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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 8.

Malignant Pleural Effusions.
Authors: PMID: 27628085 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - September 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Transcriptional control, but not subcellular location, of PGC-1{alpha} is altered following exercise in a hot environment
The purpose of this study was to determine mitochondrial biogenesis-related mRNA expression, binding of transcription factors to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) promoter, and subcellular location of PGC-1α protein in human skeletal muscle following exercise in a hot environment compared with a room temperature environment. Recreationally trained males (n = 11) completed two trials in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environmental chamber. Each trial consisted of cycling in either a hot (H) or room temperature (C) environment (33 and 20°C, respectively) fo...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - September 15, 2016 Category: Physiology Authors: Heesch, M. W., Shute, R. J., Kreiling, J. L., Slivka, D. R. Tags: HIGHLIGHTED TOPIC Source Type: research

Baroreflex regulation affects ventilation in the Cururu toad Rhinella schneideri [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
Lucas A. Zena, Glauber S. F. da Silva, Luciane H. Gargaglioni, and Kenia C. Bicego Anurans regulate short-term oscillations in blood pressure through changes in heart rate (fH), vascular resistance and lymph hearts frequency. Lung ventilation in anurans is linked to blood volume homeostasis by facilitating lymph return to the cardiovascular system. We hypothesized that the arterial baroreflex modulates pulmonary ventilation in the Cururu toad Rhinella schneideri, and that this relationship is temperature-dependent. Pharmacologically induced hypotension (sodium nitroprusside) and hypertension (phenylephrine) increased venti...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - September 15, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Zena, L. A., da Silva, G. S. F., Gargaglioni, L. H., Bicego, K. C. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A comparison of five surveys that identify individuals at risk for airflow obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The predictive characteristics of different screening surveys for the recognition of individuals at risk for airflow obstruction (AFO) have not been evaluated simultaneously in the same population. (Source: Respiratory Medicine)
Source: Respiratory Medicine - September 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Folarin Sogbetun, William L. Eschenbacher, Jeffrey A. Welge, Ralph J. Panos Source Type: research

Dornase alfa for cystic fibrosis
(Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - September 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: CL Yang, M Chilvers, M Montgomery, SJ Nolan Source Type: research

Potential Nutrients for Preventing or Treating Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a frequent complication of extremely preterm infants. Despite recent advances in newborn medicine, the incidence of BPD does not appear to have changed markedly, and specific treatments and prevention strategies are still lacking. Nutrition plays an important role in normal lung development and maturation. Malnutrition may delay somatic growth and new alveoli development, thus aggravating pulmonary injury involved in the pathogenesis of BPD. However, few nutrients have been investigated for their potential to mitigate the pathogenesis of BPD. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - September 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Liya Ma, Ping Zhou, Josef Neu, Hung-Chih Lin Source Type: research

Quantification of coronary artery motion and internal risk volume from ECG gated radiotherapy planning scans
Radiotherapy for carcinoma of breast and thoracic structures involves inadvertent radiation to heart and coronary arteries (CA). Coronary artery stenosis in high radiation dose segments has been documented. Cardiac and respiratory motion induced displacement of CA and internal risk volume (IRV) margin remains inadequately quantified. (Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology)
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology - September 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Tejinder Kataria, Shyam Singh Bisht, Deepak Gupta, Ashu Abhishek, Trinanjan Basu, Kushal Narang, Shikha Goyal, Pragya Shukla, Manish Bansal, Hardeep Grewal, Kulbeer Ahlawat, Susovan Banarjee, Manoj Tayal Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Myelokyphectomy in Spina Bifida: The Modified Fackler/Sagittal Shilla Technique
Severe focal kyphosis occurs in about 10% of infants with myelomeningocele with the apex of the curve centered around the second lumbar vertebra. The kyphosis is fixed in nature and is usually associated with a compensatory thoracic lordosis proximally. Indications for surgery include an impaired sitting balance, recurrent skin ulcerations, respiratory depression, and pain. The Modified Fackler/Sagittal Shilla technique is used to solve these problems in a child nine years of age or younger. It combines aspects of both the Shilla technique described by McCarthy and the originally described Fackler technique for myelokyphos...
Source: Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics - September 15, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Adam Margalit, Paul D. Sponseller Source Type: research

