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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 16.

Recurrent adult onset Henoch-Schonlein Purpura: a case report.
We present a case of recurrent Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) complicated by nephritis in an adult female initially categorized as IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We review the pathophysiologic basis of HSP nephritis as the variant of HSP accompanied by renal involvement and its pathogenetic commonality with IgA nephropathy. PMID: 27617937 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Dermatol Online J)
Source: Dermatol Online J - September 13, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Gaskill N, Guido B, Mago C Tags: Dermatol Online J Source Type: research

Generalized Bullous Fixed Drug Eruption due to Bromhexine.
We describe a patient with a generalized bullous form of Fixed Drug Eruption (FDE) induced by bromhexine, a commonly used drug for respiratory symptoms. This is a rare association and generalized bullous FDE is also very rare. We emphasize the importance of patch tests in identifying the culprit drug. PMID: 27617726 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Dermatol Online J)
Source: Dermatol Online J - September 13, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Vide J, Moreira C, Cunha AP, Baldaia H, Magina S, Azevedo F Tags: Dermatol Online J Source Type: research

Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of morphine in neonates: A review
Morphine is an agonist of the µ and k receptors, whose activation results in analgesia. Morphine-like agonists act through the µ opioid receptors to cause pain relief, sedation, euphoria and respiratory depression. Morphine is glucuronidated and sulfated at positions 3 and 6; the plasma concentration ratios correlate positivel y with birth weight, which probably reflects increased liver weight with increasing birth weight. Moreover, morphine clearance correlates positively with gestational age and birth weight. Steady-state morphine plasma concentrations are achieved after 24-48 hours of infusion, but the glucuronide met...
Source: Clinics - September 13, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease
Previously, we identified QIL1 as a subunit of mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex and demonstrated a role for QIL1 in MICOS assembly, mitochondrial respiration, and cristae formation critical for mitochondrial architecture (Guarani et al., 2015). Here, we identifyQIL1 null alleles in two siblings displaying multiple clinical symptoms of early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease, including defects in respiratory chain function in patient muscle. QIL1 absence in patients ’ fibroblasts was associated with MICOS disassembly, abnormal cristae, mild cytochromec oxidase defect, and sensitivity to...
Source: eLife - September 13, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: 3-methylglutaconic aciduria Cell Biology early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy Human Human Biology and Medicine liver disease MICOS mitochondrial disease QIL1 Source Type: research

Parkin regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory responses in acute lung injury
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious condition resulting from direct or indirect lung injury that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. A key biological event in the pathogenesis of the acute lung injury (ALI) that causes acute respiratory distress syndrome is activation of the lung endothelium cells (ECs), which is triggered by a variety of inflammatory insults leading to barrier disruption and excessive adhesion/activation of neutrophils. Recently, we demonstrated that imatinib protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced EC activation by inhibiting c-Abl kinase. (Source: Translational Research)
Source: Translational Research - September 13, 2016 Category: Research Authors: E. Letsiou, S. Sammani, H. Wang, P. Belvitch, S.M. Dudek Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Measurement of levofloxacin in human plasma samples for a reliable and accessible drug monitoring.
CONCLUSIONS: Levofloxacin is successfully quantified using our method that shows reliable results, appropriate range, rapid analyses, and cost-effective measurements under a simple and easy technique while all prior methods did not have it all together. Consequently, our method is a valuable tool for routine drug monitoring. Moreover, a complete evaluation of specificity was done for levofloxacin in plasma samples for first time. Meanwhile, the application data supported the necessity of levofloxacin monitoring. PMID: 27637364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Biochemistry)
Source: Clinical Biochemistry - September 13, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Aragon-Martinez OH, Isiordia-Espinoza MA, Galicia O, Romo SA, Gómez AG, Romano-Moreno S, Martinez-Morales F Tags: Clin Biochem Source Type: research

