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Cristian Tomasetti Source Type: news

[Report] PI3K pathway regulates ER-dependent transcription in breast cancer through the epigenetic regulator KMT2D
Activating mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding phosphoinositide-(3)-kinase α (PI3Kα), are frequently found in estrogen receptor (ER)–positive breast cancer. PI3Kα inhibitors, now in late-stage clinical development, elicit a robust compensatory increase in ER-dependent transcription that limits therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the chromatin-based mechanisms leading to the activation of ER upon PI3Kα inhibition. We found that PI3Kα inhibition mediates an open chromatin state at the ER target loci in breast cancer models and clinical samples. KMT2D, a histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase, is required for FOXA1...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Eneda Toska Source Type: news

[Report] Notch-Jagged complex structure implicates a catch bond in tuning ligand sensitivity
Notch receptor activation initiates cell fate decisions and is distinctive in its reliance on mechanical force and protein glycosylation. The 2.5-angstrom-resolution crystal structure of the extracellular interacting region of Notch1 complexed with an engineered, high-affinity variant of Jagged1 (Jag1) reveals a binding interface that extends ~120 angstroms along five consecutive domains of each protein. O-Linked fucose modifications on Notch1 epidermal growth factor–like (EGF) domains 8 and 12 engage the EGF3 and C2 domains of Jag1, respectively, and different Notch1 domains are favored in binding to Jag1 than those tha...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Vincent C. Luca Source Type: news

[Report] A macrophage relay for long-distance signaling during postembryonic tissue remodeling
Macrophages have diverse functions in immunity as well as in development and homeostasis. We identified a function for these cells in long-distance communication during postembryonic tissue remodeling. Ablation of macrophages in zebrafish prevented melanophores from coalescing into adult pigment stripes. Melanophore organization depends on signals provided by cells of the yellow xanthophore lineage via airinemes, long filamentous projections with vesicles at their tips. We show that airineme extension from originating cells, as well as vesicle deposition on target cells, depend on interactions with macrophages. These findi...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Dae Seok Eom Source Type: news

[Report] A conserved NAD+ binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging
DNA repair is essential for life, yet its efficiency declines with age for reasons that are unclear. Numerous proteins possess Nudix homology domains (NHDs) that have no known function. We show that NHDs are NAD+ (oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) binding domains that regulate protein-protein interactions. The binding of NAD+ to the NHD domain of DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1) prevents it from inhibiting PARP1 [poly(adenosine diphosphate–ribose) polymerase], a critical DNA repair protein. As mice age and NAD+ concentrations decline, DBC1 is increasingly bound to PARP1, causing DNA damage to accumulat...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Jun Li Source Type: news

[Report] Lysosomal cholesterol activates mTORC1 via an SLC38A9 –Niemann-Pick C1 signaling complex
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase is a master growth regulator that becomes activated at the lysosome in response to nutrient cues. Here, we identify cholesterol, an essential building block for cellular growth, as a nutrient input that drives mTORC1 recruitment and activation at the lysosomal surface. The lysosomal transmembrane protein, SLC38A9, is required for mTORC1 activation by cholesterol through conserved cholesterol-responsive motifs. Moreover, SLC38A9 enables mTORC1 activation by cholesterol independently from its arginine-sensing function. Conversely, the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Brian M. Castellano Source Type: news

[Report] Dengue diversity across spatial and temporal scales: Local structure and the effect of host population size
A fundamental mystery for dengue and other infectious pathogens is how observed patterns of cases relate to actual chains of individual transmission events. These pathways are intimately tied to the mechanisms by which strains interact and compete across spatial scales. Phylogeographic methods have been used to characterize pathogen dispersal at global and regional scales but have yielded few insights into the local spatiotemporal structure of endemic transmission. Using geolocated genotype (800 cases) and serotype (17,291 cases) data, we show that in Bangkok, Thailand, 60% of dengue cases living <200 meters apart come ...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Henrik Salje Source Type: news

[Report] How “you” makes meaning
“You” is one of the most common words in the English language. Although it typically refers to the person addressed (“How are you?”), “you” is also used to make timeless statements about people in general (“You win some, you lose some.”). Here, we demonstrate that this ubiquitous but understudied linguistic device, known as “generic-you,” has important implications for how people derive meaning from experience. Across six experiments, we found that generic-you is used to express norms in both ordinary and emotional contexts and that producing generic-you when reflecting on negative experiences allows pe...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Ariana Orvell Source Type: news