Effect of two-step hygiene management on the prevention of nosocomial influenza in a season with high influenza activity
Conclusion Discrimination between influenza A and other respiratory infections in elderly hospitalized patients was not possible based on clinical characteristics. With regard to hygiene management, the continuous use of surgical masks by hospital staff seems to be effective for the prevention of nosocomial infections. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - September 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Species diversity of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida) parasitizing fishes in Indian subcontinent
AbstractA synopsis of 52 nominal species of the genusThelohanellus Kudo, 1933 reported to infect freshwater fishes in India is presented. These species infect various organs such as gills, fins, scales, skin, muscles, gall bladder, kidney etc. The diagnostic features of the genus include tear-shaped myxospores with smooth shell valves and single polar capsule. The members are histozoic in their nature of parasitism infecting fresh water fishes. The present manuscript is aimed to compile the list of reported species in India along with essential information on morphometrics of vegetative stage, host, organ preference and pa...
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - September 15, 2016 Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and viral load of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - September 15, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Xiao ‐li Yan, Yu‐ning Li, Yi‐jie Tang, Zhi‐ping Xie, Han‐chun Gao, Xue‐mei Yang, Yu‐mei Li, Li‐jun Liu, Zhao‐jun Duan Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Masks for prevention of respiratory viruses on the BMT unit: results of a quality initiative
ConclusionsOur quality initiative demonstrated that surgical masks are an infection control modality that may provide benefit to oncology/BMT units by decreasing the risk for hospital‐acquired RVI.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Transplant Infectious Disease)
Source: Transplant Infectious Disease - September 15, 2016 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: K.A. Sokol, I. De la Vega ‐Diaz, K Edmondson‐Martin, S Kim, S. Tindle, F. Wallach, A. Steinberg Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Cross-shift study of exposure-response relationships between bioaerosol exposure and respiratory effects in the Norwegian grain and animal feed production industry
Conclusions Exposure to fungal spores and dust showed stronger associations with respiratory symptoms and fatigue than endotoxin exposure. The associations with dust suggest that there are other components in dust than the ones studied that induce these effects. (Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - September 15, 2016 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Straumfors, A., Heldal, K. K., Eduard, W., Wouters, I. M., Ellingsen, D. G., Skogstad, M. Tags: Open access Exposure assessment Source Type: research

Risk factors for and consequences of persistent lower respiratory symptoms among World Trade Center Health Registrants 10 years after the disaster
Conclusions LRS, accompanied by mental health conditions and decreased QoL, have persisted for at least 10 years after 9/11/2001. Affected adults require continuing surveillance and treatment. (Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - September 15, 2016 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Friedman, S. M., Farfel, M. R., Maslow, C., Jordan, H. T., Li, J., Alper, H., Cone, J. E., Stellman, S. D., Brackbill, R. M. Tags: Editor's choice Environment Source Type: research

Comparing human respiratory adverse effects after acute exposure to particulate matter in conventional and particle-reduced swine building environments
Conclusions Particulate matter and organic dust in the swine building were reduced after installing particle separators, which, in naïve never exposed volunteers, in turn reduced adverse health effects caused by acute exposure in swine buildings compared with exposure to the conventional swine building environment. (Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - September 15, 2016 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hedelin, A. S., Sundblad, B.-M., Sahlander, K., Wilkinson, K., Seisenbaeva, G., Kessler, V., Larsson, K., Palmberg, L. Tags: Workplace Source Type: research

