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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 12.

Each day is a new beginning
(Source: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine)
Source: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Professor Neil Pride
Professor Neil Blair Pride MD, FRCP, FERS: born Croydon 29 July 1931, died Ealing 12 November 2016. Neil Pride, Emeritus Professor of Respiratory Medicine at Imperial College London, died on 12 November 2016, aged 85 years. He was a world-renowned respiratory physician and physiologist who made enormous contributions to our understanding of common lung diseases. He was an active member of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) and served as President from 1992 to 1993. Neil was born in Croydon to a general practitioner father and educated at Bryanston School, Dorset. He studied preclinical medicine at Christ's College, Ca...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Barnes, P. J., Hughes, M. Tags: Chest clinic Source Type: research

The pressure-dependent air leak after partial lung resection
Case report A 72-year-old man with a right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma underwent lobectomy with removal of tube thoracostomy 3 days after the thoracic surgery. He presented approximately 3 weeks after surgery with increasing dyspnoea. A chest X-ray (CXR) revealed a moderately large, loculated basilar pneumothorax (figure 1A). A small bore tube thoracostomy was placed with reduction of the pneumothorax. However, a moderate-sized pneumothorax with a persistent air leak persisted for approximately 2 weeks after chest tube placement requiring ongoing hospitalisation (figure 1B). Pleural manometry was perform...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chopra, A., Doelken, P., Judson, M. A., Huggins, T. Tags: Images in Thorax, Health policy, Epidemiologic studies, Lung cancer (oncology), Screening (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Cardiothoracic surgery, Radiology (diagnostics), Health service research Chest clinic Source Type: research

Large airways nodularity secondary to tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica
A 74-year-old retired librarian was referred for assessment after a full-body CT, performed to investigate a 3-month history of persistent nausea and weight loss, incidentally identified a 10 mm left lower lobe nodule alongside small volume nodularity seen throughout the trachea and proximal main bronchi (figure 1). There was no previous thoracic imaging for comparison. She had a five pack-year smoking history and reported no preceding respiratory disease or symptoms. Her medical background was otherwise unremarkable. She appeared well in clinic; physical examination, basic spirometry (FEV1 131%, FVC 133% predicted) a...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Corcoran, J. P., Wrightson, J. M., Moore, A. J., Gleeson, F. V., Sykes, A. Tags: Images in Thorax, Hemoptysis, Cardiothoracic surgery, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Chest clinic Source Type: research

Placental transmogrification of the lung presenting as progressive symptomatic bullous emphysema
In 2015, a 63-year-old non-smoking male with a history of bullous emphysema, for which a wedge resection of the right lower lobe had been performed in 1972, presented with progressive dyspnoea on exertion and coughing. Pulmonary function tests demonstrated a moderate obstructive pattern with normal diffusion capacity (FEV1: 61%, FVC: 64%, TLco: 86%). CT of the thorax revealed localised bullous–cystic changes in the right lower lobe with displacement of the mediastinum to the contralateral side (figure 1). Due to the patient’s increasing respiratory distress, a right lower lobectomy was performed. Grossly, the s...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brüstle, K., Lema, S., Komminoth, P., Weder, W., Vrugt, B., Jungraithmayr, W. Tags: Images in Thorax, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine) Chest clinic Source Type: research

Histologist's original opinion compared with multidisciplinary team in determining diagnosis in interstitial lung disease
Guidelines recommend that multidisciplinary interstitial lung disease meeting (ILD MDT) decisions become the gold standard for diagnosis, replacing the histologist from this position, and identify this as requiring supportive evidence. We have compared diagnoses from lung biopsy material made by expert histologists with the subsequent consensus opinion from a properly constituted ILD MDT in 71 consecutive patients referred to a regional thoracic unit. MDT changed the original histological diagnoses in 30% (95% CI 19.3% to 41.6%) and strengthened the diagnoses from probable to confident in a further 17% (95% CI 9.1% to 27.7...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Burge, P., Reynolds, J., Trotter, S., Burge, G., Walters, G., Djearaman, Hussain, Hoey, Langman, Payyappilly, Naidoo, Kalkat, Steyn, Rajesh, Bishay, Naidu, Ghani, Petkova, Robertson, Jayakumar Tags: Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Interstitial lung disease, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine) Research letter Source Type: research

