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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 17.

Chapter 2 Airway management and mechanical ventilation in acute brain injury
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 140 Author(s): D.B. Seder, J. Bösel Patients with acute neurologic disease often develop respiratory failure, the management of which profoundly affects brain physiology and long-term functional outcomes. This chapter reviews airway management and mechanical ventilation of patients with acute brain injury, offering practical strategies to optimize treatment of respiratory failure and minimize secondary brain injury. Specific concerns that are addressed include physiologic changes during intubation and ventilation such as the effects on intracranial pres...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chapter 3 Neuropulmonology
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 140 Author(s): A. Balofsky, J. George, P. Papadakos Neuropulmonology refers to the complex interconnection between the central nervous system and the respiratory system. Neurologic injury includes traumatic brain injury, hemorrhage, stroke, and seizures, and in each there are far-reaching effects that can result in pulmonary dysfunction. Systemic changes can induce impairment of pulmonary function due to changes in the core structure and function of the lung. The conditions and disorders that often occur in these patients include aspiration pneumonia, ne...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chapter 10 Critical care in acute ischemic stroke
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 140 Author(s): M. McDermott, T. Jacobs, L. Morgenstern Most ischemic strokes are managed on the ward or on designated stroke units. A significant proportion of patients with ischemic stroke require more specialized care. Several studies have shown improved outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke when neurocritical care services are available. Features of acute ischemic stroke patients requiring intensive care unit-level care include airway or respiratory compromise; large cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere infarction with swelling; infarction wit...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chapter 13 Management of acute neuromuscular disorders
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 140 Author(s): E.F.M. Wijdicks Imminent neuromuscular respiratory failure is recognized by shortness of breath, restlessness, and tachycardia and is often followed by tachypnea, constantly interrupting speech, asynchronous breathing and sometimes paradoxical breathing and use of scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Once a patient presents with such a constellation of signs, there are some difficult decisions to be made and include assessment of the severity of respiratory failure and in particular when to intubate. Failure of the patient to manage se...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Outcome of strict implementation of infection prevention control measures during an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome
Conclusions The study demonstrated salient evidence that proper institution of IPC measures during management of an outbreak of MERS could remarkably change the course of the outbreak. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - February 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A phase II trial of concurrent chemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin and vinorelbine and radiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with oral vinorelbine in locally advanced non –small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): The CONCAVE study
ConclusionsConsolidation oral vinorelbine after CRT was associated with significant toxicity. Overall, this regimen achieved a high ORR and survival results comparable to other CRT protocols but the significant toxicity precludes further evaluation of this approach. (Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Brett GM Hughes, Elizabeth Ahern, Margot Lehman, Gary Pratt, Margaret Dauth, Wendy Pritchard, Leesa Wockner, Keith Horwood Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Lack of β, β‐carotene‐9′, 10′‐oxygenase 2 leads to hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular oxidative stress in mice
ConclusionsLoss of BCO2 induces mitochondrial hyperactivation, mitochondrial stress, and changes of the mitochondrial proteome, leading to mitochondrial energy insufficiency. BCO2 appears to be critical for proper hepatic mitochondrial function. β, β‐Carotene‐9′,10′‐oxygenase 2 (BCO2) is a carotenoid cleavage enzyme localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane in mammals. The results of the current study demonstrate that the loss of BCO2 causes changes of the hepatic mitochondrial proteome, mitochondrial hyperactivation, and stress, leading to mitochondrial energy insufficiency. BCO2 appears to be critical fo...
Source: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research - February 9, 2017 Category: Food Science Authors: Lei Wu, Xin Guo, Steven D. Hartson, Mary Abby Davis, Hui He, Denis M. Medeiros, Weiqun Wang, Stephen L. Clarke, Edralin A. Lucas, Brenda J. Smith, Johannes Lintig, Dingbo Lin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