[Report] Active sites for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol on Cu/ZnO catalysts
We report a direct comparison between the activity of ZnCu and ZnO/Cu model catalysts for methanol synthesis. By combining x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, density functional theory, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we can identify and characterize the reactivity of each catalyst. Both experimental and theoretical results agree that ZnCu undergoes surface oxidation under the reaction conditions so that surface Zn transforms into ZnO and allows ZnCu to reach the activity of ZnO/Cu with the same Zn coverage. Our results highlight a synergy of Cu and ZnO at the interface that facilitates methanol synthesis via formate in...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Shyam Kattel Source Type: news

[Report] Grain boundary stability governs hardening and softening in extremely fine nanograined metals
In this study, we discovered that plastic deformation mechanism of extremely fine nanograined metals and their hardness are adjustable through tailoring grain boundary (GB) stability. The electrodeposited nanograined nickel-molybdenum (Ni–Mo) samples become softened for grain sizes below 10 nanometers because of GB-mediated processes. With GB stabilization through relaxation and Mo segregation, ultrahigh hardness is achieved in the nanograined samples with a plastic deformation mechanism dominated by generation of extended partial dislocations. Grain boundary stability provides an alternative dimension, in addition to gr...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: J. Hu Source Type: news

[Report] Extremely efficient internal exciton dissociation through edge states in layered 2D perovskites
We report that, counterintuitive to classical quantum-confined systems where photogenerated electrons and holes are strongly bound by Coulomb interactions or excitons, the photophysics of thin films made of Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites with a thickness exceeding two perovskite-crystal units (>1.3 nanometers) is dominated by lower-energy states associated with the local intrinsic electronic structure of the edges of the perovskite layers. These states provide a direct pathway for dissociating excitons into longer-lived free carriers that substantially improve the performance of optoelectronic devices. Authors: J.-C. Bla...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: J.-C. Blancon Source Type: news

[Report] [C ii] 158- μm emission from the host galaxies of damped Lyman-alpha systems
Gas surrounding high-redshift galaxies has been studied through observations of absorption line systems toward background quasars for decades. However, it has proven difficult to identify and characterize the galaxies associated with these absorbers due to the intrinsic faintness of the galaxies compared with the quasars at optical wavelengths. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, we report on detections of [C ii] 158-μm line and dust-continuum emission from two galaxies associated with two such absorbers at a redshift of z ~ 4. Our results indicate that the hosts of these high-metallicity absorbers hav...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Marcel Neeleman Source Type: news

[Editors' Choice] Dirac cones in a boron monolayer
Author: Jelena Stajic (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Jelena Stajic Tags: 2D Materials Source Type: news

[Editors' Choice] Notch1 promotes cancer spread
Author: Priscilla N. Kelly (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Priscilla N. Kelly Tags: Cancer Source Type: news

[Editors' Choice] Recovering galaxy images from noisy data
Author: Keith T. Smith (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Keith T. Smith Tags: Galaxies Source Type: news

[Editors' Choice] The evolution of edited RNA transcripts
Author: Laura M. Zahn (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Laura M. Zahn Tags: RNA Editing Source Type: news

[Editors' Choice] Stronger pancreas through starvation
Author: L. Bryan Ray (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: L. Bryan Ray Tags: Physiology Source Type: news

[Editors' Choice] Turning toys into tools
Author: Megan Eldred (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Megan Eldred Tags: Medical Diagnostics Source Type: news

