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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 6.

Preventing Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health Care Settings
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016 Source:Infectious Disease Clinics of North America Author(s): Chitra D. Punjabi, Sarah R. Perloff, Jerry M. ZuckermanTeaser Patients with tuberculosis (TB) pose a risk to other patients and health care workers, and outbreaks in health care settings occur when appropriate infection control measures are not used. In this article, we discuss strategies to prevent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within health care settings. All health care facilities should have an operational TB infection control plan that emphasizes the use of a hierarchy of controls (administr...
Source: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America - September 20, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Opioid prescribing habits of physicians in Kwara State, Nigeria.
CONCLUSION: Opioid prescription rate for patients with moderate-severe pain is low possibly due to myths and misconceptions about their adverse effects. FUNDING: International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Initiative for Improving Pain Education Grant awarded to Dr. K.W. Wahab in 2011. PMID: 27635092 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ghana Medical Journal)
Source: Ghana Medical Journal - September 19, 2016 Category: African Health Tags: Ghana Med J Source Type: research

[Limitations of active therapeutic and palliative care in chronic respiratory disease].
Authors: Sakhri L, Saint-Raymond C, Quetant S, Pison C, Lagrange E, Hamidfar Roy R, Janssens JP, Maindet-Dominici C, Garrouste-Orgeas M, Levy-Soussan M, Terzi N, Toffart AC Abstract The issue of intensive and palliative care in patients with chronic disease frequently arises. This review aims to describe the prognostic factors of chronic respiratory diseases in stable and in acute situations in order to improve the management of these complex situations. The various laws on patients' rights provide a legal framework and define the concept of unreasonable obstinacy. For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary di...
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - September 19, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research

[Progressive paralysis of the diaphragm following intra-abdominal chemotherapy].
CONCLUSION: We conclude in favor of a muscular degeneration of the diaphragm consecutive to the combined effect of cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Owing to the unusual nature of this complication, we did not consider it as a hypothesis at an early point in this patient's management. We think physicians should be aware of such a complication in order to consider it in a timely way. We recommend performing a biopsy of the diaphragm for pathology examination to assess muscular degeneration. PMID: 27639949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires)
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - September 19, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research

[Non-invasive mechanical ventilation after the successful weaning: a comparison with the venturi mask].
CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of the respiratory failure and the length of stay in the ICU were lower when non-invasive mechanical ventilation was used after extubation even if the patient is regarded as "successfully weaned". We recommend the use of NIMV in such patients to avoid unexpected ventilator failure. PMID: 27639509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia - September 19, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Rev Bras Anestesiol Source Type: research

Treatment Considerations in Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis.
Authors: Hartmann CA, Aye WT, Blair JE Abstract Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal infection caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides species. Coccidioidal infections may be asymptomatic in up to two-thirds of infected persons. Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is the most common form of symptomatic infection. Fluconazole is the antifungal agent typically used to treat pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Other azoles and amphotericin B products may be prescribed to treat nuanced aspects of coccidioidomycosis. This review discusses current literature regarding medical treatment options, including the various triazo...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - September 19, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research

The mitochondrial translation machinery as a therapeutic target in Myc-driven lymphomas.
Authors: D'Andrea A, Gritti I, Nicoli P, Giorgio M, Doni M, Conti A, Bianchi V, Casoli L, Sabò A, Mironov A, Beznoussenko GV, Amati B Abstract The oncogenic transcription factor Myc is required for the progression and maintenance of diverse tumors. This has led to the concept that Myc itself, Myc-activated gene products, or associated biological processes might constitute prime targets for cancer therapy. Here, we present an in vivo reverse-genetic screen targeting a set of 241 Myc-activated mRNAs in mouse B-cell lymphomas, unraveling a critical role for the mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) Ptcd3 in tumor mai...
Source: Oncotarget - September 19, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Suppression of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection by the innate sensing gene CEACAM1.
In this study we show that upon HMPV infection, the innate sensing system detects the viral RNA through the RIG-I sensor leading to induction of CEACAM1 expression. We further show that CEACAM1 is induced via binding of IRF3 to the CEACAM1 promoter. We demonstrate that induction of CEACAM1 suppresses the viral loads via inhibition of the translation machinery in the infected cells in an SHP2-dependent manner. In summary, we show here that HMPV-infected cells upregulates CEACAM1 to restrict HMPV infection. PMID: 27634893 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)
Source: Oncotarget - September 19, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

