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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 10.

Accessory subunits are integral for assembly and function of human mitochondrial complex I
Nature advance online publication 14 September 2016. doi:10.1038/nature19754 Authors: David A. Stroud, Elliot E. Surgenor, Luke E. Formosa, Boris Reljic, Ann E. Frazier, Marris G. Dibley, Laura D. Osellame, Tegan Stait, Traude H. Beilharz, David R. Thorburn, Agus Salim & Michael T. Ryan Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and is composed of 45 subunits in humans, making it one of the largest known multi-subunit membrane protein complexes. Complex I exists in supercomplex forms with respiratory chain complexes III and IV, which are together required for ...
Source: Nature AOP - September 14, 2016 Category: Research Authors: David A. Stroud Elliot E. Surgenor Luke E. Formosa Boris Reljic Ann E. Frazier Marris G. Dibley Laura D. Osellame Tegan Stait Traude H. Beilharz David R. Thorburn Agus Salim Michael T. Ryan Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Defining the Risk and Associated Morbidity and Mortality of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Among Preterm Infants Without Chronic Lung Disease or Congenital Heart Disease
ConclusionRSV infection remains a major burden on Western healthcare systems and is associated with significant morbidity. Further studies focusing on the prevalence and burden of RSV in different gestational age cohorts, the changing risk of RSVH during the first year of life, and on RSV-related mortality in preterm infants are needed to determine the true burden of disease.FundingAbbVie. (Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy)
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - September 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Measurement of pleural pressure swings with a fluid-filled esophageal catheter vs pulmonary artery occlusion pressure
Conclusions A fluid-filled esophageal catheter provides a high-quality, easily accessible, and inexpensive measure of change in pleural pressure and provided insights into patient-ventilator interactions. (Source: Journal of Critical Care)
Source: Journal of Critical Care - September 14, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

The Ubiquity of Asymptomatic Respiratory Viral infections in the Tonsils and Adenoids of Children and Their Impact on Airway Obstruction
Airway obstruction due to enlargement of tonsils and adenoids is a common pediatric problem resulting in sleep disordered breathing. The cause for the relatively abnormal growth of tonsils and adenoids is poorly understood. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - September 14, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Howard Faden, Vincent Callanan, Michael Pizzuto, Mark Nagy, Mark Wilby, Daryl Lamson, Brian Wrotniak, Stefan Juretschko, Kirsten St George Source Type: research

Insufflation –exsufflation devices in post-operative respiratory failure: Case report
Conclusion The application of insufflations–exsufflation devices in the immediate post-operative period of patients with neuromuscular diseases promotes the proper respiratory evolution of a patient considered impossible to extubate. (Source: Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology)
Source: Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology - September 14, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Sensors, Vol. 16, Pages 1494: Fast and Robust Real-Time Estimation of Respiratory Rate from Photoplethysmography
Respiratory rate (RR) is a useful vital sign that can not only provide auxiliary information on physiological changes within the human body, but also indicate early symptoms of various diseases. Recently, methods for the estimation of RR from photoplethysmography (PPG) have attracted increased interest, because PPG can be readily recorded using wearable sensors such as smart watches and smart bands. In the present study, we propose a new method for the fast and robust real-time estimation of RR using an adaptive infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filter, which has not yet been applied to the PPG-based estimation of RR. ...
Source: Sensors - September 14, 2016 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hodam Kim Jeong-Youn Kim Chang-Hwan Im Tags: Article Source Type: research

