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Bullying and Quality of Life in Pediatric Alopecia Areata
We report survey results that highlight the prevalence of bullying and surrounding emotional impact of AA in pediatric patients. We found that bullying was common overall and additional psychological impact, including impairment of social and home life, was even more common. Children of all ages experienced bullying. Boys reported increased physical bullying. Interestingly, those with more severe disease and longer duration of disease experienced less bullying than those with less severe disease.Skin Appendage Disord 2017;3:115-118 (Source: Skin Appendage Disorders)
Source: Skin Appendage Disorders - March 23, 2017 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Lupus Hepatitis and Autoimmune Hepatitis (Lupoid Hepatitis).
Abstract Liver dysfunction occurs in approximately 50% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and patients with SLE and elevated liver enzymes can present a complicated and difficult differential diagnosis. Lupus hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis are 2 immunologic conditions involving the liver, which can have similar clinical, laboratory and systemic presentations, leading to difficulties in diagnosis. Physicians need to be aware of these 2 hepatic diseases as diagnosis and appropriate therapy need to occur early in the disease course to prevent progression to advanced liver disease. We review the ...
Source: The American Journal of the Medical Sciences - March 23, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Adiga A, Nugent K Tags: Am J Med Sci Source Type: research

A concise review of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and the importance of iodine, selenium, vitamin D and gluten on the autoimmunity and dietary management of HT patients.Points that need more investigation.
Authors: Liontiris MI, Mazokopakis EE Abstract Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a chronic autoimmune thyroid disease caused by an interaction between genetic factors and environmental conditions, both of which are yet to be fully understood. The management of HT depends on its clinical manifestations, commonly including diffuse or nodular goiter with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and permanent hypothyroidism. However, in most cases of patients with HT, lifelong levothyroxine substitution is required. The additional role of diet for the management of HT is usually overlooked. A literature search regarding ...
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - March 23, 2017 Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Is Associated With Increased Adverse Postoperative Renal Outcomes and Mortality: A Historical Cohort Study Using Administrative Health Data.
CONCLUSIONS: This is, by far, the largest clinical study for postoperative outcomes of SLE patients with adequately powered statistical analyses. We concluded that SLE was associated with a higher risk of renal complications and in-hospital mortality but not cardiac events after major surgery. In SLE patients, more aggressive measures should be taken to prevent renal injury in the perioperative period. PMID: 28319545 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia)
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - March 23, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Babazade R, Yilmaz HO, Leung SM, Zimmerman NM, Turan A Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Mortality in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in Bogota, Colombia
Jorge Armando Carrizosa, Jorge Aponte, Diego Cartagena, Ricard Cervera, Maria Teresa Ospina, Alexander Sanchez (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - March 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Overview of Celiac Disease in Russia: Regional Data and Estimated Prevalence.
Authors: Savvateeva LV, Erdes SI, Antishin AS, Zamyatnin AA Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten from some cereals mainly in individuals carrying the HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 haplotypes. As an autoimmune disease, CD is manifested in the small intestine in the form of a progressive and reversible inflammatory lesion due to immune response to self-antigens. Indeed, CD is one of the most challenging medicosocial problems in current gastroenterology. At present, the global CD prevalence is estimated at approximately 1% based on data sent from different loc...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - March 23, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

A novel multi-network approach reveals tissue-specific cellular modulators of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis
ConclusionsOur results suggest that the innate immune system is central to SSc disease processes but that subtle distinctions exist between tissues. Our approach provides a framework for examining molecular signatures of disease in fibrosis and autoimmune diseases and for leveraging publicly available data to understand common and tissue-specific disease processes in complex human diseases. (Source: Genome Medicine)
Source: Genome Medicine - March 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

[Editors' Choice] Preempting autoimmune disease with induced antigen tolerance
Transfusion of red blood cells with antigenic peptides added to surface proteins is being explored as a tolerance-inducing intervention for autoimmune disease. (Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dupnik, K. Tags: Editors ' Choice Source Type: research

