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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 13.

Stimulating therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea
The burden of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasing due to the worldwide obesity epidemic and the ageing of the population.1 2 The treatment of OSA is unsatisfactory for some patients since tolerance of the gold standard treatment positive airway pressure (PAP) is quite variable. Among patients who tolerate PAP, results are excellent; however, effectiveness is limited by variable adherence.3 4 Improvements in our understanding of OSA pathogenesis have led to a concept that the mechanism (endotype) underlying OSA is highly variable across individuals such that some patients have primarily an upper airway anatomical p...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Strollo, P. J., Malhotra, A. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Air pollution affects lung cancer survival
Lung cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers in the USA. The American Cancer Society estimates that a total of 221 200 individuals were newly diagnosed with lung cancer in 2015, representing approximately 13% of all new cancer diagnoses.1 Worldwide, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy. In their most recent report, WHO estimated that there were 1.8 million new lung cancer cases diagnosed in 2012.2 In addition to being one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers, survival from lung cancer is poor, making it the leading cause of cancer death in the USA.3 The 5-year lung cancer survival rate ...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hart, J. E. Tags: Press releases Editorial Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
A NICE dilemma we have here... The 2016 revision of the UK NICE guidance on tuberculosis (https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng33) is a hefty document, weighing in at 177 pages. For children screened as household contacts of TB, old timers would have used 15mm Mantoux cut off for children who had previously received BCG. Not any longer! The 2016 NICE guidelines advocate using a lower threshold of 5mm, whether or not the child has had BCG. On page 932 of this month's Thorax, Beate Kampmann and colleagues put this strategy to the test. They find that the use of a 5mm cut off for the Mantoux test reduces the specificity of the ...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: The Triumvirate Tags: Airwaves Source Type: research

The role of stretch-activated ion channels in acute respiratory distress syndrome: finally a new target?
Mechanical ventilation (MV) and oxygen therapy (hyperoxia; HO) comprise the cornerstones of life-saving interventions for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Unfortunately, the side effects of MV and HO include exacerbation of lung injury by barotrauma, volutrauma, and propagation of lung inflammation. Despite significant improvements in ventilator technologies and a heightened awareness of oxygen toxicity, besides low tidal volume ventilation few if any medical interventions have improved ARDS outcomes over the past two decades. We are lacking a comprehensive understanding of mechanotransduction proc...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schwingshackl, A. Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

What's hot that the other lot got
Use of prophylactic radiotherapy in mesothelioma A well-recognised complication of pleural intervention in mesothelioma patients are pleural tract metastases. Prophylactic radiotherapy is often used to prevent this complication but clinical practice varies greatly due to lack of evidence regarding the efficacy of its use. In this multi-centred, open labelled, phase 3, randomised controlled trial (Lancet Oncol 2016;17:1094–104), researchers demonstrated no significant difference in the incidence of pleural tract metastases in patients who received immediate prophylactic radiotherapy following a large-bore pleural proc...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lee, C. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Respiratory cancer, Inflammation, Asthma, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Health education, Smoking, Source Type: research

Symptomatic accessory cardiac bronchus in an infant
A 13-month-old infant was referred for evaluation of a severe, therapy-resistant asthma. He presented with daily wheezing, recurrent acute exacerbations, chronic dry-to-wet cough and failure to thrive. His mother had severe allergic asthma with recent admission to the intensive care unit. Initial chest X-rays were normal and skin prick tests were negative. It was decided to undertake a comprehensive work-up to exclude differential diagnoses. Paediatric radiologists initially interpreted the chest CT scan as normal. Bronchoscopic examination revealed an accessory cardiac bronchus (ACB) originating from the medial wall of th...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fina, A., Baque-Juston, M., Guesmi, M., Albertini, M., Giovannini-Chami, L. Tags: Images in Thorax, Hemoptysis, Child health, Inflammation, Physiotherapy, Asthma, Sports and exercise medicine, Cardiothoracic surgery, Radiology (diagnostics) Chest clinic Source Type: research