Is the six-minute walk test a useful tool to prescribe high-intensity exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
Conclusion The 6MWT has good predictive ability and accuracy in relation to high-intensity exercise for patients with COPD. (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - September 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Original Research: Metabolic alterations from early life thyroxine replacement therapy in male Ames dwarf mice are transient
Ames dwarf mice are exceptionally long-lived due to a Prop1 loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Deficiency in thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone leads to greatly reduced levels of circulating thyroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1, as well as a reduction in insulin secretion. Early life growth hormone replacement therapy in Ames dwarf mice significantly shortens their longevity, while early life thyroxine (T4) replacement therapy does not. Possible mechanisms by which early life growth hormone replacement therapy shortens lon...
Source: Experimental Biology and Medicine - September 15, 2016 Category: Research Authors: Darcy, J., Fang, Y., Hill, C. M., McFadden, S., Sun, L. Y., Bartke, A. Tags: Endocrinology & amp;amp; Nutrition Source Type: research

Original Research: Porcine model for observing changes due to ischemia/reperfusion injury secondary to intra-abdominal endovascular balloon occlusion
Compared with conventional aortic cross-clamping, endovascular balloon occlusion (EBO) is a valuable strategy in unstable ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm patients; however, it is unclear how long the balloon may remain safely inflated. Using a porcine model, we evaluated the influence of different EBO time periods on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and the association between various pathophysiologic indicators and reperfusion time. Twelve healthy three-month-old domestic piglets were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury using EBO within the abdominal aorta. Animals were grouped as A, B, and C based on 30, 60, or 120 ...
Source: Experimental Biology and Medicine - September 15, 2016 Category: Research Authors: Chao, C.-S., Tsai, C.-S., Wang, Y.-H., Liu, Y.-H., Chen, J.-M., Chang, Y.-P., Chin, H.-K., Chien, S.-T., Lee, T.-M., Yang, S.-C. Tags: Physiology Source Type: research

Lung adenocarcinomas: correlation of computed tomography and pathology findings
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2016 Source:Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Author(s): J.G. Cohen, E. Reymond, A. Jankowski, E. Brambilla, F. Arbib, S. Lantuejoul, G.R. Ferretti Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. Recent lung adenocarcinoma classifications from the International Association for the Study of Lung cancer, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society (IASLC/ETS/ERS, 2011) and World Health Organization (WHO, 2015) define a wide range of adenocarcinoma types and subtypes featuring different prognosis and management. This spectrum of lesi...
Source: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging - September 15, 2016 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Patient coping strategies in COPD across disease severity and quality of life: a qualitative study
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, Published online: 15 September 2016; doi:10.1038/npjpcrm.2016.51 (Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine)
Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine - September 15, 2016 Category: Primary Care Authors: Sarah B Brien George T Lewith Mike Thomas Source Type: research

Managing multimorbidity in primary care in patients with chronic respiratory conditions
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, Published online: 15 September 2016; doi:10.1038/npjpcrm.2016.43 (Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine)
Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine - September 15, 2016 Category: Primary Care Authors: Deborah Morrison Karolina Agur Stewart Mercer Andreia Eiras Juan I Gonz ález-Montalvo Kevin Gruffydd-Jones Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: an unusual cause of hypoxemia in children
ConclusionNEHI is a rare chILD disorder presenting in the first 2  years of life with common but challenging key clinical features. Increased awareness among pediatricians and prompt recognition of the clinical presentation may enable timely diagnosis and improve disease management and prognosis. (Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics - September 15, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The impact of a history of asthma on long-term outcomes of people with newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A  population study
Little is known about the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that has developed from airway remodeling due to asthma, as compared with other COPD phenotypes. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - September 15, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tetyana Kendzerska, Teresa M. To, Shawn D. Aaron, M. Diane Lougheed, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, J. Mark FitzGerald, Andrea S. Gershon, Canadian Respiratory Research Network Source Type: research