Seasonal changes in immune parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brook trout  × Arctic charr hybrids (Salvelinus fontinalis × Salvelinus alpinus alpinus)
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 57 Author(s): Ivana Papežíková, Jan Mareš, Libor Vojtek, Pavel Hyršl, Zdeňka Marková, Andrea Šimková, Jana Bartoňková, Stanislav Navrátil, Miroslava Palíková Despite the high number of studies concerning seasonality of immune response in fish, information for some fish species is still scarce. Here, we assess seasonal changes in leukocyte counts and several immune parameters in three groups of farmed salmonids, i.e. brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), brook trout x Arctic charr hybrids (Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus alpin...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - September 14, 2016 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The Effects of Curvature and Constriction on Airflow and Energy Loss in Pathological Tracheas
This study investigates the effects of these measures on tracheal flow mechanics, using compressive goitre (a thyroid gland enlargement) as an example. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed in airways affected by goitres (with differing geometric consequences) and a normal geometry for comparison. Realistic airways, derived from medical images, were used because idealised geometries often oversimplify the complex anatomy of the larynx and its effects on the flow. Two mechanisms, distinct from stenosis, were found to strongly affect airflow energy dissipation in the pathological tracheas. The jet emanating...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of inspiratory muscle training as a practical and minimally intrusive technique to aid functional fitness among adults with obesity.
Conclusion The findings from this study suggest IMT provides a practical, self-administered intervention for use in a home setting. This could be a useful strategy to improve the functional fitness of obese adults and perhaps lead to better preparedness for engagement in wider physical activity initiatives. (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - September 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of caregivers education regarding respiratory infections on the health status of day-care children: a randomized trial
Conclusions. The HES about respiratory infections has positively influenced the indicators of individual health and health care utilization of children attending day-care centres in Porto. (Source: Family Practice)
Source: Family Practice - September 14, 2016 Category: Primary Care Authors: Alexandrino, A. S., Santos, R., Melo, C., Bastos, J. M. Tags: Health Service Research Source Type: research

Poor congruence with guidelines in the use of antibiotics for acute bronchitis: a descriptive study based on electronic health records
Conclusions. We observed poor levels of adherence to recommendations for antibiotic prescribing in adults with acute bronchitis, in terms of both the decision to prescribe and the choice of antibiotic agent. Older acute bronchitis patients and those with co-morbidities were at greater risk of being inappropriately treated. (Source: Family Practice)
Source: Family Practice - September 14, 2016 Category: Primary Care Authors: Malo, S., Poblador-Plou, B., Prados-Torres, A., Lallana, M. J., Laguna-Berna, C., Rabanaque, M. J. Tags: Health Service Research Source Type: research

Caregiver reasons for tertiary health ‐care seeking for children aged ≤12 years
ConclusionsDespite common use of primary health‐care systems, with regard to tertiary hospital presentation, the most important factors for preferring tertiary hospital presentation were caregiver trust in tertiary hospital resources for diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Pediatrics International)
Source: Pediatrics International - September 14, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Seval Yaprak, Ulku Bulut, Yunus Emre Okudan, Ozden Gokdemir, Muhteber Colak, Ediz Y ıldırım, Dilek Guldal Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Treatment of visual impairment in patients with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) using Idebenone (Raxone ®)
ConclusionsA large body of evidence demonstrates that patients with LHON benefit from Raxone treatment and that the drug is well tolerated. (Source: Acta Ophthalmologica)
Source: Acta Ophthalmologica - September 14, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: G. Metz, S. Hasham, C. Catarino, T. Klopstock Tags: Abstracts from the 2016 European Association for Vision and Eye Research Conference Source Type: research

Light ‐induced oxidative stress production in the rod outer segments
ConclusionsLikely, severe malfunctioning of OS aerobic respiratory capacity after BL treatment is secondary to a self‐induced damage after initial over‐functioning of both phototransduction and respiratory chain, with ROI production. Correlation among ROI production and phototransduction activity as well as possible antioxidant supplementation are discussed. (Source: Acta Ophthalmologica)
Source: Acta Ophthalmologica - September 14, 2016 Category: Opthalmology Authors: I. Panfoli, D. Calzia, N. Heinig, U. Schumann, P. Degan, C.E. Traverso, R.H.W. Funk, C. Roehlecke Tags: Abstracts from the 2016 European Association for Vision and Eye Research Conference Source Type: research