Community-acquired pneumonia in children: what to do when there is no response to standard empirical treatment?
SS (registrar) and AC (resident) A 5-year-old female presents to a tertiary paediatric hospital in Australia with a 2-day history of fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. Her past history consists of three episodes of otitis media in the preceding 12 months, all resulting in tympanic membrane perforation. Her parents report an ‘innocent heart murmur’ diagnosed by a paediatric cardiologist. There is no history of travel or animal exposure. With regard to family history, she is the child of non-consanguineous Caucasian parents, and her father has Crohn's disease. On examination, she is febrile (40.0°C) and...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shanthikumar, S., Clifford, A., Massie, J., Cole, T., Steer, A., Marks, M., Gwee, A. Tags: Lung abscess, Drugs: infectious diseases, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Inflammation, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Radiology (diagnostics), Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology Chest clinic Source Type: research

A diagnostic model for chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis
The objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic model that allows for a highly specific diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis using clinical and radiological variables alone. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other interstitial lung disease cases were retrospectively identified from a longitudinal database. High-resolution CT scans were blindly scored for radiographic features (eg, ground-glass opacity, mosaic perfusion) as well as the radiologist's diagnostic impression. Candidate models were developed then evaluated using clinical and radiographic variables and assessed by the cross-validated C...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Johannson, K. A., Elicker, B. M., Vittinghoff, E., Assayag, D., de Boer, K., Golden, J. A., Jones, K. D., King, T. E., Koth, L. L., Lee, J. S., Ley, B., Wolters, P. J., Collard, H. R. Tags: Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Interstitial lung disease, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Radiology (diagnostics) Research letter Source Type: research

Does UKLS strategy increase the yield of screen-detected lung cancers? A comparison with ITALUNG
The optimal strategy to increase the benefit of low dose computed tomograph (LDCT) screening of lung cancer in terms of as high as possible number of discovered cancers and to reduce the costs, in terms of as low as possible number of LDCT examinations and of interventions on benign lesions, is not established. Field and co-workers recently reported1 the results of lung cancer screening with LDCT in the UKLS RCT pilot study that selected eligible subjects with a validated individual risk prediction model, invited potential candidates by mail and applied the Wald Single Screen Design2 with nodule management based on volumet...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mascalchi, M., Lopes Pegna, A., Carrozzi, L., Carozzi, F., Falaschi, F., Picozzi, G., Paci, E. Tags: Journalology, Lung neoplasms, Epidemiologic studies, Lung cancer (oncology), Screening (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Pulmonary emphysema, Screening (epidemiology), Ethics, Occupational and environmental medicine, Environmental issues, He Source Type: research

Birth weight, early childhood growth and lung function in middle to early old age: 1946 British birth cohort
Conclusions Birth weight is positively associated with adult lung function in middle age, particularly in women, but the association diminishes with age, potentially due to accumulating environmental influences over the life course. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cai, Y., Shaheen, S. O., Hardy, R., Kuh, D., Hansell, A. L. Tags: Epidemiologic studies Respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Tidal changes in respiratory resistance are sensitive indicators of airway obstruction in children
Conclusions New lung function measure R is able to detect airway obstruction with high sensitivity and specificity and is suitable for use in lung function testing in young children. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Czövek, D., Shackleton, C., Hantos, Z., Taylor, K., Kumar, A., Chacko, A., Ware, R. S., Makan, G., Radics, B., Gingl, Z., Sly, P. D. Tags: Drugs: respiratory system Paediatric lung disease Source Type: research

Air pollution affects lung cancer survival
Conclusions These epidemiological findings support the hypothesis that air pollution exposures after lung cancer diagnosis shorten survival. Future studies should evaluate the impacts of exposure reduction. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Eckel, S. P., Cockburn, M., Shu, Y.-H., Deng, H., Lurmann, F. W., Liu, L., Gilliland, F. D. Tags: Lung neoplasms, Epidemiologic studies, Editor's choice, Press releases, Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Air pollution, Environmental issues Environmental exposure Source Type: research