Endobronchial valves for patients with heterogeneous emphysema and without interlobar collateral ventilation: open label treatment following the BeLieVeR-HIFi study
Outcomes in early trials of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valves for the treatment of patients with advanced emphysema were inconsistent. However improvements in patient selection with focus on excluding those with interlobar collateral ventilation and homogeneous emphysema resulted in significant benefits in the BeLieVeR-HIFi study compared with sham treated controls. In this manuscript we present data from the control patients in the BeLieVeR-HIFi study who went on to have open label endobronchial valve treatment after completion of the clinical trial (n=12), combined with data from those in the...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zoumot, Z., Davey, C., Jordan, S., McNulty, W. H., Carr, D. H., Hind, M. D., Polkey, M. I., Shah, P. L., Hopkinson, N. S. Tags: Open access Research letter Source Type: research

{beta}-Blockers, heart disease and COPD: current controversies and uncertainties
Treating people with cardiovascular disease and COPD causes significant clinician anxiety. β-Blockers save lives in people with heart disease, specifically postinfarction and heart failure. COPD and heart disease frequently coexist and people with both disorders have particularly high cardiovascular mortality. There are concerns about giving β-blockers to people with concomitant COPD that include reduced basal lung function, diminished effectiveness of emergency β-agonist treatments, reduced benefit of long-acting β-agonist treatment and difficulty in discriminating between asthma and COPD. β-Block...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Baker, J. G., Wilcox, R. G. Tags: State of the art review Source Type: research

The effect of diabetes control status on treatment response in pulmonary tuberculosis: a prospective study
Conclusions Uncontrolled diabetes is an independent risk factor for poor treatment response in PTB. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yoon, Y. S., Jung, J.-W., Jeon, E. J., Seo, H., Ryu, Y. J., Yim, J.-J., Kim, Y. H., Lee, B.-H., Park, Y. B., Lee, B. J., Kang, H., Choi, J. C. Tags: TB and other respiratory infections, Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Coexistence of OSA may compensate for sleep related reduction in neural respiratory drive in patients with COPD
Conclusions Stage 2 sleep-related hypoventilation in COPD alone is due to reduction of neural respiratory drive, but in overlap syndrome it is due to increased upper airway resistance. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: He, B.-T., Lu, G., Xiao, S.-C., Chen, R., Steier, J., Moxham, J., Polkey, M. I., Luo, Y.-M. Tags: Open access Sleep Source Type: research

Immature monocytes contribute to cardiopulmonary bypass-induced acute lung injury by generating inflammatory descendants
Conclusions The immature CD14lowCD16– monocytes might contribute to blood-circuit contact-induced acute lung injury by generating TNF-α-producing, mature monocytes. New strategies based on monocyte manipulation could be a promising therapeutic approach for minimising CPB-related lung injury. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Xing, Z., Han, J., Hao, X., Wang, J., Jiang, C., Hao, Y., Wang, H., Wu, X., Shen, L., Dong, X., Li, T., Li, G., Zhang, J., Hou, X., Zeng, H. Tags: Adult respiratory distress syndrome Respiratory research Source Type: research

Relieving dyspnoea by non-invasive ventilation decreases pain thresholds in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Conclusion Relieving dyspnoea by NIV in patients with ALS having respiratory failure is associated with decreased pressure pain thresholds. Clinical implications have yet to be determined, but this observation suggests that patients with ALS could become more susceptible to pain after the institution of NIV, hence the need for reinforced attention towards potentially painful diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dangers, L., Laviolette, L., Georges, M., Gonzalez-Bermejo, J., Rivals, I., Similowski, T., Morelot-Panzini, C. Tags: Non-invasive ventilation Source Type: research

