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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 14.

A comparative study on oxidative stress role in nasal breathing impairment and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.
This study aimed to define the expression and clinical significance of biomarkers involved in oxidative stress in patients with OSAS. A prospective study was designed to compare outcomes of oxidative stress laboratory tests in three groups of subjects. The study involved the recruitment of three groups of subjects, 10 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome with AHI > 30; 10 patients suffering from snoring at night with AHI < 15; 10 patients with nasal respiratory impairment with AHI < 5. Patients were subjected to skin prick tests for common aero-allergens, nasal endoscopy, active anterior rhinomanometry,...
Source: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica - February 9, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital Source Type: research

Pityriasis rotunda with recurrent respiratory infections.
Authors: Vaccaro M, Salpietro C, Foti A, Borgia F, Lentini M, Cannavò SP PMID: 28166620 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia)
Source: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia - February 9, 2017 Category: Dermatology Tags: G Ital Dermatol Venereol Source Type: research

GSE88836 Involvement of Igf1r in Bronchiolar Epithelial Regeneration: Role During Repair Kinetics after Selective Club Cell Ablation
Contributors : Ic íar P López ; Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida ; Rosete S Pais ; Raquel Torrens ; Andreas Hoeflich ; José G PichelSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusRegeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors) signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorl...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - February 9, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research

Burden of human metapneumovirus infections in patients with cancer: Risk factors and outcomes
CONCLUSIONShMPV infections in patients with cancer may cause significant morbidity, especially for those with underlying HM who may develop an LRI. Despite high morbidity and the lack of directed antiviral therapy for hMPV infections, mortality at day 30 from this infection remained low in this studied population. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. (Source: Cancer)
Source: Cancer - February 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Firas El Chaer, Dimpy P. Shah, Joumana Kmeid, Ella J. Ariza ‐Heredia, Chitra M. Hosing, Victor E. Mulanovich, Roy F. Chemaly Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Crosstalk between glucocorticoids and IL-4 modulates Ym1 expression in alternatively activated myeloid cells.
In this study, we further investigated Ym1 and Ms4a8a regulation in alternatively activated myeloid cells in the presence of the TH2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. We show that Ym1 expression is boosted upon co-stimulation with airway epithelial cell supernatant and IL-4/IL-13, whereas Ms4a8a expression is down-regulated. This suggests that a crosstalk between IL-4/IL-13 and glucocorticoid signaling exists. Blocking protein synthesis indicated that dexamethasone-induced de novo protein synthesis is required for the interaction between glucocorticoid and IL-4 signaling regarding Ym1 regulation. Using reporter gene constructs, we...
Source: Immunobiology - February 9, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ng Kuet Leong N, Brombacher F, Dalpke AH, Weitnauer M Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research

Natural Compounds from Mexican Medicinal Plants as Potential Drug Leads for Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs.
Abstract In Mexican Traditional Medicine 187 plant species are used in the treatment of respiratory conditions that may be associated with tuberculosis. In this contribution, we review the ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of 63 species whose extracts have been assayed for antimycobacterial activity in vitro. Among these, the most potent is Aristolochia brevipes (MIC= 12.5 µg/mL), followed by Aristolochia taliscana, Citrus sinensis, Chrysactinia mexicana, Persea americana, and Olea europaea (MIC<64 µg/mL). Other potent extracts (inhibition > 95%, 50 µg/mL) include: Amphipterygium adstringens, Larrea...
Source: An Acad Bras Cienc - February 9, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Gómez-Cansino R, Guzmán-Gutiérrez SL, Campos-Lara MG, Espitia-Pinzón CI, Reyes-Chilpa R Tags: An Acad Bras Cienc Source Type: research

Venovenous Versus Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Adult Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Requiring Precannulation Hemodynamic Support: A Review of the ELSO Registry.
CONCLUSIONS: In this review of ARDS patients requiring pre-ECMO hemodynamic support, VV ECMO was not associated with worse survival or complication rates compared with VA ECMO. These data suggest that, in appropriately selected patients, it may be reasonable to initially institute VV ECMO support, reserving VA ECMO for conversion for refractory hypotension. PMID: 28190548 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - February 9, 2017 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Kon ZN, Bittle GJ, Pasrija C, Pham SM, Mazzeffi MA, Herr DL, Sanchez PG, Griffith BP Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Effect of inhaled and systemic glucocorticoid treatment on CD4(+) regulatory and effector T cells in a mouse model of allergic asthma.
Abstract To achieve a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the anti-asthmatic action of inhaled and systemic glucocorticoids (GCs) and to provide more data regarding the risk of a negative effect of inhaled GCs on CD4(+) T cells, a study was conducted on the effect of ciclesonide and methylprednisolone on CD4(+) effector (Teff), regulatory (Treg) and resting (Trest) T cells within respiratory and extra-respiratory tissues in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The study indicated that one, and possibly a key mechanism, underlying the anti-asthmatic action of inhaled and systemic GCs is the prevention of the...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - February 9, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zuśka-Prot M, Maślanka T Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research