Ecological study on solid fuel use and pneumonia in young children: A worldwide association
ConclusionIn this ecological study, current country rates of pneumonia among young children are independently associated with the use of solid fuels. We postulate that interventions aimed at reducing indoor solid fuel biomass pollution through implementation of efficient stoves will translate into meaningful decreases in child mortality and morbidity. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 19, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Roberto A. Accinelli, Juan A. Leon ‐Abarca, David Gozal Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Strong pH dependence of coupling efficiency of the Na+ - translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+ -NQR) of Vibrio cholerae.
Authors: Toulouse C, Claussen B, Muras V, Fritz G, Steuber J Abstract The Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) is the entry site for electrons into the respiratory chain of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera disease. NQR couples the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone to the translocation of sodium ions across the membrane. We investigated the pH dependence of electron transfer and generation of a transmembrane voltage (ΔΨ) by NQR reconstituted in liposomes with Na+ or Li+ as coupling cation. ΔΨ formation was followed with the voltage-sensitive dye oxonol. With Na+, ΔΨ was ha...
Source: Biological Chemistry - September 19, 2016 Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research

Functional integration of the circulatory, immune, and respiratory systems in mosquito larvae: pathogen killing in the hemocyte-rich tracheal tufts
As both larvae and adults, mosquitoes encounter a barrage of immune insults, ranging from microbe-rich communities in larval habitats to ingested blood-borne pathogens in adult blood meals. Given that mosquit... (Source: BMC Biology)
Source: BMC Biology - September 19, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Garrett P. League and Juli án F. Hillyer Source Type: research

Drug candidates and model systems in respiratory syncytial virus antiviral drug discovery.
Abstract The development of antiviral strategies to prevent or treat respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections is of great importance, especially considering the fact that RSV is one of the most important causes of pediatric respiratory infections. However, despite intense efforts, there is no antiviral or vaccine approved for the prevention or treatment of RSV infections. Several inhibitors, targeting different RSV proteins have been discovered over the past decade. We here review the most important chemical series as well as recent developments in understanding which viral proteins and/or host cell factors ar...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - September 19, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Heylen E, Neyts J, Jochmans D Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, CAS Registry Number 97-95-0.
Abstract The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analog 2-ethylhexanol (CAS # 104-76-7) show that this material is not genotoxic. Data from the suitable read across analog isopropyl alcohol (CAS # 67-63-0) show that this material does not have skin sensitization potential. The local respiratory toxicity endpoin...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - September 19, 2016 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Bhatia S, Bruze M, Calow P, Dagli ML, Dekant W, Fryer AD, Kromidas L, Cava SL, Lalko JF, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, Miyachi Y, Politano VT, Ritacco G, Salvito D, Schultz TW, Shen J, Sipes IG, Wall B, Wilcox DK Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Transbronchial Cryobiopsy in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease: Retrospective Analysis of 74 Cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Our single center cohort demonstrated 51% diagnostic yield from TBC; the rates of pneumothorax and bleeding were 1.4% and 22%, respectively. Optimal use of TBC needs to be determined. PMID: 27660154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - September 19, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ussavarungsi K, Kern RM, Roden AC, Ryu JH, Edell ES Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Arterial Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return in an Elderly Patient.
PMID: 27660096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - September 19, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gorospe L, García Gómez-Muriel I, Campos-Ferrer C Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