Seroprevalence survey of selective anti-neuronal autoantibodies in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia
Autoimmune encephalopathy caused by autoantibodies against neuronal cell-surface proteins in the brain is a newly discovered disease category associated with psychiatric disorders. Correct diagnosis of this condition relies on the detection of specific autoantibodies in the blood or cerebral spinal fluid in addition to the clinical presentations. The study aimed to understand the seroprevalence of selective anti-neuronal autoantibodies in our patients with schizophrenia. First, we screened for six anti-neuronal autoantibodies in an archived blood sample collected from patients with the first-episode schizophrenia. (Source:...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - March 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chia-Hsiang Chen, Min-Chih Cheng, Chih-Min Liu, Chen-Chung Liu, Ko-Huan Lin, Hai-Gwo Hwu Source Type: research

Are the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) and the undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) related to each other? A case-control study of environmental exposures
AbstractThe autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) is an entity that includes different autoimmune conditions observed after exposure to an adjuvant. Patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) present many signs and symptoms of ASIA, alluding to the idea that an exposure to adjuvants can be a trigger also for UCTD. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate exposure to adjuvants prior to disease onset in patients affected by UCTD. Ninety-two UCTD patients and 92 age- and sex-matched controls with no malignancy, chronic infections, autoimmune disease nor family history o...
Source: Immunologic Research - March 22, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of amino acids in rheumatoid arthritis studied by metabolomics
ConclusionThe results suggest that a disordered amine response is linked to RA‐associated muscle wasting and energy expenditure. (Source: APLAR Journal of Rheumatology)
Source: APLAR Journal of Rheumatology - March 22, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Min He, Amy C. Harms, Eduard Wijk, Mei Wang, Ruud Berger, Slavik Koval, Thomas Hankemeier, Jan Greef Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A novel bispecific molecule delivered by recombinant AAV2 suppresses ocular inflammation and choroidal neovascularization
In this study, we engineered a secreted chimeric VEGF inhibitor domain (VID), a complement inhibitor domain (CID) and a dual inhibitor (ACVP1). Vectors expressing these three inhibitors were constructed and packaged into AAV2 (sextY‐F) particles. The expression and secretion of the proteins were validated by Western blot. The effects of these inhibitors expressed from AAV2 vectors were examined in endotoxin‐induced uveitis (EIU), experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) mouse models. The AAV2 vectors expressing the CID‐ and ACVP1‐attenuated inflammation in EIU and EAU model...
Source: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine - March 22, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Yiming Li, Ping Zhu, Amrisha Verma, Tuhina Prasad, Hongxin Deng, Dechao Yu, Qiuhong Li Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Autoimmune disease linked with increased dementia risk.
Authors: Abstract Autoimmune disease could be linked to a heightened risk of dementia, say researchers from the University of Oxford. PMID: 28327041 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)
Source: Nursing Standard - March 22, 2017 Category: Nursing Tags: Nurs Stand Source Type: research

Identification of a HERV ‐K env surface peptide highly recognized in RA patients: A cross‐sectional case‐control study
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - March 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: G. Mameli, G.L. Erre, E. Caggiu, S. Mura, D. Cossu, Marco Bo, M.L. Cadoni, A Piras, N. Mundula, E. Colombo, G. Buscetta, G. Passiu, L.A. Sechi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Pan-European survey of the topical ocular use of cyclosporine A.
CONCLUSIONS: Medical practice surrounding ocular cyclosporine A use in European Union nations differs based on variations in concentration, dosage, prescription indication, formulation, availability and distribution, manufacturing, quality, and regulatory monitoring. PMID: 28318723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie)
Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie - March 21, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Fr Ophtalmol Source Type: research