Avoiding hospital admission in COPD: impact of a specialist nursing team.
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and incurable disease. The costs of caring for patients with COPD is estimated to be more than £800 million a year for acute hospital admissions alone ( Department of Health, 2012 ). The hospital-at-home model is increasingly being adopted for COPD patients following British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for the delivery of hospital admission-avoidance schemes ( BTS, 2007 ). The aim of this case-note review was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a specialist nurse-led acute respiratory assessment service working with COPD ...
Source: British Journal of Nursing - February 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Cox K, Macleod SC, Sim CJ, Jones AW, Trueman J Tags: Br J Nurs Source Type: research

[Causes of death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Results from the Rhineland-Palatinate ALS registry].
CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure was the most frequent cause of death in our cohort of ALS patients. In contrast, pneumonia and nutritional disorders played a less important role as the cause of death. The phenotypic expression of ALS might in part allow the cause of the prospective death to be predicted. Differentiation of ALS phenotypes is an important foundation for patient counseling on the process of dying to be expected and for the determination of an individual palliative concept. PMID: 28184974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Nervenarzt)
Source: Der Nervenarzt - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Wolf J, Safer A, Wöhrle JC, Palm F, Nix WA, Maschke M, Grau AJ Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

Human rhinovirus detection in the lower respiratory tract of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: association with mortality.
Abstract Human rhinoviruses are the most common respiratory viruses detected in patients after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although rhinovirus appears to occasionally cause severe lower respiratory tract infection in immunocompromised patients, the clinical significance of rhinovirus detection in the lower respiratory tract remains unknown. We evaluated 697 recipients transplanted between 1993 and 2015 with rhinovirus in respiratory samples. As comparative cohorts, 273 recipients with lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus (N=117), parainfluenza virus (N=120), or influenza ...
Source: Haematologica - February 9, 2017 Category: Hematology Authors: Seo S, Waghmare A, Scott EM, Xie H, Kuypers JM, Hackman RC, Campbell AP, Choi SM, Leisenring WM, Jerome KR, Englund JA, Boeckh M Tags: Haematologica Source Type: research

Prospects of gene therapy for pulmonary diseases: progress and limitations.
CONCLUSION: Current gene transfer protocols and vector design require additional amelioration. The rapidly evolving and much promising technology of CRISPR/Cas9 might possibly overcome the hurdles posed to date for effective implementation of gene therapy and become the basis for the onset of new clinical trials. PMID: 28185539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Medicinal Chemistry - February 9, 2017 Category: Chemistry Authors: Karponi G, Zogas N, Domvri K, Zarogoulidis P, Trakada G, Roumeliotis S, Hohenforst-Schmidt W, Darwiche K, Freitag L, Zarogoulidis K Tags: Med Chem Source Type: research

HMGB1 contributes to glomerular endothelial cell injury in ANCA-associated vasculitis through enhancing endothelium-neutrophil interactions.
Abstract Our previous studies demonstrated that high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein, is associated with the disease activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Moreover, HMGB1 participates in ANCA-induced neutrophil activation. The current study aimed to investigate whether HMGB1 regulated the interaction between neutrophils and glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC) in the presence of ANCA. Correlation analysis on HMGB1 levels in AAV patients and soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels or vascu...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - February 9, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Wang C, Chang DY, Chen M, Zhao MH Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research

Preoperative Volume Rather than Area of Skeletal Muscle is a Better Predictor for Postoperative Risks for Respiratory Complications in Living-donor Liver Transplantation.
CONCLUSION: Preoperative volume of skeletal muscle might be a better predictor for postoperative risks in LDLT recipients than preoperative area of skeletal muscle. Advances in knowledge: Postoperative risks for respiratory complications in LDLT recipients might be evaluated more accurately by using TPV instead of TPA. PMID: 28181820 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 9, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Wada Y, Kamishima T, Shimamura T, Kawamura N, Yamashita K, Sutherland K, Takeda H Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