NIV for OHS without severe OSAS: is it worth it?
Home non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used to manage chronic respiratory failure since the polio epidemics of the 1940s; however, the support for many of the indications remains based on small non-randomised or uncontrolled studies. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is an increasingly common cause of chronic respiratory failure and indication for home mechanical ventilation; unsurprisingly as the diagnosis remains frequently missed, significant variation exists across Europe.1 2 The majority of patients with OHS have significant obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and recent data have demonstrated the benefits of NI...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Murphy, P. B., Janssens, J.-P. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Transient Arterial Phase Respiratory Motion-Related Artifact in MR Imaging of the Liver: An Analysis of Four Different Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Compare hepatic arterial phase (HAP) respiratory motion artifact (RMA) between Gadoxetate, Gadobutrol, Gadopentetate, and Gadobenate. (Source: Clinical Imaging)
Source: Clinical Imaging - September 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Mansi R. Shah, Milana Flusberg, Viktoriya Paroder, Alla M. Rozenblit, Victoria Chernyak Source Type: research

Illness Symptoms Experienced by Children Exposed to Benzene After a Flaring Incident at the BP Refinery Facility in Texas City
Conclusion. Together, these findings reveal that children exposed to benzene experience a range of illness symptoms and an altered profile of urinary phenol indicating their vulnerability to potentially increased health complications. (Source: Clinical Pediatrics)
Source: Clinical Pediatrics - September 13, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: DAndrea, M. A., Reddy, G. K. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Post-ischemic Myoclonic Status Following Cardiac Arrest in Young Drug Users
ConclusionsOn rare occasions, myoclonic status does not imply a poor functional outcome following cardiac arrest. Other clinical and demographic characteristics including young age, presence of illicit substances, and primary respiratory causes of arrest may contribute to a severe clinical presentation, with a subsequent good neurologic outcome in a small subset of patients. (Source: Neurocritical Care)
Source: Neurocritical Care - September 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rare central venous catheter malposition – an ultrasound-guided approach would be helpful: a case report
ConclusionsInternal mammary artery malposition is a rare but potentially lethal complication of central venous catheter catheterization; however, caution should be taken regarding the assessment of risk factors and management of a severe complication. An ultrasound-guided approach would be helpful. (Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports)
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - September 13, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of invasive versus conservative management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax
Introduction Current management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is variable, with little evidence from randomised controlled trials to guide treatment. Guidelines emphasise intervention in many patients, which involves chest drain insertion, hospital admission and occasionally surgery. However, there is evidence that conservative management may be effective and safe, and it may also reduce the risk of recurrence. Significant questions remain regarding the optimal initial approach to the management of PSP. Methods and analysis This multicentre, prospective, randomised, open label, parallel group, non-inferiority ...
Source: BMJ Open - September 13, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Brown, S. G. A., Ball, E. L., Perrin, K., Read, C. A., Asha, S. E., Beasley, R., Egerton-Warburton, D., Jones, P. G., Keijzers, G., Kinnear, F. B., Kwan, B. C. H., Lee, Y. C. G., Smith, J. A., Summers, Q. A., Simpson, G., the PSP Study Group Tags: Open access, Medical management, Respiratory medicine Protocol Source Type: research

The Death of Balzac (1799-1850) and the Treatment of Heart Failure during the Nineteenth Century
Overweight, workaholic and caffeine abuser, Honor é de Balzac lived a life of excess. He prematurely died aged 51 due to a gangrene associated with congestive heart failure. Textual sources allowed us to take a glimpse into his last three months of life. Due to ventricular hypertrophy, Balzac's respiratory conditions were appalling and he develope d severe leg edemas and possibly stasis dermatitis. Here we report on Balzac's demise and provide first evidence of a pioneering medical treatment applied to save his life: the use of trocar to drain leg edema. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 13, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: A Perciaccante, M A Riva, A Coralli, P Charlier, R Bianucci Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Severe winter asthma exacerbations may be prevented by omalizumab but no carry over effect
Our proof-of-concept study shows that omalizumab given during the winter respiratory viral season can prevent severe exacerbations but only while the drug is being taken. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Peter D. Sly, Julie Varghese, Farhana Noor, Mimi LK. Tang, Ingrid Laing, Steve Oo, Franciska Prastanti, Peter N. LeSouef, Patrick G. Holt Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics of Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease is a significant endotype of both asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. The disease demonstrates what seems to be a unified inflammatory mechanism culminating in highly eosinophilic nasal polyp disease and asthma. The rate of polyp recurrence and morbidity from asthma exacerbations are significant and warrant separating this group diagnostically from aspirin-tolerant peers. Given the unique anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and the evolving landscape of new, targeted biologic treatments, it is even more incumbent to consider this diagnosis and offer patients treatme...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Donald D. Stevenson, Andrew A. White Source Type: research