The relationship between respiratory system impedance and lung function in asthmatics: a prospective observational study
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Takahiro Kamada, Masahiro Kaneko, Hiromi Tomioka Introduction The aim was to elucidate the relationship between the annual changes in respiratory system impedance, measured by FOT, and lung function tests in patients with asthma. Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, asthma outpatients who attended Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital were recruited. Lung function tests, FOT were conducted every 6 months until March 2016. The relationships between annual parameter changes were evaluated. Results and co...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Predictive factors for long-term outcome in polymyositis/dermatomyositis-associated interstitial lung diseases
Conclusions Patients with PM/DM/CADM-ILD are at risk for chronic respiratory failure due to the deterioration of ILD during long-term follow-up. The presence of anti-PL-7 antibody and a lower %FVC at initial diagnosis may predict long-term deterioration in patients with PM/DM/CADM-ILD. (Source: Respiratory Investigation)
Source: Respiratory Investigation - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Coexistent Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis: A Case Report
We report a case of bilateral tuberculous pleurisy in a 45-year-old male native of a North-African region with an atypical severe multisystem disease characterized by a fever resistant to anti-TB therapy and respondent to corticosteroid treatment. The choice to continue both steroid and anti-TB therapy proved to be correct for the late evidence of TB mycobacterial growth only on pleural specimens. The case described is suggestive of a coexistent systemic sarcoid manifestation and low-antigen TB, which is an underrecognized entity in the medical literature.Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Innovative primary care delivery in rural Alaska: a review of patient encounters seen by community health aides.
CONCLUSIONS: CHA/Ps provide a broad range of primary care in remote Alaskan communities whose residents would otherwise be without consistent medical care. Alaska's CHA/P program could serve as a health-care delivery model for other remote communities with health care access challenges. To access the supplementary material to this article: 'NPIRS Categorical Hierarchy' please see the Supplementary files under Article Tools online. PMID: 28156357 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Circumpolar Health)
Source: International Journal of Circumpolar Health - February 8, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Int J Circumpolar Health Source Type: research

Genetic risk factors for serious infections in inflammatory bowel diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk factors may predict susceptibility to infections in patients with IBD. PMID: 28162010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - February 8, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Adverse Events during Inter-Hospital Transports on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.
CONCLUSIONS: If transporting on ECMO high-risk or sudden threat-of-life situations are inevitable and have to be dealt with immediately, sometimes within seconds. A well-trained staff and an experienced high-volume organization are recommended. Key words: extra corporeal membrane oxygenation; ECMO, transport; adverse event; complication. PMID: 28166435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Prehospital Emergency Care)
Source: Prehospital Emergency Care - February 8, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Prehosp Emerg Care Source Type: research

IL-8 predicts early mortality in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure treated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation
Patients with Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure (AHRF) who are unresponsive to appropriate medical treatment, are often treated with Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV). Clinical predictors of... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brynja J ónsdóttir, Åsa Jaworowski, Carmen San Miguel and Olle Melander Source Type: research

Hemodynamic effects of lung recruitment maneuvers in acute respiratory distress syndrome
Clinical trials have, so far, failed to establish clear beneficial outcomes of recruitment maneuvers (RMs) on patient mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the effects of RMs on the card... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Anup Das, Mainul Haque, Marc Chikhani, Oana Cole, Wenfei Wang, Jonathan G. Hardman and Declan G. Bates Source Type: research

Two case reports of unexpected tracheal agenesis in the neonate: 3 C ’s beyond algorithms for difficult airway management
Handling neonates with postnatal respiratory failure due to congenital airway malformations implies knowledge about emergency management of unexpected difficult airway. In these stressful situations both techn... (Source: BMC Pediatrics)
Source: BMC Pediatrics - February 8, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Beate Grass, Leopold Simma, Michael Reinehr, Urs Zimmermann, Claudine Gysin, Georg Henze and Vincenzo Cannizzaro Source Type: research

Avoiding misdiagnosis in patients with dyspnea and wheezing: a case report illustrating the clinical implications of fixation error
Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous respiratory condition which can be mimicked by a wide range of pathologies including upper airways stenosis. The accurate diagnosis of asthma, as with other conditions, may ... (Source: Clinical and Molecular Allergy)
Source: Clinical and Molecular Allergy - February 8, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fabiano Di Marco, Giuseppe Francesco Sferrazza Papa, Dejan Radovanovic and Pierachille Santus Source Type: research

Respiratory outcomes of ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) as a surrogate measure of near-roadway exposures among bicyclists
Studies have shown a consistent association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. In particular, exposure can be high for cyclists who travel near roadways. The objectiv... (Source: Environmental Health)
Source: Environmental Health - February 8, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Hye-Youn Park, Susan Gilbreath and Edward Barakatt Source Type: research