Dose escalation study with respiratory-gated carbon-ion scanning radiotherapy using a simultaneous integrated boost for pancreatic cancer: Simulation with four-dimensional computed tomography.
CONCLUSIONS: We quantified dose escalation with respiratory-gated C-PBS using SIB for pancreatic cancer and revealed that OAR dose was not affected to the same degree as the tumor dose. Advances in knowledge: A simulation study on respiratory-gated C-PBS with SIB for pancreatic cancer was performed. The results indicated the feasibility of dose escalation for pancreatic cancer, which should be confirmed in clinical trials. PMID: 28181819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Radiology)
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 9, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Kawashiro S, Mori S, Yamada S, Miki K, Nemoto K, Tsuji H, Kamada T Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

State-dependent and -independent effects of dialyzing excitatory neuromodulator receptor antagonists into the ventral respiratory column
Unilateral dialysis of the broad-spectrum muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (50 mM) into the ventral respiratory column [(VRC) including the pre-Bötzinger complex region] of awake goats increased pulmonary ventilation (Vi) and breathing frequency (f), conceivably due to local compensatory increases in serotonin (5-HT) and substance P (SP) measured in effluent mock cerebral spinal fluid (mCSF). In contrast, unilateral dialysis of a triple cocktail of antagonists to muscarinic (atropine; 5 mM), neurokinin-1, and 5-HT receptors does not alter Vi or f, but increases local SP. Herein, we tested hypotheses that 1) ...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - February 9, 2017 Category: Physiology Authors: Langer, T. M., Neumueller, S. E., Crumley, E., Burgraff, N. J., Talwar, S., Hodges, M. R., Pan, L., Forster, H. V. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

HTLV ‐1 seroprevalance in sarcoidosis. A clinical and laboratory study in northeast of Iran
ConclusionThe frequency of HTLV‐1 in 125 sarcoidosis patients was 4%. In comparison with prevalence of HTLV‐1 in Mashhad, HTLV‐1 seroprevalence did not show any significant difference. (Source: APLAR Journal of Rheumatology)
Source: APLAR Journal of Rheumatology - February 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Massoud Saghafi, Zahra Rezaieyazdi, Shima Nabavi, Zahra Mirfeizi, Maryam Sahebari, Masoumeh Salari Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Alimentary and respiratory disease trends for calves, 2011 to 2016
This focus article has been prepared by Arthur Otter and members of the Cattle Expert Group at the APHA (Source: Veterinary Record)
Source: Veterinary Record - February 9, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surveillance Source Type: research

Disease surveillance in England and Wales, January 2017
 Current and emerging issues: respiratory disease in hobby and backyard chickens  Highlights from the scanning surveillance network  Update on international disease threats  Focus on alimentary and respiratory disease trends in calves These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for January 2017 (Source: Veterinary Record)
Source: Veterinary Record - February 9, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Surveillance Source Type: research

Selected highlights from other veterinary journals
The objective of the current study was to determine estimates of intra- and interobserver reliability for identification and grading of URT disorders during evaluation of resting and overground endoscopic (OGE) videos of thoroughbred horses. Resting and OGE URT videos for 43 thoroughbreds were retrospectively chosen based on identification of common URT disorders. The videos were randomly evaluated in duplicate... (Source: Veterinary Record)
Source: Veterinary Record - February 9, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Research Digest Source Type: research

Practice-based equine CPD
Boehringer Ingelheim has launched a short, practice-based interactive CPD module on equine airway solutions. The module is presented by Tim Brazil (pictured) an RCVS and European specialist in equine medicine; it accounts for one hour's CPD. The company says that the presentation will help refresh veterinary professionals' knowledge about equine lower respiratory tract disease, including recurrent airway obstruction, and encourage them to feel confident and fully equipped to deal with this common respiratory scenario in practice. During the module, veterinary professionals are guided through two common equine respiratory c...
Source: Veterinary Record - February 9, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Products and Services Source Type: research