Editors ’ Picks
Gender differences are observed in the activity of multiple immunological pathways, even in healthy individuals. Many autoimmune diseases, both systemic and organ-specific, are characterized by a greater prevalence in females than males. Liang and colleagues identified a female-biased molecular signature, involving immunological factors, in association with autoimmune disease susceptibility, and this signature was independent of age or sex hormone regulation but was regulated by the putative transcription factor VGLL3, which had strong female-biased expression. (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology)
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - March 21, 2017 Category: Dermatology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The blood in systemic disease
Systemic disease has protean manifestations. Most frequently observed is anaemia of chronic disease, anaemia can also be autoimmune, microangiopathic, mechanical or caused by haematinic deficiency, bone marrow replacement or pure red cell aplasia. The platelet count can be increased or decreased. The number of neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes can be increased, but neutropenia, eosinopenia and lymphopenia can also occur. Leucocytes can appear activated. Systemic disease can lead to thromboembolism, haemorrhage or disseminated intravascular coagulation. (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - March 21, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Barbara Bain Tags: The blood in systemic disease Source Type: research

Predicting the effects of potentially therapeutic modified peptides on polyclonal T cell populations in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis
Altered peptide ligands (APLs) have routinely been studied in clonal populations of Th cells that express a single T cell receptor (TCR), but results generated in this manner poorly predict the effects of APLs on polyclonal Th cells in vivo, contributing to the failure of phase II clinical trials of APLs in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). We have used a panel of APLs derived from an encephalitogenic epitope of myelin proteolipid protein to investigate the relationship between antigen cross-reactivity in a polyclonal environment, encephalitogenicity, and the capacity of an APL to provide protection agai...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - March 21, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Evan L. Sauer, Elisabeth Trifilieff, Judith M. Greer Source Type: research

Two decades of glatiramer acetate: From initial discovery to the current development of generics
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, incurable, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. In the United States, several Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) are available, including glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone ®), one of the most longstanding treatments. GA was discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s/early 1970s while attempting to produce a synthetic antigen capable of inducing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of autoimmune inflammatory CNS disorders, including MS. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - March 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Kavita V. Nair, Joseph L. Glajch, Tanmoy C. Ganguly, Daniel Kantor Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Engineered erythrocytes covalently linked to antigenic peptides can protect against autoimmune disease [Immunology and Inflammation]
Current therapies for autoimmune diseases rely on traditional immunosuppressive medications that expose patients to an increased risk of opportunistic infections and other complications. Immunoregulatory interventions that act prophylactically or therapeutically to induce antigen-specific tolerance might overcome these obstacles. Here we use the transpeptidase sortase to covalently attach disease-associated autoantigens to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - March 20, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Novalia Pishesha, Angelina M. Bilate, Marsha C. Wibowo, Nai-Jia Huang, Zeyang Li, Rhogerry Dhesycka, Djenet Bousbaine, Hojun Li, Heide C. Patterson, Stephanie K. Dougan, Takeshi Maruyama, Harvey F. Lodish, Hidde L. Ploegh Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The universe of ANA testing: a case for point-of-care ANA testing
AbstractTesting for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupus to a test for any autoimmune condition has driven the increase in ANA requests. Changes in ANA referral patterns include early or subclinical autoimmune disease detection in patients with low pre-test probability and use of negative ANA results to rule out underlying autoimmune disease. A positive result can lead to further diagnostic considerations. Currently, ANA tests are performed in centralized laborato...
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - March 20, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

An Activating Mutation in STAT3 Results in Neonatal Diabetes Through Reduced Insulin Synthesis
Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of diabetes diagnosed within the first 6 months of life. Genetic studies have allowed the identification of several genes linked to the development of NDM; however, genetic causes for ~20% of the cases remain to be clarified. Most cases of NDM involve isolated diabetes, but sometimes NDM appears in association with other pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases. Recent reports have linked activating mutations in STAT3 with early-onset autoimmune disorders that include diabetes of autoimmune origin, but the functional impact of STAT3-activating mutations have not...
Source: Diabetes - March 20, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Velayos, T.; Martinez, R.; Alonso, M.; Garcia-Etxebarria, K.; Aguayo, A.; Camarero, C.; Urrutia, I.; Martinez de LaPiscina, I.; Barrio, R.; Santin, I.; Castano, L. Tags: Pathophysiology Source Type: research