Imatinib relaxes the pulmonary venous bed of guinea pigs
Recently, the IMPRES study revealed that systemic imatinib improves exercise capacity in patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Imatinib blocks the tyrosine kinase activity of the platelet-der... (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nina A. Maih öfer, Said Suleiman, Daniela Dreymüller, Paul W. Manley, Rolf Rossaint, Stefan Uhlig, Christian Martin and Annette D. Rieg Source Type: research

H7N9 Influenza A Virus Exhibits Importin- α7-Mediated Replication in the Mammalian Respiratory Tract.
H7N9 Influenza A Virus Exhibits Importin-α7-Mediated Replication in the Mammalian Respiratory Tract. Am J Pathol. 2017 Feb 08;: Authors: Bertram S, Thiele S, Dreier C, Resa-Infante P, Preuß A, van Riel D, Mok CK, Schwalm F, Peiris JS, Klenk HD, Gabriel G Abstract The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of death in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected patients. Hereby, the cellular importin-α7 gene plays a major role. It promotes viral replication in the lung, thereby increasing the risk for the development of pneumonia complicated by ARDS. Herein, we analyzed whether the rec...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - February 8, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Bertram S, Thiele S, Dreier C, Resa-Infante P, Preuß A, van Riel D, Mok CK, Schwalm F, Peiris JS, Klenk HD, Gabriel G Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research

[Pneumomediastinum and cocaine use].
CONCLUSION: Cocaine use may be responsible for spontaneous pneumomediastinum. Practitioners must seek cocaine use in case of pneumomediastinum in a young person and consider the diagnosis in the case of sudden chest pain in cocaine users; they must help them to stop their consumption. PMID: 28189373 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Presse Medicale)
Source: Presse Medicale - February 8, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Underner M, Perriot J, Peiffer G Tags: Presse Med Source Type: research

Polydom Is an Extracellular Matrix Protein Involved in Lymphatic Vessel Remodeling.
Conclusions: : Polydom affects remodeling of lymphatic vessels in both mouse and zebrafish. Polydom deposited around lymphatic vessels seems to ensure Foxc2 upregulation in lymphatic endothelial cells, possibly via the Angiopoietin-2 and Tie1/Tie2 receptor system. PMID: 28179430 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Circulation Research)
Source: Circulation Research - February 8, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Morooka N, Futaki S, Sato-Nishiuchi R, Nishino M, Totani Y, Shimono C, Nakano I, Nakajima H, Mochizuki N, Sekiguchi K Tags: Circ Res Source Type: research

Impact of high concentrations of sevoflurane on laryngeal reflex responses.
CONCLUSION: Against our hypothesis, laryngospasm could still be observed in 18% of children under the higher concentration of sevoflurane (4.7%, ED95Intubation ). PMID: 28181336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia)
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - February 8, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Erb TO, von Ungern-Sternberg BS, Moll J, Frei FJ Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

[Favipiravir, a new concept of antiviral drug against influenza viruses].
Abstract Favipiravir (T-705) is a new antiviral drug with strong inhibitory activity on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of most RNA virus genome. All the influenza viruses have been shown fully sensitive to this new antiviral, including genetic strains to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir) resistance. Its mechanism of action lies in blocking viral replication and induction of lethal mutagenesis which determines the loss of infective activity of influenza viruses. Its activity is particularly intense in the respiratory tract, decreasing the viral load to non-infectious levels. Clinical trials in humans have not ye...
Source: Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia - February 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Reina J, Reina N Tags: Rev Esp Quimioter Source Type: research

The impact of capnography monitoring among children and adolescents in the postanesthesia care unit: a randomized controlled trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Children monitored with capnography have different rates of adverse respiratory events over time than children monitored solely with pulse oximetry. The addition of capnography improved the efficacy of staff interventions, however did not impact rates of oxygen desaturation. PMID: 28177565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia)
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - February 8, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Langhan ML, Li FY, Lichtor JL Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

Imidazoline 1 receptor activation preserves respiratory drive in spontaneously breathing newborn rats during dexmedetomidine administration.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that in newborn rats undergoing dexmedetomidine sedation, the α2 -adrenoceptor, but not I1 receptor, is involved in the regulation of HR and respiratory frequency, and that activation of the I1 receptor plays a major role in the maintenance of respiratory drive. PMID: 28177562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia)
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - February 8, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Sato N, Saiki C, Tamiya J, Imai T, Sunada K Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