Transfusion related acute lung injury: An underdiagnosed and dangerous entity
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017 Source:Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia (English Edition) Author(s): M.A. Ariza-Prota, A. Pando-Sandoval, T. Budiño (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Subcutaneous treprostinil was effective and tolerable in a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis
Conclusion This is the first report that subcutaneous treprostinil was very effective and tolerable in a PH patient with CKD-HD. (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Prevalence and Impact of Diabetes Mellitus Among Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis in South Korea
ConclusionThe prevalence of diabetes was markedly higher in patients with PTB than in a sample of the general South Korean population. Diabetes may delay sputum conversion and adversely affect treatment outcomes; detection and management of diabetes in patients with PTB is crucial. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination in community-dwelling elderly people: an individual participant data meta-analysis of test-negative design case-control studies
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): Maryam Darvishian, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Ange Bissielo, Jesus Castilla, Cheryl Cohen, Helene Englund, Giedre Gefenaite, Wan-Ting Huang, Sacha la Bastide-van Gemert, Iván Martinez-Baz, Johanna M McAnerney, Genevie M Ntshoe, Motoi Suzuki, Nikki Turner, Eelko Hak Background Several aggregate data meta-analyses have provided estimates of the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in community-dwelling elderly people. However, these studies ignored the effects of patient-level confounders such as sex, age, and chronic diseas...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Influenza vaccine effectiveness using the test-negative design: comparability and methodological challenges in meta-analyses
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): James E Fielding (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Investigating the accuracy, risk impact, and cost-effectiveness of component-resolved diagnostic test for food allergy: a systematic review protocol
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, Published online: 9 February 2017; doi:10.1038/s41533-017-0015-0 (Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine)
Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine - February 9, 2017 Category: Primary Care Authors: Javier Flores Kim Bright I. Nwaru Nicola McCleary Andrew Stoddart Aziz Sheikh Source Type: research

Adaptation of a difficult-to-manage asthma programme for implementation in the Dutch context: a modified e-Delphi
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, Published online: 9 February 2017; doi:10.1038/npjpcrm.2016.86 (Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine)
Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine - February 9, 2017 Category: Primary Care Authors: Persijn J Honkoop Hilary Pinnock Regien M M Kievits-Smeets Peter J Sterk P N Richard Dekhuijzen Johannes C C M in ’t Veen Source Type: research

Effect of novel inhaler technique reminder labels on the retention of inhaler technique skills in asthma: a single-blind randomized controlled trial
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, Published online: 9 February 2017; doi:10.1038/s41533-017-0011-4 (Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine)
Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine - February 9, 2017 Category: Primary Care Authors: Iman A. Basheti Nathir M. Obeidat Helen K. Reddel Source Type: research

Preoperative parameters and their prognostic value in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients undergoing implantation of a diaphragm pacing stimulation system
Conclusions: DPS implantation was more efficacious in ALS patients with mild respiratory failure and thicker diaphragm. Predictors of long-term effectiveness of DPS system are needed to be addressed by large-scale studies. (Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Aydin Sanli Ihsan & #350; & #252;kr & #252; & #350;eng & #252;n Volkan Kara & #231;am Aylin & #214;zgen Alpayd & #305;n Kemal Can Tertemiz Sevgi & #214;zalevli Bahar A & #287;ao & #287;lu & #350;anl & #305; Alper Kaya Nezih & #214;zdemir Source Type: research

Menkes disease and response to copper histidine: An Indian case series
Conclusion: We conclude that copper histidine therapy is beneficial in reversing the skin and hair changes, improving appendicular tone, socio-cognitive milestones, and improving weight gain, and immunity. Early diagnosis and management of MD are essential to have a better clinical outcome. More research is needed to explore and devise new strategies in the management of patients with MD. (Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Sangeetha Yoganathan Sniya Valsa Sudhakar Gautham Arunachal Maya Thomas Annadurai Subramanian Renu George Sumita Danda Source Type: research