Identification of Unique Antigenic Determinants in the Amino Terminus of IA-2 (ICA512) in Childhood and Adult Autoimmune Diabetes: New Biomarker Development
CONCLUSIONS We developed a new antibody biomarker identifying novel antigenic determinants within the N terminus of IA-2. IA-2ec autoantibodies can be detected in patients with type 1 diabetes and in a subgroup of adult autoimmune patients with type 2 diabetes phenotype negative for conventional islet autoantibody testing. These observations suggest that islet autoimmunity may be more common in clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes than previously observed. (Source: Diabetes Care)
Source: Diabetes Care - March 20, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Acevedo-Calado, M.; James, E. A.; Morran, M. P.; Pietropaolo, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Arribas-Layton, D.; Songini, M.; Liguori, M.; Casu, A.; Auchus, R. J.; Huang, S.; Yu, L.; Michels, A.; Gianani, R.; Pietropaolo, M. Tags: Emerging Technologies and Therapeutics Source Type: research

CCR6+ Th cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of persons with multiple sclerosis are dominated by pathogenic non-classic Th1 cells and GM-CSF-only-secreting Th cells
Publication date: Available online 20 March 2017 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): S.M. Restorick, L. Durant, S. Kalra, G. Hassan-Smith, E. Rathbone, M.R. Douglas, S.J. Curnow Considerable attention has been given to CCR6+ IL-17-secreting CD4+ T cells (Th17) in the pathology of a number of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, other Th subsets also play important pathogenic roles, including those that secrete IFNγ and GM-CSF. CCR6 expression by Th17 cells allows their migration across the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they are involved in the early phase ...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - March 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Regulatory T cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a polyspecific pooled immunoglobulin G preparation and one of the commonly used therapeutics for autoimmune diseases including those of neurological origin. A recent report... (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)
Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation - March 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Mohan S. Maddur, Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Mrinmoy Das, Praveen Prakhar, Varun K. Sharma, Vikas Singh, Magalie Rabin, Jamma Trinath, Kithiganahalli N. Balaji, Francis Bolgert, Jean-Michel Vallat, Laurent Magy, Srini V. Kaveri and Jagadeesh Bayry Source Type: research

Low ‐dose interleukin‐2 promotes STAT‐5 phosphorylation, Treg survival and CTLA‐4‐dependent function in autoimmune liver diseases
We reported recently that the hepatic microenvironment is deficient in interleukin (IL)−2, a cytokine essential for Treg survival and function. Consequently, few liver‐infiltrating Treg demonstrate signal transducer and activator of transcription‐5 (STAT‐5) phosphorylation. To establish the potential of IL‐2 to enhance Treg therapy, we investigated the effects of very low dose Proleukin (VLDP) on the phosphorylation of STAT‐5 and the subsequent survival and function of Treg and T effector cells from the blood and livers of patients with autoimmune liver diseases. VLDP, at less than 5 IU/ml, resulted in selectiv...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - March 19, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: H. C. Jeffery, L. E. Jeffery, P. Lutz, M. Corrigan, G. J. Webb, G. M. Hirschfield, D. H. Adams, Y. H. Oo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia adults: Clinical epidemiology, exposure to treatments, and evolution. Results of the CARMEN multicenter prospective cohort
In conclusion, severe bleeding is rare at ITP onset. Associated autoimmune diseases and recent infections were frequent. Antinuclear antibodies seem predictors of chronicity. Intravenous corticosteroids and IVIg were frequently used. (Source: American Journal of Hematology)
Source: American Journal of Hematology - March 19, 2017 Category: Hematology Authors: Guillaume Moulis, Johanne Germain, Thibault Comont, Natacha Brun, Claire Dingremont, Brice Castel, Sophie Arista, Laurent Sailler, Maryse Lapeyre ‐Mestre, Odile Beyne‐Rauzy, Bertrand Godeau, Daniel Adoue, Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection
There have been many observations of the relationship between infectious disease and behaviour changes such as the development of tics documented in medical literature over a long period of time. Paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a controversial diagnosis because it relies on linking a causal association between a common childhood illness with less common psychiatric symptoms. This case report describes a possible case of PANDAS in a young person, the course of treatment and its outcome. (Source: Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry)
Source: Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry - March 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Rachael Lawrence, Jonathan Baggott Tags: Case notes Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal and liver lesions in primary childhood Sj ögren syndrome
We report five cases of primary childhood SS with gastrointestinal and liver lesions. Multiple gastric biopsies in four cases revealed atrophic gastritis in the antrum of the stomach or chronic gastritis. Liver biopsies in two c ases revealed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Careful clinical approach and follow-up for gastrointestinal and liver lesions are required. (Source: Clinical Rheumatology)
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - March 19, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric multiple sclerosis: a registry-based study of the Autoimmune Diseases Working Party (ADWP) and Pediatric Diseases Working Party (PDWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT)
en & D Farge (Source: Bone Marrow Transplantation)
Source: Bone Marrow Transplantation - March 19, 2017 Category: Hematology Authors: J Burman K Kirgizov K Carlson M Badoglio G L Mancardi G De Luca B Casanova J Ouyang R Bembeeva J Haas P Bader J Snowden D Farge Source Type: research