Perioperative considerations in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy.
Abstract Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy is a rare neurological disorder that is universally fatal with life expectancy under 10 years. A 10-year-old boy with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and severe neuromuscular scoliosis underwent posterior spinal fusion following halo traction. He was successfully extubated to bilevel positive airway pressure on postoperative day 3 and discharged home on postoperative day 11. Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy presents several perioperative challenges including concerns for difficult intubation and respiratory dysfunction. PMID: 28177173 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]...
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - February 8, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Sinskey JL, Holzman RS Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance in bipolar disorder.
CONCLUSIONS: BD is associated with high rates of abnormal sleep and CRD. The association between these disorders, mood and functioning, and the direction of causality, warrants further investigation. PMID: 28173893 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - February 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bradley AJ, Webb-Mitchell R, Hazu A, Slater N, Middleton B, Gallagher P, McAllister-Williams H, Anderson KN Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Hypoxia and aerobic metabolism adaptations of human endothelial cells.
Abstract The goal of our study was to assess the influence of chronic exposure to hypoxia on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 line) cultured for 6 days at 1% O2 tension. The hypoxia-induced effects were elucidated at the cellular and isolated mitochondria levels. Hypoxia elevated fermentation but did not change mitochondrial biogenesis or the aerobic respiratory capacity of endothelial cells. In endothelial cells, hypoxia caused a general decrease in mitochondrial respiration during carbohydrate, fatty acid, and amino acid oxidation but increased exclusively k...
Source: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology - February 8, 2017 Category: Physiology Authors: Koziel A, Jarmuszkiewicz W Tags: Pflugers Arch Source Type: research

Selection Bias in Study Participants with Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure.
PMID: 28178422 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Crit Car...)
Source: Am J Respir Crit Car... - February 8, 2017 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Chertoff J Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Reply: Selection Bias in Study Participants with Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure.
PMID: 28178424 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Crit Car...)
Source: Am J Respir Crit Car... - February 8, 2017 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Adler D, Brochard L Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors improve membrane stability and change gene-expression profiles in dystrophic skeletal muscles
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are FDA-approved drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and are used to treat heart failure. Combined treatment with the ACEi lisinopril and the nonspecific MR antagonist spironolactone surprisingly improves skeletal muscle, in addition to heart function and pathology in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mouse model. We recently demonstrated that MR is present in all limb and respiratory muscles and functions as a steroid hormone receptor in differentiated normal human skeletal muscle fibers. The go...
Source: AJP: Cell Physiology - February 8, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Chadwick, J. A., Bhattacharya, S., Lowe, J., Weisleder, N., Rafael-Fortney, J. A. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Nonadherence to the medical regimen after lung transplantation: A systematic review
This study reports on the first systematic review focused on lung transplant recipients (LTRs) and provides evidence regarding 1) prevalence of nonadherence to the post-transplant medical regimen; 2) risk factors for nonadherence; 3) impact of adherence-promoting interventions; and 4) transplant-related clinical outcomes of nonadherence in LTRs. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search of 5 databases was conducted, yielding 30 relevant articles. Findings suggested that nonadherence rates varied greatly across regimen components and were not consistently associated with any single risk factor. Effect sizes in t...
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Relationship among body mass index, NT-proBNP, and mortality in  decompensated chronic heart failure
Conclusions Obesity was not associated with mortality risk. NT-proBNP remained an independent prognostic factor across the BMI categories. (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The search for the hypersensitivity in chronic cough
Chronic cough is a common disorder that affects an estimated 10% of the general population [1]. Adverse symptoms such as urinary incontinence, chest pains, headaches and syncope are frequently associated with cough and lead to poor health-related quality of life [2, 3]. Chronic cough has long been viewed as a symptom of other chronic disorders, hence the current approach to assessing and treating patients focuses on identifying an underlying condition, such as asthma and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [4]. A significant number of cases of chronic cough, as many as 50%, remain unexplained following detailed assessment. T...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Birring, S. S. Tags: COPD and smoking, Asthma and allergy Editorials Source Type: research

Severe asthma: phenotyping to endotyping or vice versa?
The most recent definition of asthma is that it is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterised by chronic airway inflammation, defined by a history of chronic respiratory symptoms that vary over time, both in frequency and intensity, and associated with variable airflow limitation [1]. Admittedly, asthma is used as an umbrella term, like anaemia, arthritis and cancer. This highlights the importance of taking an individualised approach to a patient's diagnosis and management, using genomics, proteomics, and "humanomics" as emphasised in the GINA guidelines [2]. The vague definition reflects our poor understanding of the ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Papi, A., Saetta, M., Fabbri, L. Tags: Asthma and allergy Editorials Source Type: research