Conclusions' section of this abstract. The changes are in bold. Methods An electronic search was performed to find patients on PCU whom received NIV between 1st January and 30th November 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients that had received NIV for COPD exacerbations solely. Data from the physician led respiratory unit between Jan–Nov 2011 was prospectively collected, and the two datasets compared. Results In the respiratory unit 75 patients were admitted for NIV of which 39 met the criteria for inclusion in the analysis. In the PCU group 110 patients were admitted between Jan–Nov 2014 of which 55 were inclu...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Allinson JP, Hardy R, Donaldson GC, et al. T2 Early-life respiratory tract infection and adult susceptibility to chronic mucus hypersecretion – a prospective 64 year national birth cohort study. Thorax 2016;71:A1–A2. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-209333.2 Text within the figure legend has been corrected. Figure 1Odds ratios of Chronic Mucus Hypersecretion (CMH) across adult life according to concurrent smoking and history of lower respiratory tract infection between ages 0 and 2 years (relative to CMH presence at age 20 years in the baseline group of non-smokers without early-life lower respiratory tract inf...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Progress in respiratory management of bulbar complications of motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
Loss of motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord is the hallmark of motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS), resulting in weakness of limbs, respiratory and bulbar muscles and eventually death from respiratory failure in the majority of patients. Around 20%–30% have bulbar symptoms at onset—this is less common in younger patients, but affects more than 40% of those over 70 years.1 Virtually all patients will develop bulbar symptoms with disease progression. Symptoms consist of dysarthria, dysphagia, difficulties clearing oropharyngeal secretions, impaired cough, choking, ...
Source: Thorax - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Simonds, A. K. Tags: Open access Editorial Source Type: research

Call to action: improving primary care for women with COPD
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, Published online: 15 February 2017; doi:10.1038/s41533-017-0013-2 (Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine)
Source: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine - February 15, 2017 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ioanna Tsiligianni Miguel Rom án Rodríguez Karin Lisspers Tze LeeTan Antonio Infantino Source Type: research

Noninvasivepositive pressure ventilation vsinvasive mechanical ventilation as first-line therapy for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in cancer patients
Conclusion Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation failure is an independent risk factor for ICU mortality, but NIPPV patients who avoided intubation had the best outcomes compared with the other groups. Early vs late intubation did not have a significant impact on outcomes. (Source: Journal of Critical Care)
Source: Journal of Critical Care - February 15, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Prevalence and clinical profile of human bocavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Chengdu, West China, 2012 –2013
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - February 15, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Tao Zhou, Yuhang Chen, Jiayi Chen, Pengwei Hu, Tianli Zheng, Xin Xu, Xiaofang Pei Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Outcome of peripheral venous reconstructions during tumor resection
Conclusions In selected patients fit for advanced tumor resection, reconstruction of IL and extremity veins is a safe and durable, with excellent limb salvage. Vein and prosthetic reconstructions both appear effective; however, infectious complications and graft thrombosis remain important complications when selecting a prosthetic conduit. (Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders)
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders - February 15, 2017 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Acute exacerbation of COPD with pulmonary embolism: A new D-dimer cut-off value
Conclusion Given that D-dimer levels are high in subjects having COPD exacerbation, determining a new cut-off value is mandatory to rule out PE and avoid unnecessary further investigations. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis)
Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis - February 15, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

[The inverted halo sign in a febrile neutropenic patient].
Authors: Perolat R, Stephanov O, Mounier A, Thiebaut A, Pirvu A, Hamidfar R, Ferretti G PMID: 28190625 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires)
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research

Complementary Feeding and Diarrhea and Respiratory Infection Among HIV-Exposed Tanzanian Infants
Objective: To examine the association between complementary feeding and risks of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among HIV-exposed infants aged 6–24 months. Design: We prospectively used an Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) to measure complementary feeding practices (breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity, food group frequency, and meal frequency). We determined the association of ICFI and each of its components with the risk of diarrhea and ARI. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the relative risks for morbidity episodes. Setting: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subj...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - February 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Bifunctional peptide-based opioid agonist/nociceptin antagonist ligand for dual treatment of nociceptive and neuropathic pain
Abstract: Drugs able to treat both nociceptive and neuropathic pain effectively without major side effects are lacking. We developed a bifunctional peptide-based hybrid (KGNOP1) that structurally combines a mu-opioid receptor agonist (KGOP1) with antinociceptive activity and a weak nociceptin receptor antagonist (KGNOP3) with anti-neuropathic pain activity. We investigated KGNOP1-related behavioral effects after intravenous administration in rats by assessing thermal nociception, cold hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, and plethysmography parameters incl...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