The accuracy of combined use of troponin and red cell distribution width in predicting mortality of patients with acute pulmonary embolism.
CONCLUSION: The TR score is easy to calculate, and it may be used to predict early mortality in patients with acute PE. PMID: 27647364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift)
Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift - September 19, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Yazıcı S, Kırış T, Ceylan US, Akyüz Ş, Uzun AO, Hacı R, Terzi S, Doğan A, Emre A, Yeşilçimen K Tags: Wien Klin Wochenschr Source Type: research

Death from Barotrauma Due to Compressed Air: A Medico-legal Analysis.
Abstract Lesions of the digestive tract due to barotrauma resulting from compressed air application are not common, are rarely lethal, and largely affect the sigmoid and descending colon. Moreover, their pathogenic mechanism is a topic of discussion because these lesions have multiple characteristics. Here, the authors describe an autoptic case of death from lesions of the ascending and transverse segments, with perforations and bleeding suffusions as well as ischemic areas covered the colonic wall that was extremely thinned, congested, and hemorrhagic, with considerable flattening leading to disappearance of the ...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - September 19, 2016 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Giugliano P, Massoni F, Crisci A, Ricci S Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Importance of Respiratory-gated PET/CT in Thoracic Tumors
Radiology,Volume 281, Issue 1, Page 321-323, October 2016. (Source: Radiology)
Source: Radiology - September 19, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Alessandro Sindoni Fabio Minutoli Sergio Baldari Stefano Pergolizzi Source Type: research

Influenza in Children
AbstractIn children, influenza is one among the commonest causes of acute respiratory illness and loss of school days. Influenza A, B, and C are 3 types of viruses responsible for illness. Type A virus has many subtypes based on antigens but Type B and Type C viruses have no known subtypes. Currently, influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and influenza type B viruses are circulating in humans. Transmission of influenza occurs through droplets from infected person or through direct contact with person or fomites. Clinically, influenza is characterized by acute onset fever, chills, running nose, cough, sore throat, headache and myalgia....
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - September 19, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Serum Vitamin D Levels in Children with Recurrent Respiratory Infections and Chronic Cough: Correspondence
(Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - September 19, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: Maternal and pediatric health outcomes and costs
We examined disease outcomes using (a) 2012 breastfeeding rates and (b) assuming that 90% of infants were breastfed according to medical recommendations. We measured annual excess cases, deaths, and associated costs, in 2014 dollars, using a 2% discount rate. Annual excess deaths attributable to suboptimal breastfeeding total 3,340 (95% confidence interval [1,886 to 4,785]), 78% of which are maternal due to myocardial infarction (n = 986), breast cancer (n = 838), and diabetes (n = 473). Excess pediatric deaths total 721, mostly due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (n = 492) and necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 190)...
Source: Maternal and Child Nutrition - September 19, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Melissa C. Bartick, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, Brittany D. Green, Briana J. Jegier, Arnold G. Reinhold, Tarah T. Colaizy, Debra L. Bogen, Andrew J. Schaefer, Alison M. Stuebe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Patient Safety
This article reviews common ventilator-associated events, including both infectious (eg, ventilator-associated pneumonia) and noninfectious causes (eg, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, and atelectasis). (Source: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America - September 19, 2016 Category: Nursing Authors: Heather Baid Source Type: research

Preventing Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health Care Settings
Patients with tuberculosis (TB) pose a risk to other patients and health care workers, and outbreaks in health care settings occur when appropriate infection control measures are not used. In this article, we discuss strategies to prevent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within health care settings. All health care facilities should have an operational TB infection control plan that emphasizes the use of a hierarchy of controls (administrative, environmental, and personal respiratory protection). We also discuss resources available to clinicians who work in the prevention and investigation of nosocomial transmiss...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - September 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chitra D. Punjabi, Sarah R. Perloff, Jerry M. Zuckerman Source Type: research