Awareness of predictors of mortality may help improve outcome in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a severe fungal infection usually seen in immunocompetent patients with underlying respiratory disorders [1]. Estimates suggest that ~3 million people suffer from CPA globally [2]. The precise prevalence is unknown. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) seems to be the most relevant driver for the global burden of CPA with estimates suggesting about 1.2 million patients with CPA as a sequel to TB [3]. Given that there were 10.4 million new TB cases in 2015, CPA represents a serious sequela to pulmonary TB [4]. However, any search for CPA in the Global Tuberculosis Report of the World Hea...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Salzer, H. J. F., Cornely, O. A. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Editorials Source Type: research

A new two-step algorithm for the treatment of COPD
The pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is quite uniformly based on long-acting bronchodilators (LABD), either a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) or a long-acting β-agonist (LABA), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Moreover, most patients are eventually treated with a combination of all three (LAMA/LABA/ICS or "triple therapy") irrespective of their severity and level of risk. Furthermore, a large proportion of patients receive triple therapy as the initial treatment [1]. We propose a new simple treatment algorithm based on the severity of symptoms and phenotypes or treat...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Miravitlles, M., Anzueto, A. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) and non-Th2 molecular phenotypes of asthma using sputum transcriptomics in U-BIOPRED
Asthma is characterised by heterogeneous clinical phenotypes. Our objective was to determine molecular phenotypes of asthma by analysing sputum cell transcriptomics from 104 moderate-to-severe asthmatic subjects and 16 nonasthmatic subjects. After filtering on the differentially expressed genes between eosinophil- and noneosinophil-associated sputum inflammation, we used unbiased hierarchical clustering on 508 differentially expressed genes and gene set variation analysis of specific gene sets. We defined three transcriptome-associated clusters (TACs): TAC1 (characterised by immune receptors IL33R, CCR3 and TSLPR), TAC2 (c...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kuo, C.-H. S., Pavlidis, S., Loza, M., Baribaud, F., Rowe, A., Pandis, I., Sousa, A., Corfield, J., Djukanovic, R., Lutter, R., Sterk, P. J., Auffray, C., Guo, Y., Adcock, I. M., Chung, K. F., on behalf of the U-BIOPRED Study Group Tags: Asthma and allergy Original Articles: Asthma Source Type: research

Paper acceptance time in respiratory research: room for improvement?
We recently submitted a paper to a top five respiratory journal in terms of average citations per article. The paper was swiftly sent for peer review. A month later, the review was in, and the paper was now "awaiting associate editor decision". After another 6 weeks, and at the time of writing this letter, the paper is still with the handling editor. Like us, many authors have probably at this stage speculated when it would be reasonable to contact the editorial office and enquire about the status. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ronit, A., Vestbo, J. Tags: Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Tailoring the approach to multimorbidity in adults with respiratory disease: the NICE guideline
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) previously published guidelines for the management of individual diseases [1]. However, elderly patients commonly suffer from two or more chronic diseases [2]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vanfleteren, L. E. G. W., Spruit, M. A., Franssen, F. M. E. Tags: COPD and smoking Editorials Source Type: research

Tussive challenge with ATP and AMP: does it reveal cough hypersensitivity?
Recent studies have demonstrated that blockade of P2X3 ATP receptors can profoundly inhibit chronic cough. We have considered whether inhaled ATP produces a tussive response and whether chronic cough patients are hypersensitive to inhaled ATP compared to healthy volunteers. A standardised inhalational cough challenge was performed with ATP and AMP. We randomised 20 healthy volunteers and 20 chronic cough patients as to the order of challenges. The concentration of challenge solution causing at least five coughs (C5) was compared for ATP and AMP. The study population consisted of six male and 14 female volunteers in each gr...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fowles, H. E., Rowland, T., Wright, C., Morice, A. Tags: Original Articles: Cough Source Type: research

Management of continuous positive airway pressure treatment compliance using telemonitoring in obstructive sleep apnoea
This study investigated the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telemonitoring for improving CPAP compliance. 100 newly diagnosed OSA patients requiring CPAP (apnoea–hypopnoea index >15 events·h–1) were randomised to standard management or a telemonitoring programme that collected daily information about compliance, air leaks and residual respiratory events, and initiated patient contact to resolve issues. Clinical/anthropometric variables, daytime sleepiness and quality of life were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Patient satisfaction, additional visits/calls, side-effects and total...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Turino, C., de Batlle, J., Woehrle, H., Mayoral, A., Castro-Grattoni, A. L., Gomez, S., Dalmases, M., Sanchez-de-la-Torre, M., Barbe, F. Tags: Sleep medicine Original Articles: Sleep Source Type: research