Chapter 15 Peripheral neuropathies
Publication date: 2016 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 138 Author(s): R. Hanewinckel, M.A. Ikram, P.A. Van Doorn Peripheral neuropathies are diseases of the peripheral nervous system that can be divided into mononeuropathies, multifocal neuropathies, and polyneuropathies. Symptoms usually include numbness and paresthesia. These symptoms are often accompanied by weakness and can be painful. Polyneuropathies can be divided into axonal and demyelinating forms, which is important for diagnostic reasons. Most peripheral neuropathies develop over months or years, but some are rapidly progressive. Some patients onl...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - September 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Nitric Oxide Modulates the Immunological Response of Bovine PBMCs in an In Vitro BRDc Infection Model
This study investigated the underlying immunological mechanisms through which the nitroslyating agent NORS provides protection against the development of BRDc in susceptible cattle. An in vitro BRDc experimental model was designed using bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) which were infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) and subsequently cultured with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Mannheimia haemolytica bacteria. The cells were treated with NORS following viral infection to reflect the timing of administering the NORS treatment in feedlots during initial processing. An expression and protein an...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - September 14, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Actinomyces infection as a complication of a post-radiotherapy rectal ulcer.
We present the description of a clinical case supported with images. So that we have developed a bibliographical research in Pubmed data base including the following key words: Ulcer, rectum, brachitherapy and Actinomyces. The most recent original articles published in the last teen years, related with the pathology observed in the patient of the case, were selected. DISCUSSION: Brachitherapy over pelvic beds ( prostate, cervix and uterus) could be associated with digestive complications specially in the rectum. Those complications might oscillate from mild inflammatory changes in the mucosa to serious damages as ulcer...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - September 13, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research

Irradiation as a hazard for mucociliary clearance.
CONCLUSIONS: These changes at microscopic, cellular, and ciliary level trigger conditions for various diseases of the respiratory system, which is further assessed by a simultaneous computer aided estimation of ciliary function. With the concurrent world-wide increase of respiratory diseases, these findings are important knowledge for the clinical practice. PMID: 27618601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters)
Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters - September 13, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Neuro Endocrinol Lett Source Type: research

Pulmonary dysfunction in patients after cervical spinal cord injury: serial follow-up measurement within the first year post-injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Obvious differences in parameters of spirometry, respiratory muscles and limb muscles strength between motor complete and incomplete group were found. Carefull monitoring of RDs by functional assessments (i.e., PFT and UEMS/LEMS tests) within one year after SCI seems to be clinically important. PMID: 27618607 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters)
Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters - September 13, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Neuro Endocrinol Lett Source Type: research

Association of type II secretory phospholipase A2 and surfactant protein D with the pulmonary oxygenation potential in patients with septic shock during polymyxin ‐B immobilized fiber‐direct hemoperfusion
This study was undertaken to analyze the association of type II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2‐II) and surfactant protein D (SP‐D) with the pulmonary oxygenation potential in patients with septic shock during polymyxin‐B immobilized fiber‐direct hemoperfusion (PMX‐DHP). The study was conducted in 25 patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). PMX‐DHP lowered the blood endotoxin level in all patients. Following PMX‐DHP, there were decreases from day 0 → day 1 → day 2 in both the mean plasma sPLA2‐II level (340 → 260 → 189 ng/mL) and plasma SP‐D level (483...
Source: Journal of Clinical Apheresis - September 13, 2016 Category: Hematology Authors: Yoriko Ishibe, Shigehiro Shibata, Gaku Takahashi, Yasushi Suzuki, Yoshihiro Inoue, Shigeatsu Endo Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Elevated HbA1c Levels Are Associated with the Blunted Autonomic Response Assessed by Heart Rate Variability during Blood Volume Reduction.
Abstract A high glycemic status increases the risk for autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular failure. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent changes in the autonomic response and cardiovascular dynamics and the association between the level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and autonomic response during blood volume reduction. The study population consisted of 26 preoperative participants who were scheduled for autologous blood donation (200-400 mL of whole blood) for intraoperative or postoperative use. These participants without circulatory, respiratory, or brain disease and diabetes mellitus were gr...
Source: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine - September 13, 2016 Category: Research Authors: Kamakura M, Maruyama R Tags: Tohoku J Exp Med Source Type: research