Description of Lunatimonas salinarum sp. nov.
Abstract A Gram-stain-negative, crescent shaped, non-motile, aerobic bacterium was isolated from a saltern of Nari along Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat, India. The strain designated JC344T was oxidase and catalase positive. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and sequence comparison data indicated that strain JC344T was a member of the genus Lunatimonas and was closely related to the only species of the genus, Lunatimonas lonarensis AK24T (95.5%). The DNA G+C content of strain JC344T was 43 mol%. Strain JC344T has phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and four unidentified polar lipids. MK-7 is the only respiratory quinone. Iso...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: B D, A S, Ch S, Ch V R Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Laboratory Assessment of the Anticoagulant Activity of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs): A Systematic Review.
CONCLUSIONS: Unfortunately, an ideal test, offering both accuracy and precision for measurement of any DOAC is not widely available. We recommend the use of a dilute thrombin time assay or ecarin-based assay for assessment of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran and anti-Xa assays with drug-specific calibrators for assessment of the anticoagulant effects of direct Xa inhibitors. In the absence of these tests, thrombin time or APTT are recommended over PT/INR for assessment of dabigatran and PT/INR is recommended over APTT for detection of factor Xa inhibitors. Time since last dose, the presence or absence of drug interac...
Source: Chest - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Samuelson BT, Cuker A, Siegal DM, Crowther M, Garcia DA Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Cough Augmentation Techniques in the Critically Ill: A Canadian National Survey.
CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate adoption of cough augmentation techniques, particularly for secretion management. Lack of expertise and knowledge are potentially modifiable barriers addressed with educational interventions. PMID: 27624630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rose L, Adhikari NK, Poon J, Leasa D, McKim DA, CANuVENT Group Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Evaluating How Post-Bronchodilator Vital Capacities Affect the Diagnosis of Obstruction in Pulmonary Function Tests.
CONCLUSIONS: Six percent of PFTs have a different interpretation when VCmax is used instead of FVC. Evaluating borderline or ambiguous PFTs using the VCmax may be informative in diagnosing obstruction and excluding restriction. PMID: 27624631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Blagev DP, Sorenson D, Linares-Perdomo O, Bamberg S, Hegewald M, Morris AH Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Respiratory Management of Perioperative Obese Patients: A Literature Review.
Abstract With a rising incidence of obesity in the United States, anesthesiologists are faced with a larger volume of obese patients coming to the operating room as well as obese patients with ever-larger body mass indices (BMIs). While there are many cardiovascular and endocrine issues that clinicians must take into account when caring for the obese patient, one of the most prominent concerns of the anesthesiologist in the perioperative setting should be the status of the lung. Because the pathophysiology of reduced lung volumes in the obese patient differs from that of the ARDS patient, the best approach to keep...
Source: Respiratory Care - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Imber DA, Pirrone M, Zhang C, Fisher DF, Kacmarek RM, Berra L Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

[Outcome of intensive medical care for inflammatory rheumatic diseases].
CONCLUSION: Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases displayed a poorer outcome compared with the control group in the course of the intensive care treatment. Universally applied scoring systems used to predict mortality are of limited value in this patient population. PMID: 27624661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie)
Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie - September 13, 2016 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Rütter LA, Keyßer G, Winkler M, Rütter S Tags: Z Rheumatol Source Type: research

Selection of reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time qPCR in avian cells infected with infectious bronchitis virus.
Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes infectious bronchitis in poultry, a respiratory disease that is a source of major economic loss to the poultry industry. Detection and the study of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus often involves the use of real-time quantitative PCR assays (qPCR). To account for error within the experiments, the levels of target gene transcription are normalised to that of suitable reference genes. Despite publication of the MIQE guidelines in 2009, single un-tested reference genes are often used for normalization of qPCR assays in avian research studies. Here we use the ge...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Batra A, Maier HJ, Fife MS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Clinical features and prognosis in anti-SRP and anti-HMGCR necrotising myopathy
Conclusions Anti-SRP antibodies are associated with severe neurological symptoms, more so than are anti-HMGCR antibodies. Although these autoantibodies are independent serological markers associated with IMNM, patients bearing either share common characteristics. (Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - September 13, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Watanabe, Y., Uruha, A., Suzuki, S., Nakahara, J., Hamanaka, K., Takayama, K., Suzuki, N., Nishino, I. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Muscle disease, Neuromuscular disease, Musculoskeletal syndromes Source Type: research