Diagnostic Evaluation in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
This article discusses the utility of the clinical history and the current evidence regarding measures that optimize the safety of performing diagnostic NSAID provocation challenges. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Adam N. Williams Source Type: research

Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease as an Endotype of Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (AERD) and Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP) are both characterized by the presence of chronic sinonasal inflammation and nasal polyps. Unlike in CRSwNP, AERD patients develop respiratory reactions following ingestion of COX-1 inhibitors. AERD patients also, on average, have worse upper respiratory disease with increased sinonasal symptoms, mucosal inflammation and requirements for revision sinus surgery when compared to CRSwNP patients. While no single genetic factor has been identified in either CRSwNP or AERD to date, differences in the metabolism of arachidonic ac...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Whitney W. Stevens, Robert P. Schleimer Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of Aspirin-Induced Reactions in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
The acute clinical symptoms that develop following the oral ingestion of aspirin, or any other inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1, are well established in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and bronchospasm. Less commonly, gastrointestinal distress, rash, angioedema, or urticaria also develops. However, the pathobiology that drives these clinical reactions is poorly understood. Use of an intranasal aspirin challenge protocol or administration of premedications inhibiting the leukotriene pathway decreases the severity of clinical reaction, which suggests the involvement of both local effector ...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Katherine N. Cahill, Tanya M. Laidlaw Source Type: research

Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1 –inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validat ed in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can u...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jeremy D. Waldram, Ronald A. Simon Source Type: research

Clinical Trials of Aspirin Treatment After Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease
This article summarizes data from noncontrolled, active-control, and placebo-controlled trials assessing clinical effectiveness and reporting on safety of treatment with acetylsalicylic acid in desensitized patients with respiratory disease exacerbated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Marek L. Kowalski, Aleksandra Wardzy ńska, Joanna S. Makowska Source Type: research

Eosinophils and Mast Cells in Aspirin-exacerbated Respiratory Disease
This article examines the overall role that eosinophils and mast cells contribute to the pathophysiology of AERD. (Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America)
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 13, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: John W. Steinke, Spencer C. Payne, Larry Borish Source Type: research

Detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in blood: Viruses or DNA remnants?
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small, nonenveloped, single-stranded DNA virus, replicating primarily in erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. B19V infections are widespread in the human population and transmission predominantly takes place by respiratory droplets. During acute B19V infection a short-lived exceptionally high peak of B19V DNA occurs in peripheral blood (>1012IU/mL) [1]. For a much longer period following acute infection low levels of B19V DNA (101 –104IU/mL) may be detected in the blood of immune-competent individuals, lasting for months or years, long after the anti-B19V IgG response has developed [2...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - September 13, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: M.W.A. Molenaar-de Backer, A. Russcher, A.C.M. Kroes, M.H.G.M. Koppelman, M. Lanfermeijer, H.L. Zaaijer Source Type: research