Combined vascular malformation and retention cyst in the maxillary sinus
Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first case of the association of a combined capillary and lymphatic malformation and retention cyst in the maxillary sinus. Vascular malformations should be included in the diagnostic hypotheses for cystic lesions of the maxillary sinus usually considered retention cysts. It is possible that other cases of combined vascular malformations exist. In this way, it is important to emphasize the need of histopathological examination of all specimen removed during maxillofacial surgeries. (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology)
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology - September 19, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Review of Singing Voice Subsystem Interactions —Toward an Extended Physiological Model of “Support”
During phonation, the respiratory, the phonatory, and the resonatory parts of the voice organ can interact, where physiological action in one subsystem elicits a direct effect in another. Here, three major subsystems of these synergies are reviewed, creating a model of voice subsystem interactions: (1) Vocal tract adjustments can influence the behavior of the voice source via nonlinear source-tract interactions; (2) The type and degree of vocal fold adduction controls the expiratory airflow rate; and (3) The tracheal pull caused by the respiratory system affects the vertical larynx position and thus the vocal tract resonan...
Source: Journal of Voice - September 19, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Christian T. Herbst Source Type: research

Myocardial iron content and mitochondrial function in human heart failure: a direct tissue analysis
ConclusionMyocardial iron content is decreased and mitochondrial functions are impaired in advanced HF. MID in HF is associated with diminished citric acid cycle enzyme activities and decreased ROS‐protecting enzymes. MID may contribute to altered myocardial substrate use and to worsening of mitochondrial dysfunction that exists in HF. (Source: European Journal of Heart Failure)
Source: European Journal of Heart Failure - September 19, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vojtech Melenovsky, Jiri Petrak, Tomas Mracek, Jan Benes, Barry A. Borlaug, Hana Nuskova, Tomas Pluhacek, Jaroslav Spatenka, Jana Kovalcikova, Zdenek Drahota, Josef Kautzner, Jan Pirk, Josef Houstek Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Biphasic cuirass ventilation for treatment of an air leak after pneumothorax in a patient with nemaline myopathy: a case report
We describe an 11-year-old boy with nemaline myopathy who developed tension pneumothorax while undergoing noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The patient developed a persistent air leak after pleurodesis with minocycline hydrochloride and lowering of the NIPPV inspiratory pressure. He required additional respiratory support without the high airway pressures that may aggravate pneumothorax. We provided adequate respiratory support without increasing the positive airway pressure using biphasic cuirass ventilation (BCV), which moved the patient ’s chest wall by negative pressure. The air leak was resolved wit...
Source: Journal of Anesthesia - September 19, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Modulation of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Through Interaction with the Porcine Intercellular-Adhesion-Molecule-3-Grabbing Nonintegrin
Viral Immunology , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Viral Immunology)
Source: Viral Immunology - September 19, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Pablo E. Pi ñeyro Sakthivel Subramaniam Scott P. Kenney C. Lynn Heffron Luis G. Gim énez-Lirola Xiang-Jin Meng Source Type: research