The pluralization of septum
(Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Morty, R. E. Tags: LETTER TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus {alpha}-toxin-mediated cation entry depolarizes membrane potential and activates p38 MAP kinase in airway epithelial cells
Membrane potential (Vm)-, Na+-, or Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes were used to analyze changes in Vm or intracellular ion concentrations in airway epithelial cells treated with Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin (Hla), a major virulence factor of pathogenic strains of these bacteria. Gramicidin, a channel-forming peptide causing membrane permeability to monovalent cations, a mutated form of Hla, rHla-H35L, which forms oligomers in the plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells but fails to form functional transmembrane pores, or the cyclodextrin-derivative IB201, a blocker of the Hla pore, were used to investigate the permeabi...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Eiffler, I., Behnke, J., Ziesemer, S., Müller, C., Hildebrandt, J.-P. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo evidence for an inflammatory role of the calcium channel TRPV4 in lung epithelium: Potential involvement in cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease associated with chronic severe lung inflammation, leading to premature death. To develop innovative anti-inflammatory treatments, we need to characterize new cellular and molecular components contributing to the mechanisms of lung inflammation. Here, we focused on the potential role of "transient receptor potential vanilloid-4" (TRPV4), a nonselective calcium channel. We used both in vitro and in vivo approaches to demonstrate that TRPV4 expressed in airway epithelial cells triggers the secretion of major proinflammatory mediators such as chemokines and biologically active lipid...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Henry, C. O., Dalloneau, E., Perez-Berezo, M.-T., Plata, C., Wu, Y., Guillon, A., Morello, E., Aimar, R.-F., Potier-Cartereau, M., Esnard, F., Coraux, C., Börnchen, C., Kiefmann, R., Vandier, C., Touqui, L., Valverde, M. A., Cenac, N., Si-Tahar, M Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Identification of genes differentially regulated by vitamin D deficiency that alter lung pathophysiology and inflammation in allergic airways disease
In this study, we hypothesize that vitamin D deficiency would exacerbate house dust mite (HDM)-induced inflammation and alterations in lung structure and function. A BALB/c mouse model of vitamin D deficiency was established by dietary manipulation. Responsiveness to methacholine, airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, mucus cell metaplasia, lung and airway inflammation, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were assessed. Gene expression patterns in mouse lung samples were profiled by RNA-Seq. HDM exposure increased inflammation and inflammatory cytokines in BAL, baseline airway resistance, tissue elastance, and A...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Foong, R. E., Bosco, A., Troy, N. M., Gorman, S., Hart, P. H., Kicic, A., Zosky, G. R. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

A surprising cause of polycythaemia
Case presentation A 48-year-old man was referred to the outpatient clinic because of fatigue and an elevated haemoglobin level of 19.4 g/dL. His relevant medical history only revealed psychosis. He had quit cigarette smoking for several years. His daily medication schedule consisted of valproic acid 1500 mg, quetiapine 400 mg and lormetazepam 1 mg daily. There were no clinical abnormalities besides a body mass index of 28.3 kg/m². Since primary erythrocytosis was not excluded initially, venesections were performed three times. Meanwhile, diagnostic work-up took place. Serum erythropoietin leve...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: De Maeyer, N. E., Van Lommel, S., Devos, T., Buyse, B., Nackaerts, K. Tags: Journalology, Radiology (diagnostics), Ethics, Health education, Smoking, Smoking cessation, Tobacco use Chest clinic Source Type: research

Cochrane corner: interventions for the management of malignant pleural effusions
Optimal management of symptomatic malignant pleural effusions remains an important issue as it affects a significant number of patients each year internationally. The overall survival remains poor, necessitating an evidence based treatment strategy that provides the best outcomes for individual patients. This paper summarises the results of the recently published Cochrane review on interventions in malignant pleural effusions. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Clive, A. O., Bhatnagar, R., Preston, N. J., Maskell, N. A., Jones, H. E. Tags: Chest clinic Source Type: research

Refractory chylothorax in HIV/AIDS-related disseminated mycobacterial infection
A 38-year-old man presented to a previous hospital in December 2011 with a high fever and acute abdominal pain. He was found to have abdominal lymphadenopathy and was diagnosed with HIV infection. His CD4 count was 25/mm3 and viral load was 490 000 copies/mL. He was transferred to our department for further investigations and treatment. Whole body CT revealed bulky, widespread lymphadenopathy, especially in the abdomen, but no ascites or pleural effusion (figure 1A, B). Stool, bone marrow and an abdominal lymph node specimen were positive for acid-fast bacillus stain. A diagnosis of disseminated non-tuberculous m...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tanaka, T., Saito, N., Takaki, M., Furumoto, A., Morimoto, K., Ariyoshi, K. Tags: Images in Thorax, Journalology, Drugs: infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, Screening (oncology), Radiology (diagnostics), Ethics Chest clinic Source Type: research