Coronavirus Spike Protein and Tropism Changes
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016 Source:Advances in Virus Research Author(s): R.J.G. Hulswit, C.A.M. de Haan, B.-J. Bosch Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a remarkable potential to change tropism. This is particularly illustrated over the last 15 years by the emergence of two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Due to their inherent genetic variability, it is inevitable that new cross-species transmission events of these enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses will occur. Research into these medical and veterinary important pathogens...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - September 13, 2016 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A proof of concept study of acoustic sensing of lung recruitment during mechanical ventilation
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016 Source:Biomedical Signal Processing and Control Author(s): Geoffrey W. Rodgers, Jade B. Lau Young, Thomas Desaive, Geoffrey M. Shaw, J. Geoffrey Chase Advancements in health technologies are crucial to support healthcare professionals, improve patient outcomes, and best utilize increasingly scarce and under-demand healthcare resources. This research presents an initial proof-of-concept study of simple, non-invasive monitoring techniques used in Mechanical Ventilation (MV), which is the primary therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The high levels of in...
Source: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control - September 13, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Separating the effect of respiration on the heart rate variability using Granger's causality and linear filtering
Publication date: January 2017 Source:Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Volume 31 Author(s): Gustavo Lenis, Michael Kircher, Jesús Lázaro, Raquel Bailón, Eduardo Gil, Olaf Doessel Heart rate variability (HRV) plays an important role in medicine and psychology because it is used to quantify imbalances of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). An important manifestations of the ANS on HRV is also directly related to respiration and it is called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). This is a controlled phenomenon that leads to a synchronized coupling between respiration and instantaneous heart rate. Thus, the portion ...
Source: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control - September 13, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

1 Probing the proton channels in subunit N of Complex I from Escherichia coli through intra-subunit cross-linking
In this study of the enzyme from Escherichia coli, subunit N, containing one of the sites, was targeted. Pairs of cysteine residues were introduced into neighboring α-helices along the proposed proton pathways. In an effort to constrain conformational changes that might occur during proton translocation, we attempted to form disulfide bonds or methanethiosulfonate bridges between two engineered cysteine residues. Cysteine modification was inferred by the inability of PEG-maleimide to shift the electrophoretic mobility of subunit N, which will occur upon reaction with free sulfhydryl groups. After the cross-linking treatme...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Bioenergetics - September 13, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman
We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period. (Source: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine - September 13, 2016 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Pooja R Murthy Rajesh Ucchil Unmil Shah Dipak Chaudhari Source Type: research

Association of serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of measuring the cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with ARDS in predicting the clinical outcome. (Source: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine - September 13, 2016 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Deme Swaroopa Kakarla Bhaskar T Mahathi Shivakrishna Katkam Y Satyanarayana Raju Naval Chandra Vijay Kumar Kutala Source Type: research

Three-Year Outcomes With the Multilayer Flow Modulator for Repair of Thoracoabdominal Aneurysms: A Follow-up Report From the STRATO Trial
Conclusion: Through 3 years, endovascular repair with the MFM appears to be safe and effective while successfully maintaining branch vessel patency. (Source: Journal of Endovascular Therapy)
Source: Journal of Endovascular Therapy - September 13, 2016 Category: Surgery Authors: Vaislic, C. D., Fabiani, J. N., Chocron, S., Robin, J., Costache, V. S., Villemot, J.-P., Alsac, J. M., Leprince, P. N., Unterseeh, T., Portocarrero, E., Glock, Y., Rousseau, H., for the STRATO Investigators Group Tags: Thoracoabdominal Aortic Interventions Source Type: research