[Editors' Choice] A new angle on streams
Author: H. Jesse Smith (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: H. Jesse Smith Tags: Stream Geometry Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] It's easier to see green
Author: Shahid Naeem (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Shahid Naeem Tags: Remote Sensing Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Influenz-ing IFN responses in dendritic cells
Author: Lindsey Pujanandez (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Lindsey Pujanandez Tags: Vaccines Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Fire management, made to measure
Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink Tags: Ecology Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Tugging on Notch receptor tunes signaling
Author: L. Bryan Ray (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: L. Bryan Ray Tags: Signal Transduction Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] NAD+ binding modulates protein interactions
Author: L. Bryan Ray (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: L. Bryan Ray Tags: Aging Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Lysosomal cholesterol activates mTORC1
Author: L. Bryan Ray (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: L. Bryan Ray Tags: Cholesterol Sensing Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Chromatin state dictates drug response
Author: Paula A. Kiberstis (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Paula A. Kiberstis Tags: Cancer Therapy Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] How perovskites have the edge
Author: Phil Szuromi (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Phil Szuromi Tags: Perovskite Physics Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Go with the changing flow
Author: Marc S. Lavine (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Marc S. Lavine Tags: Active Matter Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Protein-folded DNA nanostructures
Author: Phil Szuromi (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Phil Szuromi Tags: DNA Nanotechnology Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Added complexity in an asymmetric receptor
Author: Valda Vinson (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Valda Vinson Tags: Ion Channels Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Dendrites are more active than expected
Author: Peter Stern (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Peter Stern Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Making magma chambers from mush
Author: Brent Grocholski (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Brent Grocholski Tags: Volcanology Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Cancer and the unavoidable R factor
Author: Paula A. Kiberstis (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Paula A. Kiberstis Tags: Cancer Etiology Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Why pain and stress lead to depression
Author: Leslie K. Ferrarelli (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Leslie K. Ferrarelli Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Helping T cells feel at home in the liver
Author: Angela Colmone (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Angela Colmone Tags: Immunological Memory Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Estimating transmission chains for dengue
Author: Caroline Ash (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Caroline Ash Tags: Dengue Virus Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Using “you” to generalize from me to others
Author: Gilbert Chin (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Gilbert Chin Tags: Psychology Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Metal-oxide synergy
Author: Phil Szuromi (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Phil Szuromi Tags: Catalysis Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Nanograined metals avoid going soft
Author: Brent Grocholski (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Brent Grocholski Tags: Metallurgy Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Cell projections set up pigment pattern
Author: Beverly A. Purnell (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Beverly A. Purnell Tags: Cell Signaling Source Type: news

[This Week in Science] Identifying the hosts of quasar absorbers
Author: Keith T. Smith (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Keith T. Smith Tags: Distant Galaxies Source Type: news

[Letter] Specimen collection crucial to taxonomy
Authors: Eliécer E. Gutiérrez, Ronald H. Pine (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Eli écer E. Gutiérrez Source Type: news

[Letter] Patent pools for CRISPR technology —Response
Authors: Jorge L. Contreras, Jacob S. Sherkow (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Jorge L. Contreras Source Type: news

[Letter] Patent pools for CRISPR technology
Author: Lawrence Horn (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Lawrence Horn Source Type: news

[Book Review] Rain check
Make It Rain, Kristine Harper's detailed history of weather control in the United States, includes colorful details of cloud-seeding experiments, but the book is not so much about attempts to control the weather as it is about the political battles waged over the harnessing of the atmosphere: the control of weather control itself. Rather than revealing a history of what we might today call evidence-led policy, the book is a rogue's gallery of policy-led evidence, offering lessons about how science can be used as a tool of the state. Author: Sarah Dry (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Sarah Dry Tags: Atmospheric Science Source Type: news

[Policy Forum] A roadmap for rapid decarbonization
Although the Paris Agreement's goals (1) are aligned with science (2) and can, in principle, be technically and economically achieved (3), alarming inconsistencies remain between science-based targets and national commitments. Despite progress during the 2016 Marrakech climate negotiations, long-term goals can be trumped by political short-termism. Following the Agreement, which became international law earlier than expected, several countries published mid-century decarbonization strategies, with more due soon. Model-based decarbonization assessments (4) and scenarios often struggle to capture transformative change and th...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Johan Rockstr öm Tags: Climate Policy Source Type: news

[Retrospective] Hans Rosling (1948 –2017)
Like a lot of Hans Rosling's admirers, we discovered his work via his famous 2006 TED talk, “The Best Stats You've Ever Seen.” It was a mind-blowing speech (with more than 11 million views to date) with innovative graphics, good jokes, and a profound message: The world is getting better, and even some of the poorest countries are making progress. Hans was a showman, but he didn't sacrifice an ounce of complexity. He was—and this is a term of honor in our house—a data nerd. We sang his praises to just about anyone who would listen. Authors: Bill Gates, Melinda Gates (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Bill Gates Tags: Retrospective Source Type: news

[Perspective] Genes, environment, and “bad luck”
It is a human trait to search for explanations for catastrophic events and rule out mere “chance” or “bad luck.” When it comes to human cancer, the issue of natural causes versus bad luck was raised by Tomasetti and Vogelstein about 2 years ago (1). Their study, which was widely misinterpreted as saying that most cancers are due neither to genetic inheritance nor environmental factors but simply bad luck, sparked controversy. To date, a few hundred papers have been written in response, including (2–6), with some [e.g., (2)] coming to opposite conclusions. What is this controversy about? Tomasetti and Vogelstein c...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Martin A. Nowak Tags: Cancer Source Type: news