Microvascular lesions and changes in cell proliferation and death, and cytokine expression in the placentas of mice experimentally infected with Equid Herpesvirus 1
This study describes the changes observed in the placentas of mice experimentally infected with an abortigenic strain of EHV-1 at mid-pregnancy and euthanized at days 3 and 4 pos infection. We analyzed microscopic vascular alterations, cell proliferation and death by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α and the IL-10 by qPCR and flow cytometry. Infected mice showed slight respiratory signs and ruffled fur during the first two days pos infection. Virus isolation and DNA detection were positive only in the lungs of the infected mice. Vascular congestion, increase in the labyrinth area, and a significant...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - September 15, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Transient AV Block as a Hemodynamic Complication of the Influenza A Virus: A Case Report.
Authors: Rivera-Guzmán N, Del Olmo-Arroyo F, Robles-Arías CM, Rodríguez-Cintrón W Abstract Influenza virus causes annual epidemics of respiratory illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, malaise, myalgias, headache, cough, and other respiratory complains. Each year in the United States, it is estimated that this debilitating respiratory illness accounts for 294,000 excess hospitalizations and 36,000 attributable deaths. Epidemiological studies describe increased cardiovascular mortality during influenza seasons. Cardiovascular involvement in acute influenza infection can occur through direct effects of t...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - September 14, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Tags: P R Health Sci J Source Type: research

[A well-inked pneumonia … can you decrypt it?]
CONCLUSION: Although it is extremely rare, pulmonary cryptococcosis should be considered in immunocompetent patients presenting with necrotic pneumonia. Effectiveness of lymph node sampling can be improved by collaboration between clinicians and microbiologists. PMID: 27623322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires)
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research

The impact of immunohistochemistry on the classification of lung tumors.
Authors: Pelosi G, Scarpa A, Forest F, Sonzogni A Abstract INTRODUCTION: To highlight the role of immunohistochemistry to lung cancer classification on the basis of existing guidelines and future perspectives. AREAS COVERED: Four orienting key-issues were structured according to an extensive review on the English literature: a) cancer subtyping; b) best biomarkers and rules to follow; c) negative and positive profiling; d) suggestions towards an evidence-based proposal for lung cancer subtyping. A sparing material approach based on a limited number of specific markers is highly desirable. It includes p40 for sq...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research

Evaluating ECG and carboxyhemoglobin changes due to smoking narghile.
CONCLUSION: Although, especially among young people, it is commonly thought that smoking narghile has less harmful or toxic effects than other tobacco products. The results of this study and past studies clearly demonstrated that smoking narghile can cause several ECG changes - including increased QT, P-wave and Tp-Te dispersion - which can be associated with ventricular dysrhythmias. PMID: 27618930 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Pulmonary distribution of nanoceria: comparison of intratracheal, microspray instillation and dry powder insufflation.
Authors: Molina RM, Konduru NV, Hirano H, Donaghey TC, Adamo B, Laurenzi B, Pyrgiotakis G, Brain JD Abstract Particles can be delivered to the respiratory tract of animals using various techniques. Inhalation mimics environmental exposure but requires large amounts of aerosolized NPs over a prolonged dosing time, varies in deposited dose among individual animals, and results in nasopharyngeal and fur particle deposition. Although less physiological, intratracheal (IT) instillation allows quick and precise dosing. Insufflation delivers particles in their dry form as an aerosol. We compared the distribution of neutro...
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Inhal Toxicol Source Type: research

Alteration of TGF- β-ALK-Smad signaling in hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia model of newborn rats.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that exposure to hyperoxia altered the balance between TGF-β-ALK1-Smad1/5 and TGF-β-ALK5-Smad2/3 pathways in pulmonary endothelial cells, which may ultimately lead to the development of BPD. PMID: 27618520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Lung Research)
Source: Experimental Lung Research - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Exp Lung Res Source Type: research