Predictors of mortality in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a chronic progressive infection that destroys lung tissue in non-immunocompromised patients. Contemporary series suggest 50–85% 5-year mortality, with few prognostic factors identified. A cohort of 387 CPA patients referred to the UK's National Aspergillosis Centre from 1992 to June 2012 was studied until June 2015. The impact of objective and subjective variables including age, sex, previous pulmonary conditions, dyspnoea score, quality of life, serum albumin and C-reactive protein and radiological appearances were assessed using Kaplan–Meier curves, log rank tests and ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lowes, D., Al-Shair, K., Newton, P. J., Morris, J., Harris, C., Rautemaa-Richardson, R., Denning, D. W. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Standardisation and application of the single-breath determination of nitric oxide uptake in the lung
Diffusing capacity of the lung for nitric oxide (DLNO), otherwise known as the transfer factor, was first measured in 1983. This document standardises the technique and application of single-breath DLNO. This panel agrees that 1) pulmonary function systems should allow for mixing and measurement of both nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases directly from an inspiratory reservoir just before use, with expired concentrations measured from an alveolar "collection" or continuously sampled via rapid gas analysers; 2) breath-hold time should be 10 s with chemiluminescence NO analysers, or 4–6 s to acco...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zavorsky, G. S., Hsia, C. C. W., Hughes, J. M. B., Borland, C. D. R., Guenard, H., van der Lee, I., Steenbruggen, I., Naeije, R., Cao, J., Dinh-Xuan, A. T. Tags: Lung structure and function Task Force Report Source Type: research

Protean proteases: at the cutting edge of lung diseases
We describe the emerging roles of several protease families including cysteine and serine proteases. The complexity of the protease web is exemplified in the light of multidimensional regulation of serine protease activity by matrix metalloproteases through cognate serine protease inhibitor processing. Finally, we will highlight how deregulated protease activity during pulmonary pathogenesis may be exploited for diagnosis/prognosis purposes, and utilised as a therapeutic tool using nanotechnologies. Considering proteases as part of an integrative biology perspective may pave the way for the development of new therapeutic t...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Taggart, C., Mall, M. A., Lalmanach, G., Cataldo, D., Ludwig, A., Janciauskiene, S., Heath, N., Meiners, S., Overall, C. M., Schultz, C., Turk, B., Borensztajn, K. S. Tags: Mechanisms of lung disease Back to Basics Source Type: research

ERJ February Podcast: ERS technical standards for the single-breath determination of nitric oxide uptake in the lung
As part of the February issue, the European Respiratory Journal presents the latest in its series of podcasts. Chief editor Marc Humbert discusses the new ERS task force document, on single-breath determination of nitric oxide uptake in the lung, with Prof. Gerald S. Zavorsky from the Georgia State University, USA. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Electronic Resources Source Type: research

Can we trust what parents tell us? A systematic review
(Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Paul L.P. Brand, Sandra van Dulmen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Novel applications for a noninvasive sampling method of the nasal mucosa
In this study, we optimize and validate a novel methodology using absorbent Leukosorb paper cut to fit the nasal passage to extract epithelial lining fluid (ELF) from the nasal mucosa. The ELF sampling method limits the dilution of soluble mediators, allowing quantification of both high- and low-abundance soluble biomarkers such as IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and neutrophil elastase. Additionally, we demonstrate that this method can successfully detect the presence of respiratory pathogens such as influenza virus and markers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the nasal mucosa. Effi...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rebuli, M. E., Speen, A. M., Clapp, P. W., Jaspers, I. Tags: INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY Source Type: research

Depletion of circulating monocytes suppresses IL-17 and HMGB1 expression in mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury
Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. To investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of circulating monocytes and resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) in ALI/ARDS, we depleted circulating monocytes and AMs by clodronate-loaded liposome (CL) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI/ARDS mouse model. Our results indicated that depletion of circulating monocytes by intravenous injection of CL 2 days before intratracheal LPS treatment significantly suppressed the acute...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - February 8, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jiang, Z., Zhou, Q., Gu, C., Li, D., Zhu, L. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research