Interaction of vitamin E isoforms on asthma and allergic airway disease
Prospective epidemiological studies, observational cross-sectional studies and some randomised prevention trials have demonstrated inconsistent findings of the impact of vitamin E on asthma risk. The goals of this study were to explore whether this differing association of vitamin E on asthma risk is due to an interaction of vitamin E isoforms. To address this question, in a population-based asthma incidence study we assessed the interaction between the plasma concentrations of vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and -tocopherol on asthma risk. Second, to understand the mechanisms of any interaction of these isoforms, we...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cook-Mills, J., Gebretsadik, T., Abdala-Valencia, H., Green, J., Larkin, E. K., Dupont, W. D., Shu, X. O., Gross, M., Bai, C., Gao, Y.-T., Hartman, T. J., Rosas-Salazar, C., Hartert, T. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Inflammation, Asthma Research letter Source Type: research

What are the most efficacious treatment regimens for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis? A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Conclusions Our systematic review and network meta-analysis highlight a regimen category that may be more efficacious than the WHO population level recommendation, and identify knowledge gaps where data are sparse. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO CRD42014015025. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stagg, H. R., Harris, R. J., Hatherell, H.-A., Obach, D., Zhao, H., Tsuchiya, N., Kranzer, K., Nikolayevskyy, V., Kim, J., Lipman, M. C., Abubakar, I. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Open access, Drugs: infectious diseases, Internet Tuberculosis Source Type: research

The impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in children is age dependent: evidence to be considered when screening children for tuberculosis infection
Discussion BCG vaccination had little impact on TST size in children over 5 years of age. The revised TST cut-off recommended in the recent revision to the UK TB guidelines demonstrates good sensitivity but is associated with impaired specificity in BCG-vaccinated children. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Seddon, J. A., Paton, J., Nademi, Z., Keane, D., Williams, B., Williams, A., Welch, S. B., Liebeschutz, S., Riddell, A., Bernatoniene, J., Patel, S., Martinez-Alier, N., McMaster, P., Kampmann, B. Tags: Open access, Drugs: infectious diseases, Vaccination / immunisation, Child health, Screening (epidemiology), Screening (public health) Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Randomised sham-controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea
Conclusion Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the pharyngeal dilators during a single night in patients with OSA improves upper airway obstruction and is well tolerated. Trial registration number NCT01661712. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pengo, M. F., Xiao, S., Ratneswaran, C., Reed, K., Shah, N., Chen, T., Douiri, A., Hart, N., Luo, Y., Rafferty, G. F., Rossi, G. P., Williams, A., Polkey, M. I., Moxham, J., Steier, J. Tags: Open access Sleep Source Type: research

Non-invasive ventilation in obesity hypoventilation syndrome without severe obstructive sleep apnoea
Conclusions NIV is more effective than lifestyle modification in improving daytime PaCO2, sleepiness and polysomnographic parameters. Long-term prospective studies are necessary to determine whether NIV reduces healthcare resource utilisation, cardiovascular events and mortality. Trial registration number NCT01405976; results. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Masa, J. F., Corral, J., Caballero, C., Barrot, E., Teran-Santos, J., Alonso-Alvarez, M. L., Gomez-Garcia, T., Gonzalez, M., Lopez-Martin, S., De Lucas, P., Marin, J. M., Marti, S., Diaz-Cambriles, T., Chiner, E., Egea, C., Miranda, E., Mokhlesi, B., on b Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Health education, Obesity (public health) Non-invasive ventilation Source Type: research

Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients during critical illness: an overview of systematic reviews
Conclusions Patients derive short-term benefits from physical rehabilitation delivered during ICU admission. Further robust trials of electrical muscle stimulation in the ICU and rehabilitation delivered following ICU discharge are needed to determine the long-term impact on patient care. This overview provides recommendations for design of future interventional trials and SR. Trial registration number CRD42015001068. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Connolly, B., O'Neill, B., Salisbury, L., Blackwood, B., on behalf of the Enhanced Recovery After Critical Illness Programme Group Tags: Patients, Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Physiotherapy, Sports and exercise medicine, Internet Critical care Source Type: research