Regional Lung Sound Asynchrony in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients
Background: Regional lung sound distribution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reported to be asynchronous. Mathematical analyses using vibration response imaging (VRI), such as left and right lung asynchrony (gap index; GI) and regional lung asynchrony (asynchrony score; AS), are useful measures to evaluate lung sound asynchrony.Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of lung sound asynchrony with pulmonary functions and emphysematous lesions in COPD patients.Methods: VRI recordings and pulmonary function tests were performed in 46 stable male COPD patients and in 40 healthy m...
Source: Respiration - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A Pseudo-Outbreak of < b > < i > Pseudomonas putida < /i > < /b > and < b > < i > Stenotrophomonas maltophilia < /i > < /b > in a Bronchoscopy Unit
Conclusions: We described a pseudo-outbreak related to a contaminated bronchoscope because of inadequate installation of the AER for used new water lines and because the new tubes were connected to the AER. The antibacterial filters of the AER used tap water, and this may have contained low levels of microorganisms. No serious clinical complications derived from this pseudo-outbreak.Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

State-of-the-Art Series on Precision Medicine in Respiratory Diseases
Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Predicting Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Impact of Age
Conclusions: The BODE index, the Charlson index, and the rate of exacerbations were found to be the major determinants of HRQL in elderly COPD patients, while in younger COPD patients, the BODE index and the rate of exacerbations were influential factors.Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Can computed tomography and carbon monoxide transfer coefficient diagnose an asthma ‐like phenotype in COPD?
ConclusionThe non‐emphysematous phenotype of COPD displays important features of asthma: clinical picture, histology and response to ICS. CT and KCO can predict spirometric response to ICS/LABA. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Feisal A. Al ‐Kassimi, Esam H. Al‐Hamad, Mohammed S. Al‐Hajjaj, Emad Raddaoui, Abdulaziz H. Alzeer, Ahmad A. Alboukai, Ali M. Somily, Joseph G. Cal, Abdalla F. Ibrahim, Shaffi A. Shaik Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Serum Procalcitonin: An Independent Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Health Care-Associated Pneumonia
Background: Early prediction of the clinical outcomes for health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) patients is challenging.Objectives: This is the first study to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT) as a predictor of outcomes in HCAP patients.Methods: We conducted an observational study based on data for HCAP patients prospectively collected between 2011 and 2014. Outcome variables were intensive care unit (ICU) admission and 30-day mortality. PCT was categorized into three groups:2.0 ng/ml. We analysed multiple variables including age, sex, comorbidities, clinical findings, and PCT group to assess their association with outcomes.R...
Source: Respiration - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Variability of breathing during wakefulness while using CPAP predicts adherence
ConclusionAt the initiation of therapy, breathing regularity during wakefulness while wearing CPAP is an objective predictor of short‐term CPAP adherence. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yukio Fujita, Motoo Yamauchi, Hiroki Uyama, Makiko Kumamoto, Noriko Koyama, Masanori Yoshikawa, Kingman P. Strohl, Hiroshi Kimura Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Generation and Characterization of Eptesicus fuscus (Big brown bat) kidney cell lines immortalized using the Myotis polyomavirus large T-antigen.
Abstract It is speculated that bats are important reservoir hosts for numerous viruses, with 27 viral families reportedly detected in bats. Majority of these viruses have not been isolated and there is little information regarding their biology in bats. Establishing a well-characterized bat cell line supporting the replication of bat-borne viruses would facilitate the analysis of virus-host interactions in an in vitro model. Currently, few bat cell lines have been developed and only Tb1-Lu, derived from Tadarida brasiliensis is commercially available. Here we describe a method to establish and immortalize big brow...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - September 14, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Banerjee A, Rapin N, Miller M, Griebel P, Zhou Y, Munster V, Misra V Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Propagation of damage in the rat brain following sarin exposure: Differential progression of early processes.
Abstract Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor and a highly toxic warfare agent. Following the overt, dose-dependent signs (e.g. tremor, hyper secretion, seizures, respiratory depression and eventually death), brain damage is often reported. The goal of the present study was to characterize the early histopathological and biochemical events leading to this damage. Rats were exposed to 1LD50 of sarin (80μg/kg, i.m.). Brains were removed at 1, 2, 6, 24 and 48h and processed for analysis. Results showed that TSPO (translocator protein) mRNA increased at 6h post exposure while TSPO recepto...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - September 14, 2016 Category: Toxicology Authors: Lazar S, Egoz I, Brandeis R, Chapman S, Bloch-Shilderman E, Grauer E Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research