Exercise training in COPD: What is it about intensity?
ABSTRACT Most of the current guidelines for pulmonary rehabilitation recommend higher, over lower, intensity exercise training for COPD. Typically, we consider intensity of exercise training to be a key component of any exercise training programme. Whilst studies of young individuals have demonstrated that higher exercise training intensity results in greater improvements in exercise capacity, the evidence for older patients is not so clear cut. In COPD, there is limited evidence regarding the optimal intensity of exercise training. Using both physiological (peak exercise capacity) and patient‐centred (e.g. quality of l...
Source: Respirology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Norman R. Morris, James Walsh, Lewis Adams, Jennifer Alision Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Issue Information
Watch the Video about our latest announcements (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Extremis: a sensitive look at life (and death) in the ICU
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2016 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): Talha Burki (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Lung disease recalling paraseptal emphysema in a patient with Goltz syndrome
ConclusionThis report suggested - for the first time time - a rationale for a lung function and imaging screening in patients affected by Goltz syndrome at least in its autosomal form. (Source: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine)
Source: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Validation of a new domiciliary diagnosis device for automatic diagnosis of patients with clinical suspicion of OSA
ConclusionThe automatic analysis of the BTI‐APNiA is as accurate as manual analysis of AHI. This automatic analysis compared well with the manual analysis of a validated RP device (Embletta Gold). (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Joaqu ín Durán‐Cantolla, Gabriela Zamora Almeida, Odei Vegas Diaz de Guereñu, Luis Saracho Rotaeche, Mohammad Hamdan Alkhraisat, Joaquín Durán Carro, Carlos Egea Santaolalla, Eduardo Anitua, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Parkin regulates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses in acute lung injury
The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a serious condition resulting from direct or indirect lung injury that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. A key biological event in the pathogenesis of the acute lung injury (ALI) that causes ARDS is activation of the lung endothelium (EC), which is triggered by a variety of inflammatory insults leading to barrier disruption and excessive adhesion/activation of neutrophils. Recently, we demonstrated that imatinib protects against LPS-induced EC activation by inhibiting c-Abl kinase. (Source: Translational Research)
Source: Translational Research - September 13, 2016 Category: Research Authors: E. Letsiou, S. Sammani, H. Wang, P. Belvitch, S.M. Dudek Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Adaptive Dose Escalation using Serial Four-dimensional Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Scans during Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy dose escalation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) has had limited success. In this planning study, we investigated the potential for adaptive dose escalation using respiratory-gated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans (4DPET/4DCT) acquired before and during a course of chemoradiotherapy (CRT). (Source: Clinical Oncology)
Source: Clinical Oncology - September 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: M.L. Yap, A. Sun, J. Higgins, K. Clarke, A. Marshall, N. Becker, L.W. Le, D.C. Vines, A. Bezjak, J.-P. Bissonnette Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Targeting Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling in Lung Diseases
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2016 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): David L. Ebenezer, Panfeng Fu, Viswanathan Natarajan Sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P), a simple, bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, plays a key role, both intracellularly and extracellularly, in various cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis, and endothelial barrier integrity. The cellular S1P level is low and is tightly regulated by its synthesis and degradation. Sphingosine Kinases (SphKs) 1 and 2, catalyze the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of sphingosine to S1P, whil...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Diffusion ‐weighted MR imaging of upper abdominal organs at different time points: Apparent diffusion coefficient normalization using a reference organ
ConclusionNormalized ADC using the spleen as a reference organ significantly decreased variability in measurement of the upper abdominal organs in different MR systems at different time points and could be regarded as an imaging biomarker for future multicenter, longitudinal studies.Level of Evidence: 5J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016. (Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging - September 13, 2016 Category: Radiology Authors: Ji Soo Song, Hyo Sung Kwak, Jung Hee Byon, Gong Yong Jin Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Concha Bullosa in Paleoanthropological Material.
Authors: Gawlikowska-Sroka A, Szczurowski J, Kwiatkowska B, Konczewski P, Dzieciołowska-Baran E, Donotek M, Walecka A, Nowakowski D Abstract Concha bullosa is a variant of the sinonasal anatomy in which the middle nasal turbinate contains pneumatized cells, which leads to turbinate enlargement. The reason for concha bullosa formation is unclear, but the variant is seen in up to half the modern population and it may predispose to paranasal sinusitis. The variant has hitherto featured little in paleopathology. Therefore, in the present study we seek to determine the presence of concha bullosa, with the coexisting hy...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - September 12, 2016 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Erratum
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - September 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

In reply
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - September 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stagg, Helen R. Harris, Ross J. Lipman, Marc C. Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Treatment regimens for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis: highlighting a research gap
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - September 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nunn, Andrew Tweed, Conor Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

In reply
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - September 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kim, Suhyun Han, Seon-Sook Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Reasons for high mortality rates in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis needing mechanical ventilation
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - September 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Karaka & #351 , Ahmet Turhan, Vedat Esquinas, Antonio M Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research