The frequency of influenza and bacterial coinfection
Treatment of patients admitted to the hospital with an upper respiratory infection is often complicated by the lack of diagnostics. Even in cases where a patient has a confirmed case of influenza,... (Source: Hospitalist News)
Source: Hospitalist News - September 13, 2016 Category: Hospital Management Source Type: research

[Lung neuroendocrine large-cell carcinoma in young women - An unusual presentation].
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical characteristics of these cases raise several questions about the pathophysiology of LNELCC and may suggest potential new treatment options. The unusual clinical presentation and good prognosis may be explained either by the second-line treatment choice or by potential molecular or hormonal biomarkers. There is a need to investigate these potential biomarkers further since they could be new therapeutic targets. PMID: 27617890 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires)
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research

Recurrent adult onset Henoch-Schonlein Purpura: a case report.
We present a case of recurrent Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) complicated by nephritis in an adult female initially categorized as IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We review the pathophysiologic basis of HSP nephritis as the variant of HSP accompanied by renal involvement and its pathogenetic commonality with IgA nephropathy. PMID: 27617937 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Dermatol Online J)
Source: Dermatol Online J - September 13, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Gaskill N, Guido B, Mago C Tags: Dermatol Online J Source Type: research

Generalized Bullous Fixed Drug Eruption due to Bromhexine.
We describe a patient with a generalized bullous form of Fixed Drug Eruption (FDE) induced by bromhexine, a commonly used drug for respiratory symptoms. This is a rare association and generalized bullous FDE is also very rare. We emphasize the importance of patch tests in identifying the culprit drug. PMID: 27617726 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Dermatol Online J)
Source: Dermatol Online J - September 13, 2016 Category: Dermatology Authors: Vide J, Moreira C, Cunha AP, Baldaia H, Magina S, Azevedo F Tags: Dermatol Online J Source Type: research

Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of morphine in neonates: A review
Morphine is an agonist of the µ and k receptors, whose activation results in analgesia. Morphine-like agonists act through the µ opioid receptors to cause pain relief, sedation, euphoria and respiratory depression. Morphine is glucuronidated and sulfated at positions 3 and 6; the plasma concentration ratios correlate positivel y with birth weight, which probably reflects increased liver weight with increasing birth weight. Moreover, morphine clearance correlates positively with gestational age and birth weight. Steady-state morphine plasma concentrations are achieved after 24-48 hours of infusion, but the glucuronide met...
Source: Clinics - September 13, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease
Previously, we identified QIL1 as a subunit of mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex and demonstrated a role for QIL1 in MICOS assembly, mitochondrial respiration, and cristae formation critical for mitochondrial architecture (Guarani et al., 2015). Here, we identifyQIL1 null alleles in two siblings displaying multiple clinical symptoms of early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease, including defects in respiratory chain function in patient muscle. QIL1 absence in patients ’ fibroblasts was associated with MICOS disassembly, abnormal cristae, mild cytochromec oxidase defect, and sensitivity to...
Source: eLife - September 13, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: 3-methylglutaconic aciduria Cell Biology early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy Human Human Biology and Medicine liver disease MICOS mitochondrial disease QIL1 Source Type: research

Measurement of levofloxacin in human plasma samples for a reliable and accessible drug monitoring.
CONCLUSIONS: Levofloxacin is successfully quantified using our method that shows reliable results, appropriate range, rapid analyses, and cost-effective measurements under a simple and easy technique while all prior methods did not have it all together. Consequently, our method is a valuable tool for routine drug monitoring. Moreover, a complete evaluation of specificity was done for levofloxacin in plasma samples for first time. Meanwhile, the application data supported the necessity of levofloxacin monitoring. PMID: 27637364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Biochemistry)
Source: Clinical Biochemistry - September 13, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Aragon-Martinez OH, Isiordia-Espinoza MA, Galicia O, Romo SA, Gómez AG, Romano-Moreno S, Martinez-Morales F Tags: Clin Biochem Source Type: research