How nurse gender influences patient priority assignments in US emergency departments
Abstract: The goals of this study were to compare whether emergency department (ED) patients' pain intensity (PI) is measured differently by male and female nurses and to determine whether PI, heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) were used to prioritize patient urgency differently by male and female nurses. The associations between patients' PI|HR|RR and the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) scores they were assigned by attending nurses were analyzed using a national database of electronic medical records of US Veterans Affairs ED patients from 2008 to 2012. A total of 129,991 patients presenting for emergency care (Mag...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Influence of Ethanol on Oxycodone-induced Respiratory Depression A Dose-escalating Study in Young and Elderly Individuals
Background Respiratory depression is a potentially fatal complication of opioid use, which may be exacerbated by simultaneous ethanol intake. In this three-way sequential crossover dose-escalating study, the influence of coadministration of oral oxycodone and intravenous ethanol was assessed on resting ventilation, apneic events and the hypercapnic ventilatory response in healthy young and older volunteers.Methods Twelve young (21 to 28 yr) and 12 elderly (66 to 77 yr) opioid-naive participants ingested one 20  mg oxycodone tablet combined with an intravenous infusion of 0, 0.5, or 1 g/l ethanol. Resting respiratory va...
Source: Anesthesiology - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes Associated with Perioperative Transfusion-associated Circulatory Overload
Background Transfusion-associated circulatory overload remains underappreciated in the perioperative environment. The authors aimed to characterize risk factors for perioperative transfusion-associated circulatory overload and better understand its impact on patient-important outcomes.Methods In this case –control study, 163 adults undergoing noncardiac surgery who developed perioperative transfusion-associated circulatory overload were matched with 726 transfused controls who did not develop respiratory complications. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate potential risk factors ...
Source: Anesthesiology - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Effects of different mycotoxins on humans, cell genome and their involvement in cancer (Review).
Authors: Ahmed Adam MA, Tabana YM, Musa KB, Sandai DA Abstract The chemical nature of most of the mycotoxins makes them highly liposoluble compounds that can be absorbed from the site of exposure such as from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract to the blood stream where it can be dissimilated throughout the body and reach different organs such as the liver and kidneys. Mycotoxins have a strong tendency and ability to penetrate the human and animal cells and reach the cellular genome where it causes a major mutagenic change in the nucleotide sequence which leads to strong and permanent defects in the genome. ...
Source: Oncology Reports - February 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research

Clinical Relevance of Pleural Effusion in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism
Background: Data regarding pleural effusion due to pulmonary embolism (PE) are limited.Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of PE patients with pleural effusion caused by PE.Methods: Patients with PE were retrospectively analyzed and divided into 2 groups based on computed tomography: a group with pleural effusion due to PE (effusion group) and a group without pleural effusion (control group). Clinical characteristics were compared between the 2 groups.Results: The study population consisted of the effusion group (n = 127) and the control group (n = 651). Serum C-reactive protei...
Source: Respiration - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antivirulence Properties of Probiotics in Combating Microbial Pathogenesis.
Abstract Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Ample evidence is documented to support the potential application of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections. Health benefits of probiotics include prevention of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea, atopic eczema, dental carries, colorectal cancers, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The cumulative body of scientific evidence that demonstrates the beneficial effects of probiotics on health and disease prevention has m...
Source: Advances in Applied Microbiology - February 14, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Surendran Nair M, Amalaradjou MA, Venkitanarayanan K Tags: Adv Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Dapagliflozin ‐lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory P. aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice
Conclusion and ImplicationsPharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - February 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Annika Åstrand, Cecilia Wingren, Audra Benjamin, John S. Tregoning, James P. Garnett, Helen Groves, Simren Gill, Maria Orogo‐Wenn, Anders J. Lundqvist, Dafydd Walters, David M. Smith, John D. Taylor, Emma H. Baker, Deborah L. Baines Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for avian influenza A (H7N9) patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case report and short literature review
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is performed as an acceptable life-saving bridging procedure in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).To patients with avian influenza A (H7... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Qi Nie, Ding-yu Zhang, Wen-juan Wu, Chao-lin Huang and Zheng-yi Ni Source Type: research