The Use of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest During  Heart Transplantation Does Not Worsen Posttransplant Survival
Conclusions The need for HCA during heart transplantation is rare but, when required, it is frequently a life-saving adjunct to cardiopulmonary bypass. However, patients who require HCA have higher rates of postoperative complications. Risk factors for needing HCA during transplantation include congenital heart disease and more than one prior sternotomies. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - September 19, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Early and Late Outcomes of Thoracic Aortic Surgery in Hemodialysis Patients
Conclusions Considering the various operative risks associated with hemodialysis patients, the early mortality rate is acceptable, even after the association with many respiratory complications. Although hemodialysis patients have a compromised prognosis after surgery, excessive hesitation to perform thoracic aortic surgery may be avoided. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - September 19, 2016 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Hyperglycemia induced damage to mitochondrial respiration in renal mesangial and tubular cells: implications for diabetic nephropathy
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2016 Source:Redox Biology Author(s): Anna Czajka, Afshan N. Malik Damage to renal tubular and mesangial cells is central to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), a complication of diabetes which can lead renal failure. Mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration and produce energy in the form of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in DN. Since the kidney is an organ with high bioenergetic needs, we postulated that hyperglycemia causes damage to renal mitochondria resulting in bioenergetic deficit. The bioenergeti...
Source: Redox Biology - September 19, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Alterations of mitochondrial biogenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with loss of p53
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2016 Source:Mitochondrion Author(s): Marcia A. Ogasawara, Jinyun Liu, Helene Pelicano, Naima Hammoudi, Carlo M. Croce, Michael J. Keating, Peng Huang Deletion of chromosome 17p with a loss of p53 is an unfavorable cytogenetic change in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with poor clinical outcome. Since p53 affects mitochondrial function and integrity, we examined possible mitochondrial changes in CLL mice with TCL1-Tg/p53−/− and TCL1-Tg/p53+/+ genotypes and in primary leukemia cells from CLL patients with or without 17p–deletion. Although the expression of mitochondri...
Source: Mitochondrion - September 19, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Development of a new clinically applicable device for embryo evaluation which measures embryo oxygen consumption
This study was supported by grants from the Health and Labor Sciences Research Grant (H24-Hisaichiiki-Shitei-016). The authors have no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER Not applicable. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Source: Human Reproduction - September 19, 2016 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Kurosawa, H., Utsunomiya, H., Shiga, N., Takahashi, A., Ihara, M., Ishibashi, M., Nishimoto, M., Watanabe, Z., Abe, H., Kumagai, J., Terada, Y., Igarashi, H., Takahashi, T., Fukui, A., Suganuma, R., Tachibana, M., Yaegashi, N. Tags: Reproductive biology Source Type: research

Concentrations of individual fine particulate matter components in the USA around July 4th
AbstractFireworks emit particulate matter (PM) air pollution. Laboratory and epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to PM with cardiovascular and respiratory effects. Although it was reported that the mass of total PM with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5  μm (PM2.5) is elevated on July 4th and 5th, no studies to date have used national, multi-year air quality monitoring data to determine which individual PM2.5 components increase due to July 4th fireworks. To evaluate this, we compiled and analyzed 24-h average PM2.5 air quality measurements collected by the Environmental Protection Agen...
Source: Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health - September 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Qualitative effects of omalizumab on concomitant IgE-mediated disease in a severe asthmatic population: a real life observational study
Conclusions: The results from our study suggest that omalizumab may have a role in allergic disease outside of its current license. (Source: QJM)
Source: QJM - September 19, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Cusack, R. P., Sahadevan, A., Lane, S. J. Tags: Original papers Source Type: research

Vital signs monitoring on general wards: clinical staff perceptions of current practices and the planned introduction of continuous monitoring technology
Conclusions While continuous monitoring devices were seen as a potentially positive tool to support the identification of patient deterioration, drawbacks, such as the potential for reduced patient contact, revealed key areas that will require close surveillance following the implementation of devices. Training and improved interdisciplinary communication were identified as key requisites for successful implementation. (Source: International Journal for Quality in Health Care)
Source: International Journal for Quality in Health Care - September 19, 2016 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Prgomet, M., Cardona-Morrell, M., Nicholson, M., Lake, R., Long, J., Westbrook, J., Braithwaite, J., Hillman, K. Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Analysis of the impact of lung cancer treatment on nontuberculous mycobacterial lung diseases
Conclusion Whether NTM lung disease should be treated during anti-cancer chemotherapy has not been not clarified by this study. Induction of anti-NTM therapy should be made after careful consideration, because the duration of anti-NTM treatment is long and anti-mycobacterial drugs have extensive effects on anti-cancer drugs. However, we think that anti-NTM therapy should be introduced after consideration of the worsening of symptoms and radiological findings associated with NTM lung disease. (Source: Respiratory Investigation)
Source: Respiratory Investigation - September 19, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Signs of deterioration in infants discharged home following congenital heart surgery in the first year of life: a qualitative study
Conclusions Our study highlights behavioural symptoms as being a potentially underemphasised sign of deterioration and identifies a number of barriers to parents accessing support when they are concerned. It is important that parents are encouraged to seek advice at the earliest opportunity and that those health professionals at the front line have access to the information they need in order to respond in an appropriate and timely way. A role for home monitoring was also noted as potentially useful in identifying at risk children who appear clinically well. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - September 19, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tregay, J., Brown, K. L., Crowe, S., Bull, C., Knowles, R. L., Smith, L., Wray, J. Tags: Open access Original article Source Type: research