Simultaneous induction of Graves ’ hyperthyroidism and Graves’ ophthalmopathy by TSHR genetic immunization in BALB/c mice
ConclusionWe have successfully established an animal model manifesting Graves ’ hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy, which provides a useful tool for future study of the pathological features and the development of novel therapies of the diseases. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - March 19, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nan Xia Source Type: research

Evaluation of transient elastography in assessing liver fibrosis in patients with autoimmune hepatitis
ConclusionsTransient elastography is an accurate and reliable noninvasive tool in assessing liver fibrosis in AIH. Hepatic inflammatory activity had no significant effect on LSM determination. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Source: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - March 19, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Qinyu Xu, Li Sheng, Han Bao, Xiaoyu Chen, Canjie Guo, Hai Li, Xiong Ma, Dekai Qiu, Jing Hua Tags: Hepatology Source Type: research

miRNAs: novel regulators of autoimmunity-mediated pancreatic β-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a series of conserved, short, non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression in a posttranscriptional manner. miRNAs are involved in almost every physiological and pathological process. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is the result of selective destruction of pancreatic β-cells driven by the immune system. miRNAs are also important participants in T1D pathogenesis. Herein, we review the most recent data on the potential involvement of miRNAs in T1D. Specifically, we focus on two aspects: the roles of miRNAs in maintaining immune homeostasis and regulating β-cell...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Immunology - March 19, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Zheng Y, Wang Z, Zhou Z Tags: Cell Mol Immunol Source Type: research

Comparison of Disease Characteristics, Organ Damage, and Survival in Patients with Juvenile-onset and Adult-onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Combined Cohort from 2 Tertiary Centers in Turkey.
CONCLUSION: We report a higher frequency in the jSLE group of renal involvement, cutaneous symptoms, oral ulcers, NP manifestations, AIHA, and anti-dsDNA positivity. A significant proportion of patients in the jSLE group had damage, most prominently in the renal domain. Our findings might support different genetic/environmental backgrounds for these 2 subgroups. PMID: 28298568 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rheumatology)
Source: Journal of Rheumatology - March 19, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Tags: J Rheumatol Source Type: research

Longterm Effectiveness of Herpes Zoster Vaccine among Patients with Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases.
CONCLUSION: HZ vaccination was significantly protective only for about 5 years among patients with AI. PMID: 28298565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rheumatology)
Source: Journal of Rheumatology - March 19, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Tags: J Rheumatol Source Type: research