Lipoxin A4, a 5-lipoxygenase pathway metabolite, modulates immune response during acute respiratory tularemia.
Abstract Respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis (Ft) is characterized by a muted, acute host response, followed by sepsis-like syndrome that results in death. Infection with Ft establishes a principally anti-inflammatory environment that subverts host-cell death programs to facilitate pathogen replication. Although the role of cytokines has been explored extensively, the role of eicosanoids in tularemia pathogenesis is not fully understood. Given that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) has anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether this lipid mediator affects host responses manifested early during infection. ...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - September 14, 2016 Category: Hematology Authors: Singh A, Rahman T, Bartiss R, Arabshahi A, Prasain J, Barnes S, Musteata FM, Sellati TJ Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Analytical Characterization of an Oil-in-Water Adjuvant Emulsion.
Abstract Adjuvants are typically used in subunit vaccine formulations to enhance immune responses elicited by individual antigens. Physical chemical characterization of novel adjuvants is an important step in ensuring their effective use in vaccine formulations. This paper reports application of a panel of quantitative assays developed to analyze and characterize an oil-in-water adjuvant emulsion, which contains glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) and is a squalene-based emulsion. GLA is a fully synthetic analogue of monophosphoryl lipid A, which is a Toll-like receptor type 4 agonist and an FDA-approved adjuvant. The GL...
Source: AAPS PharmSciTech - September 14, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sun J, Remmele RL, Sanyal G Tags: AAPS PharmSciTech Source Type: research

The therapeutic potential of differentiated lung cells from embryonic stem cells in lung diseases.
Abstract Lung diseases cause remarkable morbidity and mortality. The choice of effective medical treatment is limited and the number of lung diseases respond to difficultly current treatments. The embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have the potential to differentiate into cell types of all three germinal layers, including lung epithelial cells. So they can be a potential source for new cell therapies for hereditary or acquired diseases of the airways and lungs. Therefore, a method for treatment of lung diseases is cell therapy and use of ESCs that can replace the damaged epithelial and endothelial cells. Progress using ...
Source: Current Stem Cell Research and Therapy - September 14, 2016 Category: Stem Cells Authors: Dezfouli MR, Chaleshtori SS, Dehghan MM, Tavanaeimanesh H, Baharvand H, Tahamtani Y Tags: Curr Stem Cell Res Ther Source Type: research

Suppressed translation and ULK1 degradation as potential mechanisms of autophagy limitation under prolonged starvation.
Abstract Macroautophagy/autophagy is a well-organized process of intracellular degradation, which is rapidly activated under starvation conditions. Recent data demonstrate a transcriptional upregulation of several autophagy genes as a mechanism that controls autophagy in response to starvation. Here we report that despite the significant upregulation of mRNA of the essential autophagy initiation gene ULK1, its protein level is rapidly reduced under starvation. Although both autophagic and proteasomal systems contribute to the degradation of ULK1, under prolonged nitrogen deprivation, its level was still reduced in...
Source: Autophagy - September 14, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Allavena G, Boyd C, Oo KS, Maellaro E, Zhivotovsky B, Kaminskyy VO Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research

Mortality burden of ambient fine particulate air pollution in six Chinese cities: Results from the Pearl River Delta study.
CONCLUSION: This analysis adds to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with daily mortality, and mortality burdens, particularly in one Chinese region with high levels of air pollution. PMID: 27639206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - September 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Lin H, Liu T, Xiao J, Zeng W, Li X, Guo L, Zhang Y, Xu Y, Tao J, Xian H, Syberg KM, Qian ZM, Ma W Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