Description of Lunatimonas salinarum sp. nov.
Abstract A Gram-stain-negative, crescent shaped, non-motile, aerobic bacterium was isolated from a saltern of Nari along Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat, India. The strain designated JC344T was oxidase and catalase positive. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and sequence comparison data indicated that strain JC344T was a member of the genus Lunatimonas and was closely related to the only species of the genus, Lunatimonas lonarensis AK24T (95.5%). The DNA G+C content of strain JC344T was 43 mol%. Strain JC344T has phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and four unidentified polar lipids. MK-7 is the only respiratory quinone. Iso...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: B D, A S, Ch S, Ch V R Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Laboratory Assessment of the Anticoagulant Activity of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs): A Systematic Review.
CONCLUSIONS: Unfortunately, an ideal test, offering both accuracy and precision for measurement of any DOAC is not widely available. We recommend the use of a dilute thrombin time assay or ecarin-based assay for assessment of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran and anti-Xa assays with drug-specific calibrators for assessment of the anticoagulant effects of direct Xa inhibitors. In the absence of these tests, thrombin time or APTT are recommended over PT/INR for assessment of dabigatran and PT/INR is recommended over APTT for detection of factor Xa inhibitors. Time since last dose, the presence or absence of drug interac...
Source: Chest - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Samuelson BT, Cuker A, Siegal DM, Crowther M, Garcia DA Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Cough Augmentation Techniques in the Critically Ill: A Canadian National Survey.
CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate adoption of cough augmentation techniques, particularly for secretion management. Lack of expertise and knowledge are potentially modifiable barriers addressed with educational interventions. PMID: 27624630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rose L, Adhikari NK, Poon J, Leasa D, McKim DA, CANuVENT Group Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Evaluating How Post-Bronchodilator Vital Capacities Affect the Diagnosis of Obstruction in Pulmonary Function Tests.
CONCLUSIONS: Six percent of PFTs have a different interpretation when VCmax is used instead of FVC. Evaluating borderline or ambiguous PFTs using the VCmax may be informative in diagnosing obstruction and excluding restriction. PMID: 27624631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Blagev DP, Sorenson D, Linares-Perdomo O, Bamberg S, Hegewald M, Morris AH Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Respiratory Management of Perioperative Obese Patients: A Literature Review.
Abstract With a rising incidence of obesity in the United States, anesthesiologists are faced with a larger volume of obese patients coming to the operating room as well as obese patients with ever-larger body mass indices (BMIs). While there are many cardiovascular and endocrine issues that clinicians must take into account when caring for the obese patient, one of the most prominent concerns of the anesthesiologist in the perioperative setting should be the status of the lung. Because the pathophysiology of reduced lung volumes in the obese patient differs from that of the ARDS patient, the best approach to keep...
Source: Respiratory Care - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Imber DA, Pirrone M, Zhang C, Fisher DF, Kacmarek RM, Berra L Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

[Outcome of intensive medical care for inflammatory rheumatic diseases].
CONCLUSION: Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases displayed a poorer outcome compared with the control group in the course of the intensive care treatment. Universally applied scoring systems used to predict mortality are of limited value in this patient population. PMID: 27624661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie)
Source: Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie - September 13, 2016 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Rütter LA, Keyßer G, Winkler M, Rütter S Tags: Z Rheumatol Source Type: research

Selection of reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time qPCR in avian cells infected with infectious bronchitis virus.
Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes infectious bronchitis in poultry, a respiratory disease that is a source of major economic loss to the poultry industry. Detection and the study of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus often involves the use of real-time quantitative PCR assays (qPCR). To account for error within the experiments, the levels of target gene transcription are normalised to that of suitable reference genes. Despite publication of the MIQE guidelines in 2009, single un-tested reference genes are often used for normalization of qPCR assays in avian research studies. Here we use the ge...
Source: Avian Pathology - September 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Authors: Batra A, Maier HJ, Fife MS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Clinical features and prognosis in anti-SRP and anti-HMGCR necrotising myopathy
Conclusions Anti-SRP antibodies are associated with severe neurological symptoms, more so than are anti-HMGCR antibodies. Although these autoantibodies are independent serological markers associated with IMNM, patients bearing either share common characteristics. (Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - September 13, 2016 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Watanabe, Y., Uruha, A., Suzuki, S., Nakahara, J., Hamanaka, K., Takayama, K., Suzuki, N., Nishino, I. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Muscle disease, Neuromuscular disease, Musculoskeletal syndromes Source Type: research