Chest Computed Tomography Signs in Pulmonary Disease - A Pictorial Review.
Abstract Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is one of the most important imaging modalities available to a pulmonologist. The advent of high-resolution CT of the chest has led to its increasing use. While chest radiographs are still useful as an initial test, their utility is limited in the diagnosis of lung diseases which depend on higher resolution images such as interstitial lung diseases and pulmonary vascular diseases. Several metaphorical chest CT signs have been described linking abnormal imaging patterns to lung diseases. Some of these are specific to a disease, while others help narrow the differential...
Source: Chest - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Raju S, Ghosh S, Mehta AC Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Point-of-care ultrasonography for evaluation of acute dyspnea in the emergency department.
CONCLUSIONS: PoCUS represents a feasible and reliable diagnostic approach to the dyspnoic patient, allowing a reduction of the diagnostic time. This protocol could help to stratify patients who should undergo a more detailed evaluation. PMID: 28212836 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zanobetti M, Scorpiniti M, Gigli C, Nazerian P, Vanni S, Innocenti F, Stefanone VT, Savinelli C, Coppa A, Bigiarini S, Caldi F, Tassinari I, Conti A, Grifoni S, Pini R Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Complex I Activity is Conditioned by Supercomplex I-III2-IV Assembly in Brain Cells: Relevance for Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract The assembly of complex I (CI) with complexes III (CIII) and IV (CIV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) to configure I-III- or I-III-IV-containing supercomplexes (SCs) regulates mitochondrial energy efficiency and reactive oxygen species (mROS) production. However, whether the occurrence of SCs impacts on CI specific activity remains unknown to our knowledge. To investigate this issue, here we determined CI activity in primary neurons and astrocytes, cultured under identical antioxidants-free medium, from two mouse strains (C57Bl/6 and CBA) and Wistar rat, i.e. three rodent species with or with...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lopez-Fabuel I, Resch-Beusher M, Carabias-Carrasco M, Almeida A, Bolaños JP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Predicting risk factors for radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary or metastatic lung tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical ILD was the only significant factor for grade 2-5 RP. In addition, the cases with honeycombing had a high potential for fatality related to severe RP. Patients with subclinical ILD should be carefully monitored for the occurrence of severe RP after SBRT. Advances in knowledge: Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for primary or metastatic lung tumors provides a high local control rate and safe treatment [1]. Several reports have suggested that SBRT provides high local control rates of around 90% for patients with lung tumors [1-5]. SBRT provides not only a high local control rate,...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - February 14, 2017 Category: Radiology Authors: Okubo M, Itonaga T, Saito T, Shiraishi S, Mikami R, Nakayama H, Sakurada A, Sugahara S, Koizumi K, Tokuuye K Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research

A generalized framework unifying image registration and respiratory motion models and incorporating image reconstruction, for partial image data or full images.
Abstract Surrogate-driven respiratory motion models relate the motion of the internal anatomy to easily acquired respiratory surrogate signals, such as the motion of the skin surface. They are usually built by first using image registration to determine the motion from a number of dynamic images, and then fitting a correspondence model relating the motion to the surrogate signals. In this paper we present a generalized framework that unifies the image registration and correspondence model fitting into a single optimization. This allows the use of 'partial' imaging data, such as individual slices, projections, or k...
Source: Physica Medica - February 14, 2017 Category: Physics Authors: McClelland JR, Modat M, Arridge S, Grimes H, D'Souza D, Thomas D, O'Connell D, Low D, Kaza E, Collins D, Leach M, Hawkes D Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research

Automated identification and reduction of artifacts in cine four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images using respiratory motion model
ConclusionsThe proposed method identified and reduced artifacts accurately and automatically, providing an alternative way to analyze 4DCT image quality and to correct problematic images for radiation therapy. (Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery)
Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery - February 14, 2017 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Community analysis of dental plaque and endotracheal tube biofilms from mechanically ventilated patients
Mechanically ventilated patients are at risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia and it has been reported that dental plaque provides a reservoir of respiratory pathogens that may aspirate to the lungs and endotracheal tube (ETT) biofilms. For the first time, metataxonomics was used to simultaneously characterise the microbiome of dental plaque, ETTs and non-directed bronchial lavages (NBL) in mechanically ventilated patients to determine similarities in respective microbial communities and therefore likely associations. (Source: Journal of Critical Care)
Source: Journal of Critical Care - February 14, 2017 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Poala J Marino, Matt P Wise, Ann Smith, Julian R Marchesi, Marcello P Riggio, Michael AO Lewis, David W Williams Source Type: research

Gender differences in clinical and polysomnographic features of obstructive sleep apnea: a clinical study of 2827 patients
ConclusionsThese data suggest that frequency and severity of sleep apnea is lower in female OSA patients, and they are presenting with female-specific symptoms and increased medical comorbidities. Therefore, female-specific questionnaires should be developed and used for preventing underdiagnosis of OSA. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of acute aerobic exercise on hemostasis in obstructive sleep apnea
ConclusionThe hemostatic response after acute aerobic exercise is unaffected in mild OSA, although PAI-1 activity seems to be elevated, reducing fibrinolytic potential. BMI seems to correlate with FVIII/Ag, while tPA/Ag is associated with AHI and age. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