The Projected Epidemic of COPD Hospitalizations Over the Next 15 Years: A Population Based Perspective.
Abstract COPD is currently one of the leading causes of hospitalizations in industrialized countries. The future burden of COPD is uncertain as the trends in the prevalence of the main risk factors for COPD, namely cigarette smoking and population aging, are moving in opposite directions in many jurisdictions. Here, we used data from British Columbia (BC), a Canadian Province of 4.7 million people, as an exemplary jurisdiction to illustrate the projected growth of COPD hospitalizations over the next 15 years in developed countries. We combined forecasts of population growth and aging with an Autoregressive Integra...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Khakban A, Sin DD, FitzGerald JM, McManus B, Ng R, Hollander Z, Sadatsafavi M Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Weaning Outcome According to a New Definition. The WIND Study.
CONCLUSION: A new classification allows categorizing all weaning situations. Every additional day without a weaning success after the first separation attempt increases the risk of dying. PMID: 27626706 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Béduneau G, Pham T, Schortgen F, Piquilloud L, Zogheib E, Jonas M, Grelon F, Runge I, Terzi N, Grangé S, Barberet G, Guitard PG, Frat JP, Constan A, Chretien JM, Mancebo J, Mercat A, Richard JM, Brochard L, Weaning accordIng New Definition (WIND) study Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Mechanical Ventilation to Minimize Progression of Lung Injury in Acute Respiratory Failure.
Abstract Mechanical Ventilation (MV) is used to sustain life in patients with acute respiratory failure. A major concern in mechanically ventilated patients is the risk of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI), which is partially prevented by lung protective ventilation. Spontaneously breathing, non-intubated, patients with acute respiratory failure may have a high respiratory drive and breathe with large tidal volumes and potentially injurious transpulmonary pressure swings. In patients with existing lung injury, regional forces generated by the respiratory muscles may lead to injurious effects on a regional level....
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brochard L, Slutsky A, Pesenti A Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Preeclampsia Associates with Asthma, Allergy and Eczema in Childhood.
Conclusions Preeclampsia is a shared prenatal risk factor for asthma, eczema and allergy in childhood pointing towards in-utero immune programming of the child. PMID: 27626972 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stokholm J, Sevelsted A, Anderson UD, Bisgaard H Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

From Cancer Biology to New PAH Therapeutics: Targeting Cell Growth and Proliferation Signaling Hubs.
Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and rapidly fatal disease with a high mortality rate. PAH manifests by proliferation/apoptosis imbalance of pulmonary vascular cells leading to remodeling of small pulmonary arteries (PA), increased PA pressure, elevated right ventricular afterload, right heart failure and death. Emerging evidence from many research groups indicates that PAH may be viewed as a proliferative disease with a cancer-like nature and shares an incredible number of pathogenic signaling mechanisms with human cancers. This offers exciting opportunity to employ certain cancer-s...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pullamsetti SS, Savai R, Seeger W, Goncharova EA Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

The influence of respiratory motion on dose delivery in a mouse lung tumor irradiation using the 4D MOBY phantom.
CONCLUSIONS: In the future new methods need to be developed to track the lung tumor motion before pre-clinical irradiation to adjust the irradiation plan. Margins, collimator diameter and target dose could be changed easily, but they all have their drawbacks. State-of-the-art clinical techniques as respiratory gating or motion tracking may offer a solution for the cold spots in the time-dependent tumor dose. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: A suitable method is found to quantify changes in organ dose due to respiratory motion in mouse lung tumor image-guided precision irradiation. PMID: 27626324 [PubMed - as supplied by pu...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - September 14, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: van der Heyden B, van Hoof SJ, Schyns LE, Verhaegen F Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research