The pluralization of septum
(Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Morty, R. E. Tags: LETTER TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus {alpha}-toxin-mediated cation entry depolarizes membrane potential and activates p38 MAP kinase in airway epithelial cells
Membrane potential (Vm)-, Na+-, or Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes were used to analyze changes in Vm or intracellular ion concentrations in airway epithelial cells treated with Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin (Hla), a major virulence factor of pathogenic strains of these bacteria. Gramicidin, a channel-forming peptide causing membrane permeability to monovalent cations, a mutated form of Hla, rHla-H35L, which forms oligomers in the plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells but fails to form functional transmembrane pores, or the cyclodextrin-derivative IB201, a blocker of the Hla pore, were used to investigate the permeabi...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Eiffler, I., Behnke, J., Ziesemer, S., Müller, C., Hildebrandt, J.-P. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo evidence for an inflammatory role of the calcium channel TRPV4 in lung epithelium: Potential involvement in cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease associated with chronic severe lung inflammation, leading to premature death. To develop innovative anti-inflammatory treatments, we need to characterize new cellular and molecular components contributing to the mechanisms of lung inflammation. Here, we focused on the potential role of "transient receptor potential vanilloid-4" (TRPV4), a nonselective calcium channel. We used both in vitro and in vivo approaches to demonstrate that TRPV4 expressed in airway epithelial cells triggers the secretion of major proinflammatory mediators such as chemokines and biologically active lipid...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Henry, C. O., Dalloneau, E., Perez-Berezo, M.-T., Plata, C., Wu, Y., Guillon, A., Morello, E., Aimar, R.-F., Potier-Cartereau, M., Esnard, F., Coraux, C., Börnchen, C., Kiefmann, R., Vandier, C., Touqui, L., Valverde, M. A., Cenac, N., Si-Tahar, M Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Identification of genes differentially regulated by vitamin D deficiency that alter lung pathophysiology and inflammation in allergic airways disease
In this study, we hypothesize that vitamin D deficiency would exacerbate house dust mite (HDM)-induced inflammation and alterations in lung structure and function. A BALB/c mouse model of vitamin D deficiency was established by dietary manipulation. Responsiveness to methacholine, airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, mucus cell metaplasia, lung and airway inflammation, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were assessed. Gene expression patterns in mouse lung samples were profiled by RNA-Seq. HDM exposure increased inflammation and inflammatory cytokines in BAL, baseline airway resistance, tissue elastance, and A...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Foong, R. E., Bosco, A., Troy, N. M., Gorman, S., Hart, P. H., Kicic, A., Zosky, G. R. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

A surprising cause of polycythaemia
Case presentation A 48-year-old man was referred to the outpatient clinic because of fatigue and an elevated haemoglobin level of 19.4 g/dL. His relevant medical history only revealed psychosis. He had quit cigarette smoking for several years. His daily medication schedule consisted of valproic acid 1500 mg, quetiapine 400 mg and lormetazepam 1 mg daily. There were no clinical abnormalities besides a body mass index of 28.3 kg/m². Since primary erythrocytosis was not excluded initially, venesections were performed three times. Meanwhile, diagnostic work-up took place. Serum erythropoietin leve...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: De Maeyer, N. E., Van Lommel, S., Devos, T., Buyse, B., Nackaerts, K. Tags: Journalology, Radiology (diagnostics), Ethics, Health education, Smoking, Smoking cessation, Tobacco use Chest clinic Source Type: research