Use of a Multiplex Transcript Method for Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gene Expression Profiles in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung [Bacterial Infections]
We present data on reproducibility, the results from different methods of normalization, and demonstrate high concordance between transcript relative abundance data obtained by Nanostring or transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis. Furthermore, we address considerations regarding sequence variation between strains during probe design. Analysis of P. aeruginosa grown in vitro identified transcripts that correlated with the different phenotypes commonly observed in CF clinical isolates. P. aeruginosa transcript profiles in RNA from CF sputum indicated alginate production in vivo, and transcripts involved in quorum-sensin...
Source: Infection and Immunity - September 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gifford, A. H., Willger, S. D., Dolben, E. L., Moulton, L. A., Dorman, D. B., Bean, H., Hill, J. E., Hampton, T. H., Ashare, A., Hogan, D. A. Tags: Bacterial Infections Source Type: research

Attachment of Actinobacillus suis H91-0380 and Its Isogenic Adhesin Mutants to Extracellular Matrix Components of the Tonsils of the Soft Palate of Swine [Molecular Pathogenesis]
Tonsils conduct immune surveillance of antigens entering the upper respiratory tract. Despite their immunological function, they are also sites of persistence and invasion of bacterial pathogens. Actinobacillus suis is a common resident of the tonsils of the soft palate in pigs, but under certain circumstances it can invade, causing septicemia and related sequelae. Twenty-four putative adhesins are predicted in the A. suis genome, but to date, little is known about how they might participate in colonization or invasion. To better understand these processes, swine tonsil lysates were characterized by mass spectrometry. Fift...
Source: Infection and Immunity - September 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bujold, A. R., MacInnes, J. I. Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research

The HMW1 and HMW2 Adhesins Enhance the Ability of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae To Colonize the Upper Respiratory Tract of Rhesus Macaques [Molecular Pathogenesis]
In conclusion, we have established that the HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins play a major role in facilitating colonization of the upper respiratory tract of rhesus macaques, in some cases associated with stimulation of an immune response. (Source: Infection and Immunity)
Source: Infection and Immunity - September 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rempe, K. A., Porsch, E. A., Wilson, J. M., St. Geme, J. W. Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research

Electron Acceptors Induce Secretion of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin under Anaerobic Conditions through Promotion of GspD Assembly [Molecular Pathogenesis]
In this study, the expression and secretion of LT under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions were determined; LT was not efficiently secreted into the supernatant under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions unless terminal electron acceptors (trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate [TMAO] or nitrate) were available. Furthermore, we found that the restoration effects of TMAO and nitrate on LT secretion could be inhibited by amytal or torCAD and narG E. coli strains, indicating that LT secretion under anaerobic conditions was dependent on the integrity of the respiratory chain. At the same time, electron acceptors increase the ATP l...
Source: Infection and Immunity - September 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lu, X., Fu, E., Xie, Y., Jin, F. Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research