AGER gene polymorphisms and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end product in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
ConclusionThese results suggest a possible association between a functional polymorphism in AGER and IPF disease susceptibility, and indicate a potential prognostic value of circulatory sRAGE. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kakuhiro Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Yasushi Horimasu, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Kazunori Fujitaka, Hironobu Hamada, Witold Mazur, Nobuoki Kohno, Noboru Hattori Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Beyond the thermistor: Novel technology for the ambulatory diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea
(Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Emma L. Gray, David J. Barnes Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Indications for lung resection surgery and lung transplant in South American children with cystic fibrosis
The current available literature evaluating lung resection surgery and lung transplantation in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) was reviewed through a PubMed search and references from selected studies were additionally included. Pulmonary resections, i.e. lobectomy, segmentectomy, and pneumonectomy, are seldom performed in CF. The main indications, in patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1second (FEV1) that is greater than 30% predicted, are localized bronchiectasis/atelectasis, severe hemoptysis, and bronchopleural fistula refractory to medical management. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fab íola Villac Adde, Sílvia Vidal Campos, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga Teixeira, Joaquim Carlos Rodrigues Tags: Review Source Type: research

Systematic review of instruments aimed at evaluating the severity of bronchiolitis
The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of instruments aimed at evaluating the severity of bronchiolitis and to evaluate their measurement properties. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - February 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Carlos E. Rodr íguez-Martínez, Monica P. Sossa-Briceño, Gustavo Nino Tags: Review Source Type: research

Advanced respiratory support on the paediatric ward
This article provides a brief overview of the causes of respiratory compromise and outlines the basic principles of the different techniques available and provides pointers towards effective administration of these techniques. (Source: Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Paediatrics and Child Health - February 14, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: John Alexander Tags: Symposium: intensive care Source Type: research

Thrombotic and Infectious Morbidity Are Associated with Transfusion in Posterior Spine Fusion
ConclusionOur data demonstrate risk-adjusted and transfusion dose-related increases in perioperative morbidity, with thrombotic and infectious events being the most common. (Source: HSS Journal)
Source: HSS Journal - February 14, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Myotoxicity of statins: Mechanism of action
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Patrick du Souich, Ghislaine Roederer, Robert Dufour Statins are effective drugs to reduce cardiovascular events secondary to dyslipidemia; however, they cause frequent undesirable side effects. The incidence of statin-induced myotoxicity (SIM) is presented by 7 to 29% of patients, depending upon the report. SIM may develop in presence of abnormally high concentrations of statins in the myocyte and/or in presence of muscular conditions that may predispose to SIM. High concentrations of statins in the myocyte may occur...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels: Interactions, role and relevance - a vascular focus
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): T. Hilton Grayson, Timothy V. Murphy, Shaun L. Sandow Transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels (TRPC3) are expressed in neural, cardiac, respiratory and vascular tissues, with both similarities and differences between human and animal models for the same cell types. In common with all members of the six subfamilies of TRP channels, TRPC3 are non-voltage gated, non-selective cation channels that are mainly permeated by Ca2+, and have distinct molecular, biophysical, anatomical and functional properties. T...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Harnessing host ROS-generating machinery for the robust genome replication of a plant RNA virus [Plant Biology]
As sessile organisms, plants have to accommodate to rapid changes in their surrounding environment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules to transduce biotic and abiotic stimuli into plant stress adaptations. It is established that a respiratory burst oxidase homolog B of Nicotiana benthamiana (NbRBOHB) produces ROS in response... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 14, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Kiwamu Hyodo, Kenji Hashimoto, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Tetsuro Okuno Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Age-related alterations of the CD19 complex and memory B cells in children with Down syndrome
AbstractChildren with Down syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of recurrent respiratory tract infections, leukaemia and autoimmune disorders, suggesting immune dysfunction. The present study evaluated the role of the CD19 complex and memory B cells in the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency in children with DS. The expression levels (median fluorescein intensity —MFI) of CD19, CD21 and CD81 molecules on the surface of B cells and memory B cell subsets were studied in 37 patients and 39 healthy controls. Twenty-nine of the DS group had congenital cardiac disease. The B cell count was significantly low in children with DS com...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Medicine - February 14, 2017 Category: Research Source Type: research