Stimulating therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea
The burden of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasing due to the worldwide obesity epidemic and the ageing of the population.1 2 The treatment of OSA is unsatisfactory for some patients since tolerance of the gold standard treatment positive airway pressure (PAP) is quite variable. Among patients who tolerate PAP, results are excellent; however, effectiveness is limited by variable adherence.3 4 Improvements in our understanding of OSA pathogenesis have led to a concept that the mechanism (endotype) underlying OSA is highly variable across individuals such that some patients have primarily an upper airway anatomical p...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Strollo, P. J., Malhotra, A. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Air pollution affects lung cancer survival
Lung cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers in the USA. The American Cancer Society estimates that a total of 221 200 individuals were newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 2015, representing approximately 13% of all new cancer diagnoses.1 Worldwide, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy. In their most recent report, WHO estimated that there were 1.8 million new lung cancer cases diagnosed in 2012.2 In addition to being one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers, survival from lung cancer is poor, making it the leading cause of cancer death in the USA.3 The 5-year lung cancer survival rate ...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hart, J. E. Tags: Press releases Editorial Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
A NICE dilemma we have here... The 2016 revision of the UK NICE guidance on tuberculosis (https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng33) is a hefty document, weighing in at 177 pages. For children screened as household contacts of TB, old timers would have used 15mm Mantoux cut off for children who had previously received BCG. Not any longer! The 2016 NICE guidelines advocate using a lower threshold of 5mm, whether or not the child has had BCG. On page 932 of this month's Thorax, Beate Kampmann and colleagues put this strategy to the test. They find that the use of a 5mm cut off for the Mantoux test reduces the specificity of the ...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: The Triumvirate Tags: Airwaves Source Type: research

The role of stretch-activated ion channels in acute respiratory distress syndrome: finally a new target?
Mechanical ventilation (MV) and oxygen therapy (hyperoxia; HO) comprise the cornerstones of life-saving interventions for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Unfortunately, the side effects of MV and HO include exacerbation of lung injury by barotrauma, volutrauma, and propagation of lung inflammation. Despite significant improvements in ventilator technologies and a heightened awareness of oxygen toxicity, besides low tidal volume ventilation few if any medical interventions have improved ARDS outcomes over the past two decades. We are lacking a comprehensive understanding of mechanotransduction proc...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schwingshackl, A. Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

What's hot that the other lot got
Use of prophylactic radiotherapy in mesothelioma A well-recognised complication of pleural intervention in mesothelioma patients are pleural tract metastases. Prophylactic radiotherapy is often used to prevent this complication but clinical practice varies greatly due to lack of evidence regarding the efficacy of its use. In this multi-centred, open labelled, phase 3, randomised controlled trial (Lancet Oncol 2016;17:1094–104), researchers demonstrated no significant difference in the incidence of pleural tract metastases in patients who received immediate prophylactic radiotherapy following a large-bore pleural proc...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lee, C. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Respiratory cancer, Inflammation, Asthma, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Health education, Smoking, Source Type: research

Symptomatic accessory cardiac bronchus in an infant
A 13-month-old infant was referred for evaluation of a severe, therapy-resistant asthma. He presented with daily wheezing, recurrent acute exacerbations, chronic dry-to-wet cough and failure to thrive. His mother had severe allergic asthma with recent admission to the intensive care unit. Initial chest X-rays were normal and skin prick tests were negative. It was decided to undertake a comprehensive work-up to exclude differential diagnoses. Paediatric radiologists initially interpreted the chest CT scan as normal. Bronchoscopic examination revealed an accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) originating from the medial wall of th...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fina, A., Baque-Juston, M., Guesmi, M., Albertini, M., Giovannini-Chami, L. Tags: Images in Thorax, Hemoptysis, Child health, Inflammation, Physiotherapy, Asthma, Sports and exercise medicine, Cardiothoracic surgery, Radiology (diagnostics) Chest clinic Source Type: research

Community-acquired pneumonia in children: what to do when there is no response to standard empirical treatment?
SS (registrar) and AC (resident) A 5-year-old female presents to a tertiary paediatric hospital in Australia with a 2-day history of fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. Her past history consists of three episodes of otitis media in the preceding 12 months, all resulting in tympanic membrane perforation. Her parents report an ‘innocent heart murmur’ diagnosed by a paediatric cardiologist. There is no history of travel or animal exposure. With regard to family history, she is the child of non-consanguineous Caucasian parents, and her father has Crohn's disease. On examination, she is febrile (40.0°C) and...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shanthikumar, S., Clifford, A., Massie, J., Cole, T., Steer, A., Marks, M., Gwee, A. Tags: Lung abscess, Drugs: infectious diseases, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Inflammation, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Radiology (diagnostics), Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology Chest clinic Source Type: research