Genetics of Vitiligo
Vitiligo reflects simultaneous contributions of multiple genetic risk factors and environmental triggers. Genomewide association studies have discovered approximately 50 genetic loci contributing to vitiligo risk. At many vitiligo susceptibility loci, the relevant genes and DNA sequence variants are identified. Many encode proteins involved in immune regulation, several play roles in cellular apoptosis, and others regulate functions of melanocytes. Although many of the specific biologic mechanisms need elucidation, it is clear that vitiligo is an autoimmune disease involving a complex relationship between immune system pro...
Source: Dermatologic Clinics - March 19, 2017 Category: Dermatology Authors: Richard A. Spritz, Genevieve H.L. Andersen Source Type: research

Special Considerations in Children with Vitiligo
Childhood vitiligo differs from adult-onset vitiligo for several features including increased incidence of the segmental variant, higher prevalence of halo nevi, and more common family history for autoimmune diseases and atopic diathesis. The major differential diagnoses are the postinflammatory hypomelanoses for nonsegmental vitiligo and nevus depigmentosus for segmental vitiligo. From a therapeutic standpoint, early awareness of the diagnosis seems to correlate with a good treatment outcome in this age group. (Source: Dermatologic Clinics)
Source: Dermatologic Clinics - March 19, 2017 Category: Dermatology Authors: Alain Ta ïeb, Julien Seneschal, Juliette Mazereeuw-Hautier Source Type: research

Segmental Vitiligo
Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. (Source: Dermatologic Clinics)
Source: Dermatologic Clinics - March 19, 2017 Category: Dermatology Authors: Nanja van Geel, Reinhart Speeckaert Source Type: research

Quality of Life, Burden of Disease, Co-morbidities, and Systemic Effects in Vitiligo  Patients
Vitiligo is a complex, systemic disease associated with many autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions. Additionally, the cutaneous changes of vitiligo have significant effects on quality of life and self-esteem. Further efforts are needed to increase our understanding of vitiligo comorbidities as well as to increase awareness of the psychological effects of vitiligo. (Source: Dermatologic Clinics)
Source: Dermatologic Clinics - March 19, 2017 Category: Dermatology Authors: Nada Elbuluk, Khaled Ezzedine Source Type: research

A similar local immune and oxidative stress phenotype in vitiligo and halo nevus
Vitiligo and halo nevus are both autoimmune diseases of the skin that result in depigmented lesions. Vitiligo is characterized by patches of random shapes and sizes due to loss of melanocytes, and afflicts approximately 0.5-1% of the population [1]. Halo nevus is a benign melanocytic nevus surrounded by a well-demarcated halo of depigmentation, usually affecting individuals under the age of 20 [2]. The central nevus may partially or completely regress while the associated halo may persist or expand [3]. (Source: Journal of Dermatological Science)
Source: Journal of Dermatological Science - March 18, 2017 Category: Dermatology Authors: Yuqi Yang, Shuli Li, Guannan Zhu, Qian Zhang, Gang Wang, Tianwen Gao, Chunying Li, Lin Wang, Zhe Jian Source Type: research

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy and Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatments
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017 Source:Joint Bone Spine Author(s): Gaëlle Clavel, Antoine Moulignier, Luca Semerano Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system due to reactivation of the JC virus (JCV). PML is extremely uncommon despite the high prevalence of the virus in the general population. No specific treatment is available, and the prognosis is bleak. The diagnosis is based on brain imaging findings, detection of the JCV genome in cerebrospinal fluid samples and, in some cases, histological studies of the brain lesions. The pathophysiol...
Source: Joint Bone Spine - March 18, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Prognostic factors for mortality in patients with bullous pemphigoid: a meta-analysis
This study indicated that BP patients with older age, circulating antibodies, dementia, and stroke are at greater risk of mortality. Clinicians should be aware of this association and utilize this information in patient education and treatment process. (Source: Archives of Dermatological Research)
Source: Archives of Dermatological Research - March 18, 2017 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

The use of immunosuppression in autoimmune hepatitis: A current literature review.
Authors: Cropley A, Weltman M Abstract Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an organ specific autoimmune condition which can manifest at any age of life. The heterogeneous nature of this condition means that great variation can be seen in severity, progression of disease and response to treatment within this patient group. Since the 1980s prednisolone and azathioprine have been used for induction and remission of the disease and remain the mainstay of treatment. Other immunosuppressive agents have been employed in difficult to treat cases. While there is less published data regarding these agents compared with the convent...
Source: Clinical and molecular hepatology - March 18, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Clin Mol Hepatol Source Type: research