Epidemiological Study of Mortality in Epilepsy in a Spanish Population
Conclusions This is the first epidemiological study to examine rate of mortality in epilepsy in a Southern European country. The identified mortality pattern is similar to the one provided by researchers from developed countries. The similarities between our results concerning epilepsy-related deaths and those provided by population-based studies are the result of the scarcely selected character of our study cohort. (Source: Seizure)
Source: Seizure - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia healthcare-associated infections: identification of two main pathogenic genetic backgrounds
Conclusion Beyond MLST, we confirmed the over-representation of some genogroups among strains responsible for healthcare-associated infections. We suggest the use of genogrouping affiliation to selectively implement infection control measures for the most pathogenic strains isolated from patient or environmental reservoirs. (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection)
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - February 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Enhancing Cardiac PET by Motion Correction Techniques
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiac positron emission tomography (PET) images often contain errors due to cardiac, respiratory, and patient motion during relatively long image acquisition. Advanced motion compensation techniques may improve PET spatial resolution, eliminate potential artifacts, and ultimately improve the research and clinical capabilities of PET.Recent FindingsCombined cardiac and respiratory gating has only recently been implemented in clinical PET systems. Considering that the gated image bins contain much lower counts than the original PET data, they need to be summed after correcting for motion, forming m...
Source: Current Cardiology Reports - February 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Efficacy of intravenous dexmedetomidine on patient & #39;s satisfaction, comfort and sedation during awake fibre-optic intubation in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy posted for elective cervical fixation
Conclusions: IV DEX infusion during AFOI improves patient&#39;s tolerances with an acceptable level of sedation without significant haemodynamic instability and respiratory depression. (Source: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia - February 9, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Saikat Niyogi Samir Basak Amita Acharjee Indrani Chakraborty Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - February 9, 2017 Category: Virology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 14, Pages 168: Acute Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Ischemic Heart Disease Hospitalizations in Shanghai, China
Conclusions: Hospitalizations of IHD was strongly associated with short-term exposure to high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 during 2013–2014 in Shanghai, China. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - February 9, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Anyang Xu Zhe Mu Bo Jiang Wei Wang Han Yu Lijuan Zhang Jue Li Tags: Article Source Type: research

Longitudinal course of lung function in myotonic dystrophy type 1
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Muscle and Nerve)
Source: Muscle and Nerve - February 9, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Catherine Thil, Nelly Agrinier, Bruno Chenuel, Mathias Poussel Tags: Short Reports Source Type: research

The physiological basis and clinical significance of lung volume measurements
AbstractFrom a physiological standpoint, the lung volumes are either dynamic or static. Both subclasses are measured at different degrees of inspiration or expiration; however, dynamic lung volumes are characteristically dependent on the rate of air flow. The static lung volumes/capacities are further subdivided into four standard volumes (tidal, inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, and residual volumes) and four standard capacities (inspiratory, functional residual, vital and total lung capacities). The dynamic lung volumes are mostly derived from vital capacity. While dynamic lung volumes are essential for diagnosis ...
Source: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