A diagnostic model for chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis
The objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic model that allows for a highly specific diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis using clinical and radiological variables alone. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other interstitial lung disease cases were retrospectively identified from a longitudinal database. High-resolution CT scans were blindly scored for radiographic features (eg, ground-glass opacity, mosaic perfusion) as well as the radiologist's diagnostic impression. Candidate models were developed then evaluated using clinical and radiographic variables and assessed by the cross-validated C...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Johannson, K. A., Elicker, B. M., Vittinghoff, E., Assayag, D., de Boer, K., Golden, J. A., Jones, K. D., King, T. E., Koth, L. L., Lee, J. S., Ley, B., Wolters, P. J., Collard, H. R. Tags: Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Interstitial lung disease, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Radiology (diagnostics) Research letter Source Type: research

Does UKLS strategy increase the yield of screen-detected lung cancers? A comparison with ITALUNG
The optimal strategy to increase the benefit of low dose computed tomograph (LDCT) screening of lung cancer in terms of as high as possible number of discovered cancers and to reduce the costs, in terms of as low as possible number of LDCT examinations and of interventions on benign lesions, is not established. Field and co-workers recently reported1 the results of lung cancer screening with LDCT in the UKLS RCT pilot study that selected eligible subjects with a validated individual risk prediction model, invited potential candidates by mail and applied the Wald Single Screen Design2 with nodule management based on volumet...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mascalchi, M., Lopes Pegna, A., Carrozzi, L., Carozzi, F., Falaschi, F., Picozzi, G., Paci, E. Tags: Journalology, Lung neoplasms, Epidemiologic studies, Lung cancer (oncology), Screening (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Pulmonary emphysema, Screening (epidemiology), Ethics, Occupational and environmental medicine, Environmental issues, He Source Type: research

Birth weight, early childhood growth and lung function in middle to early old age: 1946 British birth cohort
Conclusions Birth weight is positively associated with adult lung function in middle age, particularly in women, but the association diminishes with age, potentially due to accumulating environmental influences over the life course. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cai, Y., Shaheen, S. O., Hardy, R., Kuh, D., Hansell, A. L. Tags: Epidemiologic studies Respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Tidal changes in respiratory resistance are sensitive indicators of airway obstruction in children
Conclusions New lung function measure R is able to detect airway obstruction with high sensitivity and specificity and is suitable for use in lung function testing in young children. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Czövek, D., Shackleton, C., Hantos, Z., Taylor, K., Kumar, A., Chacko, A., Ware, R. S., Makan, G., Radics, B., Gingl, Z., Sly, P. D. Tags: Drugs: respiratory system Paediatric lung disease Source Type: research

Air pollution affects lung cancer survival
Conclusions These epidemiological findings support the hypothesis that air pollution exposures after lung cancer diagnosis shorten survival. Future studies should evaluate the impacts of exposure reduction. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Eckel, S. P., Cockburn, M., Shu, Y.-H., Deng, H., Lurmann, F. W., Liu, L., Gilliland, F. D. Tags: Lung neoplasms, Epidemiologic studies, Editor's choice, Press releases, Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Air pollution, Environmental issues Environmental exposure Source Type: research

NIV for OHS without severe OSAS: is it worth it?
Home non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used to manage chronic respiratory failure since the polio epidemics of the 1940s; however, the support for many of the indications remains based on small non-randomised or uncontrolled studies. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is an increasingly common cause of chronic respiratory failure and indication for home mechanical ventilation; unsurprisingly as the diagnosis remains frequently missed, significant variation exists across Europe.1 2 The majority of patients with OHS have significant obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and recent data have demonstrated the benefits of NI...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Murphy, P. B., Janssens, J.-P. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Transient Arterial Phase Respiratory Motion-Related Artifact in MR Imaging of the Liver: An Analysis of Four Different Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Compare hepatic arterial phase (HAP) respiratory motion artifact (RMA) between Gadoxetate, Gadobutrol, Gadopentetate, and Gadobenate. (Source: Clinical Imaging)
Source: Clinical Imaging - September 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Mansi R. Shah, Milana Flusberg, Viktoriya Paroder, Alla M. Rozenblit, Victoria Chernyak Source Type: research