Extrahepatic Manifestations of Primary Biliary Cholangitis.
Authors: Chalifoux SL, Konyn PG, Choi G, Saab S Abstract Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by progressive destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts, leading to cholestasis. PBC is known to have both hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations. Extrahepatic manifestations are seen in up to 73% of patients with PBC, with the most common being Sjogren's syndrome, thyroid dysfunction and systemic sclerosis. It is thought that patients with PBC are at increased risk of developing these extrahepatic manifestations, almost all of which are autoimmune, because patients with autoimm...
Source: Gut and Liver - March 18, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gut Liver Source Type: research

The Use of Rituximab in the Management of Refractory Dermatomyositis.
Authors: Kuye IO, Smith GP Abstract There is growing adoption of rituximab in the treatment of dermatomyositis patients whose disease is refractory to steroids. However, the effects have not been extensively studied. This is a retrospective study of 25 patients with dermatomyositis who were treated with rituximab. Data from January 2000 to July 2014 was obtained from a clinical data repository, which yielded results from two tertiary centers in the United States. We analyzed information on muscle weakness, skin disease, enzyme levels, and immunosuppressive medication use before and after treatment with rituximab. T...
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - March 18, 2017 Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research

Longitudinal Tracking of Autoantibody Levels in a Pemphigus Vulgaris Patient: Support for a Role of Anti-Desmoglein 1 Autoantibodies as Predictors of Disease Progression.
Authors: Abidi NY, Lainiotis I, Malikowski G, Seiffert-Sinha K, Sinha AA Abstract Anti-desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and -Dsg3 antibody titers have an established role in the diagnosis of the autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV). However, their usefulness for disease monitoring has been controversial. A recent large-scale immunoprofiling study by our group indicated that anti-Dsg1 levels may be a better predictor of disease activity than anti-Dsg3 levels, with declining levels predicting progression from active phase of disease to early remission, irrespective of lesional subtypes. Here, we report an ill...
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - March 18, 2017 Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research

Corticosteroids and Immune Suppressive Therapies in Horses
Immune suppressive therapies target exaggerated and deleterious responses of the immune system. Triggered by exogenous or endogenous factors, these improper responses can lead to immune or inflammatory manifestations, such as urticaria, equine asthma, or autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases. Glucocorticoids are the most commonly used immune suppressive drugs and the only ones supported by robust evidence of clinical efficacy in equine medicine. In some conditions, combining glucocorticoids with other pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, such as azathioprine, antihistamine, bronchodilators, environmental manage...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - March 18, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mathilde Leclere Source Type: research

Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy affecting the peripheral retina with centripetal progression
Conclusion: A variant of AZOOR may involve the peripheral retina, causing concentric zonal atrophy with centripetal progression, with central peripapillary zonal abnormalities that have centrifugal progression. This may eventually lead to widespread atrophic degeneration with severe visual field loss. Wide-field imaging of the peripheral retina and monitoring of the visual fields are important to document this rare atypical presentation of AZOOR and any subsequent disease progression. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports - March 18, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Systemic lupus erythematosus: an update.
Authors: Golder V, Hoi A Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease predominantly affecting women of childbearing age. New classification criteria for SLE have greater sensitivity and therefore improve the diagnostic certainty for some patients, especially those who may previously have been labelled as having undifferentiated symptoms. Uncontrolled disease activity leads to irreversible end-organ damage, which in turn increases the risk of premature death; early and sustained control of disease activity can usually be achieved by conventional immunosuppressant therapy. T...
Source: Medical Journal of Australia - March 18, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases: recent advances and current challenges.
Authors: Cicuttini FM PMID: 28301788 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Journal of Australia)
Source: Medical Journal of Australia - March 18, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research