H7N9 Influenza A Virus Exhibits Importin- α7–Mediated Replication in the Mammalian Respiratory Tract
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of death in influenza A virus (IAV) –infected patients. Hereby, the cellular importin-α7 gene plays a major role. It promotes viral replication in the lung, thereby increasing the risk for the development of pneumonia complicated by ARDS. Herein, we analyzed whether the recently emerged H7N9 avian IAV has already adapted to human i mportin-α7 use, which is associated with high-level virus replication in the mammalian lung. Using a cell-based viral polymerase activity assay, we could detect a decreased H7N9 IAV polymerase activity when importin-α7 was ...
Source: American Journal of Pathology - February 9, 2017 Category: Pathology Authors: Stephanie Bertram, Swantje Thiele, Carola Dreier, Patricia Resa-Infante, Annette Preu ß, Debby van Riel, Chris K.P. Mok, Folker Schwalm, Joseph S.M. Peiris, Hans-Dieter Klenk, Gülsah Gabriel Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Vital signs as predictors for aggression in hospital patients (VAPA)
ConclusionPatients experiencing behavioural disturbance had lower standards of patient assessment, greater incidence of physiological abnormalities and more inpatient deaths. Early recognition of, and response to, patient and physiological predictors of Code Grey should be a strategy to prevent behavioural escalation to the point of Code Grey. Relevance to clinical practiceStrategies are needed to improve physiological assessment of patients with behavioural disturbance while ensuring staff safety. There are patient and physiological factors associated with increased risk of Code Grey that may be used to prevent behavioura...
Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing - February 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Julie Considine, Debra Berry, Rebecca Johnson, Natisha Sands Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Chapter 2 Airway management and mechanical ventilation in acute brain injury
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 140 Author(s): D.B. Seder, J. Bösel Patients with acute neurologic disease often develop respiratory failure, the management of which profoundly affects brain physiology and long-term functional outcomes. This chapter reviews airway management and mechanical ventilation of patients with acute brain injury, offering practical strategies to optimize treatment of respiratory failure and minimize secondary brain injury. Specific concerns that are addressed include physiologic changes during intubation and ventilation such as the effects on intracranial pres...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chapter 3 Neuropulmonology
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 140 Author(s): A. Balofsky, J. George, P. Papadakos Neuropulmonology refers to the complex interconnection between the central nervous system and the respiratory system. Neurologic injury includes traumatic brain injury, hemorrhage, stroke, and seizures, and in each there are far-reaching effects that can result in pulmonary dysfunction. Systemic changes can induce impairment of pulmonary function due to changes in the core structure and function of the lung. The conditions and disorders that often occur in these patients include aspiration pneumonia, ne...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chapter 10 Critical care in acute ischemic stroke
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 140 Author(s): M. McDermott, T. Jacobs, L. Morgenstern Most ischemic strokes are managed on the ward or on designated stroke units. A significant proportion of patients with ischemic stroke require more specialized care. Several studies have shown improved outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke when neurocritical care services are available. Features of acute ischemic stroke patients requiring intensive care unit-level care include airway or respiratory compromise; large cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere infarction with swelling; infarction wit...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chapter 13 Management of acute neuromuscular disorders
Publication date: 2017 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 140 Author(s): E.F.M. Wijdicks Imminent neuromuscular respiratory failure is recognized by shortness of breath, restlessness, and tachycardia and is often followed by tachypnea, constantly interrupting speech, asynchronous breathing and sometimes paradoxical breathing and use of scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Once a patient presents with such a constellation of signs, there are some difficult decisions to be made and include assessment of the severity of respiratory failure and in particular when to intubate. Failure of the patient to manage se...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - February 9, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Outcome of strict implementation of infection prevention control measures during an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome
Conclusions The study demonstrated salient evidence that proper institution of IPC measures during management of an outbreak of MERS could remarkably change the course of the outbreak. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - February 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A phase II trial of concurrent chemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin and vinorelbine and radiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with oral vinorelbine in locally advanced non –small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): The CONCAVE study
ConclusionsConsolidation oral vinorelbine after CRT was associated with significant toxicity. Overall, this regimen achieved a high ORR and survival results comparable to other CRT protocols but the significant toxicity precludes further evaluation of this approach. (Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Brett GM Hughes, Elizabeth Ahern, Margot Lehman, Gary Pratt, Margaret Dauth, Wendy Pritchard, Leesa Wockner, Keith Horwood Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Lack of β, β‐carotene‐9′, 10′‐oxygenase 2 leads to hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular oxidative stress in mice
ConclusionsLoss of BCO2 induces mitochondrial hyperactivation, mitochondrial stress, and changes of the mitochondrial proteome, leading to mitochondrial energy insufficiency. BCO2 appears to be critical for proper hepatic mitochondrial function. β, β‐Carotene‐9′,10′‐oxygenase 2 (BCO2) is a carotenoid cleavage enzyme localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane in mammals. The results of the current study demonstrate that the loss of BCO2 causes changes of the hepatic mitochondrial proteome, mitochondrial hyperactivation, and stress, leading to mitochondrial energy insufficiency. BCO2 appears to be critical fo...
Source: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research - February 9, 2017 Category: Food Science Authors: Lei Wu, Xin Guo, Steven D. Hartson, Mary Abby Davis, Hui He, Denis M. Medeiros, Weiqun Wang, Stephen L. Clarke, Edralin A. Lucas, Brenda J. Smith, Johannes Lintig, Dingbo Lin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

The relationship between respiratory system impedance and lung function in asthmatics: a prospective observational study
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017 Source:Respiratory Physiology &amp; Neurobiology Author(s): Takahiro Kamada, Masahiro Kaneko, Hiromi Tomioka Introduction The aim was to elucidate the relationship between the annual changes in respiratory system impedance, measured by FOT, and lung function tests in patients with asthma. Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, asthma outpatients who attended Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital were recruited. Lung function tests, FOT were conducted every 6 months until March 2016. The relationships between annual parameter changes were evaluated. Results and co...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Predictive factors for long-term outcome in polymyositis/dermatomyositis-associated interstitial lung diseases
Conclusions Patients with PM/DM/CADM-ILD are at risk for chronic respiratory failure due to the deterioration of ILD during long-term follow-up. The presence of anti-PL-7 antibody and a lower %FVC at initial diagnosis may predict long-term deterioration in patients with PM/DM/CADM-ILD. (Source: Respiratory Investigation)
Source: Respiratory Investigation - February 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research