Illness Symptoms Experienced by Children Exposed to Benzene After a Flaring Incident at the BP Refinery Facility in Texas City
Conclusion. Together, these findings reveal that children exposed to benzene experience a range of illness symptoms and an altered profile of urinary phenol indicating their vulnerability to potentially increased health complications. (Source: Clinical Pediatrics)
Source: Clinical Pediatrics - September 13, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: DAndrea, M. A., Reddy, G. K. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Post-ischemic Myoclonic Status Following Cardiac Arrest in Young Drug Users
ConclusionsOn rare occasions, myoclonic status does not imply a poor functional outcome following cardiac arrest. Other clinical and demographic characteristics including young age, presence of illicit substances, and primary respiratory causes of arrest may contribute to a severe clinical presentation, with a subsequent good neurologic outcome in a small subset of patients. (Source: Neurocritical Care)
Source: Neurocritical Care - September 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rare central venous catheter malposition – an ultrasound-guided approach would be helpful: a case report
ConclusionsInternal mammary artery malposition is a rare but potentially lethal complication of central venous catheter catheterization; however, caution should be taken regarding the assessment of risk factors and management of a severe complication. An ultrasound-guided approach would be helpful. (Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports)
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - September 13, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of invasive versus conservative management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax
Introduction Current management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is variable, with little evidence from randomised controlled trials to guide treatment. Guidelines emphasise intervention in many patients, which involves chest drain insertion, hospital admission and occasionally surgery. However, there is evidence that conservative management may be effective and safe, and it may also reduce the risk of recurrence. Significant questions remain regarding the optimal initial approach to the management of PSP. Methods and analysis This multicentre, prospective, randomised, open label, parallel group, non-inferiority ...
Source: BMJ Open - September 13, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Brown, S. G. A., Ball, E. L., Perrin, K., Read, C. A., Asha, S. E., Beasley, R., Egerton-Warburton, D., Jones, P. G., Keijzers, G., Kinnear, F. B., Kwan, B. C. H., Lee, Y. C. G., Smith, J. A., Summers, Q. A., Simpson, G., the PSP Study Group Tags: Open access, Medical management, Respiratory medicine Protocol Source Type: research

The Death of Balzac (1799-1850) and the Treatment of Heart Failure during the Nineteenth Century
Overweight, workaholic and caffeine abuser, Honor é de Balzac lived a life of excess. He prematurely died aged 51 due to a gangrene associated with congestive heart failure. Textual sources allowed us to take a glimpse into his last three months of life. Due to ventricular hypertrophy, Balzac's respiratory conditions were appalling and he develope d severe leg edemas and possibly stasis dermatitis. Here we report on Balzac's demise and provide first evidence of a pioneering medical treatment applied to save his life: the use of trocar to drain leg edema. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 13, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: A Perciaccante, M A Riva, A Coralli, P Charlier, R Bianucci Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Severe winter asthma exacerbations may be prevented by omalizumab but no carry over effect
Our proof-of-concept study shows that omalizumab given during the winter respiratory viral season can prevent severe exacerbations but only while the drug is being taken. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Peter D. Sly, Julie Varghese, Farhana Noor, Mimi LK. Tang, Ingrid Laing, Steve Oo, Franciska Prastanti, Peter N. LeSouef, Patrick G. Holt Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics of Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease is a significant endotype of both asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. The disease demonstrates what seems to be a unified inflammatory mechanism culminating in highly eosinophilic nasal polyp disease and asthma. The rate of polyp recurrence and morbidity from asthma exacerbations are significant and warrant separating this group diagnostically from aspirin-tolerant peers. Given the unique anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and the evolving landscape of new, targeted biologic treatments, it is even more incumbent to consider this diagnosis and offer patients treatme...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Donald D. Stevenson, Andrew A. White Source Type: research

Diagnostic Evaluation in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
This article discusses the utility of the clinical history and the current evidence regarding measures that optimize the safety of performing diagnostic NSAID provocation challenges. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Adam N. Williams Source Type: research

Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease as an Endotype of Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (AERD) and Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP) are both characterized by the presence of chronic sinonasal inflammation and nasal polyps. Unlike in CRSwNP, AERD patients develop respiratory reactions following ingestion of COX-1 inhibitors. AERD patients also, on average, have worse upper respiratory disease with increased sinonasal symptoms, mucosal inflammation and requirements for revision sinus surgery when compared to CRSwNP patients. While no single genetic factor has been identified in either CRSwNP or AERD to date, differences in the metabolism of arachidonic ac...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Whitney W. Stevens, Robert P. Schleimer Source Type: research