Physicochemical acid –base at the bedside
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2016 Source:Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine Author(s): Ryan Hughes, Matthew J. Brain Quantitative physicochemical models of human acid–base physiology filled a void between clinical acid–base analysis and general fluid physiology. Established approaches centred on the Henderson–Hasselbalch (HH) equation allow satisfactory bedside exploration of respiratory perturbations, but do not fully elucidate mechanisms of common non-respiratory ‘metabolic’ components. Though useful at the bedside, commonly used ‘rules of thumb’ that classify disturbances bas...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - September 19, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Can silicosis explain it all?
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2016 Source:Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia (English Edition) Author(s): D. Coutinho, P. Sousa, O. Oliveira, A. Rita Gaio, R. Duarte (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - September 19, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Identification of a Lineage D Betacoronavirus in Cave Nectar Bats (Eonycteris spelaea) in Singapore and an Overview of Lineage D Reservoir Ecology in SE Asian Bats
Summary Coronaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Bats are reservoirs for several different coronaviruses in the Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus genera. They also appear to be the natural reservoir for the ancestral viruses that generated the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreaks. Here, we detected coronavirus sequences in next‐generation sequence data created from Eonycteris spelaea faeces and urine. We also screened by PCR urine samples, faecal samples and rectal swabs collected from six species of bats in Singapor...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - September 18, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: I. H. Mendenhall, S. Borthwick, E. S. Neves, D. Low, M. Linster, B. Liang, M. Skiles, J. Jayakumar, H. Han, V. Gunalan, B. P. Y. ‐H. Lee, K. Okahara, L.‐F. Wang, S. Maurer‐Stroh, Y. C. F. Su, G. J. D. Smith Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A Senile Case of Late-onset Pompe's Disease.
Authors: Takano H, Ishihara T, Kosuga M, Okuyama T Abstract A 72-year-old, seemingly healthy, Japanese man suddenly lost consciousness. At the emergency room, the patient's Glasgow coma scale score was 10 and a thoracic breathing pattern was observed. An arterial blood gas analysis indicated acute hypercarbic respiratory failure. He was placed on non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. The next day he was alert. Manual muscle testing revealed that his face, neck and limb muscle strength were normal. He could walk, and Gowers' sign was not observed. Computed tomography showed atrophy of the paravertebral, abdomi...
Source: Internal Medicine - September 18, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research

Pasteurella multocida pleural effusion: A case report and review of literature.
We describe a man who developed pleural effusion with Pasteurella multocida, and review the reported literature concerning this entity. We identified 21 such cases, including our own. Most patients with P. multocida pleural effusions are immunocompromised and/or have significant co-morbidities. These effusions are typically complicated parapneumonic effusions that are grossly purulent (87%) with a low pleural fluid pH (mean 6.8), high protein (mean 4.8 g/dl) and high LDH (mean 1911 U/L) and low glucose (28.6 mg/dl). Pleural fluid drainage with tube thoracostomy was required in the majority (62%) of cases. PMID: 276353...
Source: Respiratory Care - September 18, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jogani SN, Subedi R, Chopra A, Judson MA Tags: Respir Med Case Rep Source Type: research

Metabolic Functions of the Lung, Disorders and Associated Pathologies.
Abstract The primary function of the lungs is gas exchange. Approximately 400 million years ago, the Earth's atmosphere gained enough oxygen in the gas phase for the animals that emerged from the sea to breathe air. The first lungs were merely primitive air sacs with a few vessels in the walls that served as accessory organs of gas exchange to supplement the gills. Eons later, as animals grew accustomed to a solely terrestrial life, the lungs became highly compartmentalized to provide the vast air-blood surface necessary for O2 uptake and CO2 elimination, and a respiratory control system was developed to regulate ...
Source: Clin Med Res - September 18, 2016 Category: Research Authors: Alvarado A, Arce I Tags: J Clin Med Res Source Type: research

Infant lung function predicts asthma persistence and remission in young adults
ConclusionReduced lung function in early infancy is predictive of persistent asthma in young adults and a persistent reduction in lung function, suggesting abnormal lung development and growth in utero or very early in life. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 18, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Louisa Owens, Ingrid A. Laing, Guicheng Zhang, Peter N. Le Sou ëf Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Nocardioides flavus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.
Abstract A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and short rod-shaped actinomycete strain, Y4T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the western Pacific. This isolate grew in the presence of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-9.0 and 4-40 °C; optimum growth was observed with 1 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.0 and 35-37 °C. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain Y4T belonged to the genus Nocardioides and was most closely related to the type strains N. ganghwensis JC2055T (98.0 %) and N. exalbidus RC825T (98.0 %), followed by N. alpinus Cr7-14T (97.9 %),...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - September 18, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang S, Zhou Y, Zhang G Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research