Cochrane corner: interventions for the management of malignant pleural effusions
Optimal management of symptomatic malignant pleural effusions remains an important issue as it affects a significant number of patients each year internationally. The overall survival remains poor, necessitating an evidence based treatment strategy that provides the best outcomes for individual patients. This paper summarises the results of the recently published Cochrane review on interventions in malignant pleural effusions. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Clive, A. O., Bhatnagar, R., Preston, N. J., Maskell, N. A., Jones, H. E. Tags: Chest clinic Source Type: research

Refractory chylothorax in HIV/AIDS-related disseminated mycobacterial infection
A 38-year-old man presented to a previous hospital in December 2011 with a high fever and acute abdominal pain. He was found to have abdominal lymphadenopathy and was diagnosed with HIV infection. His CD4 count was 25/mm3 and viral load was 490 000 copies/mL. He was transferred to our department for further investigations and treatment. Whole body CT revealed bulky, widespread lymphadenopathy, especially in the abdomen, but no ascites or pleural effusion (figure 1A, B). Stool, bone marrow and an abdominal lymph node specimen were positive for acid-fast bacillus stain. A diagnosis of disseminated non-tuberculous m...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tanaka, T., Saito, N., Takaki, M., Furumoto, A., Morimoto, K., Ariyoshi, K. Tags: Images in Thorax, Journalology, Drugs: infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, Screening (oncology), Radiology (diagnostics), Ethics Chest clinic Source Type: research

Interaction of vitamin E isoforms on asthma and allergic airway disease
Prospective epidemiological studies, observational cross-sectional studies and some randomised prevention trials have demonstrated inconsistent findings of the impact of vitamin E on asthma risk. The goals of this study were to explore whether this differing association of vitamin E on asthma risk is due to an interaction of vitamin E isoforms. To address this question, in a population-based asthma incidence study we assessed the interaction between the plasma concentrations of vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and -tocopherol on asthma risk. Second, to understand the mechanisms of any interaction of these isoforms, we...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cook-Mills, J., Gebretsadik, T., Abdala-Valencia, H., Green, J., Larkin, E. K., Dupont, W. D., Shu, X. O., Gross, M., Bai, C., Gao, Y.-T., Hartman, T. J., Rosas-Salazar, C., Hartert, T. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Inflammation, Asthma Research letter Source Type: research

What are the most efficacious treatment regimens for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis? A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Conclusions Our systematic review and network meta-analysis highlight a regimen category that may be more efficacious than the WHO population level recommendation, and identify knowledge gaps where data are sparse. Systematic review registration number PROSPERO CRD42014015025. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stagg, H. R., Harris, R. J., Hatherell, H.-A., Obach, D., Zhao, H., Tsuchiya, N., Kranzer, K., Nikolayevskyy, V., Kim, J., Lipman, M. C., Abubakar, I. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Open access, Drugs: infectious diseases, Internet Tuberculosis Source Type: research

The impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in children is age dependent: evidence to be considered when screening children for tuberculosis infection
Discussion BCG vaccination had little impact on TST size in children over 5 years of age. The revised TST cut-off recommended in the recent revision to the UK TB guidelines demonstrates good sensitivity but is associated with impaired specificity in BCG-vaccinated children. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Seddon, J. A., Paton, J., Nademi, Z., Keane, D., Williams, B., Williams, A., Welch, S. B., Liebeschutz, S., Riddell, A., Bernatoniene, J., Patel, S., Martinez-Alier, N., McMaster, P., Kampmann, B. Tags: Open access, Drugs: infectious diseases, Vaccination / immunisation, Child health, Screening (epidemiology), Screening (public health) Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Randomised sham-controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in obstructive sleep apnoea
Conclusion Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the pharyngeal dilators during a single night in patients with OSA improves upper airway obstruction and is well tolerated. Trial registration number NCT01661712. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pengo, M. F., Xiao, S., Ratneswaran, C., Reed, K., Shah, N., Chen, T., Douiri, A., Hart, N., Luo, Y., Rafferty, G. F., Rossi, G. P., Williams, A., Polkey, M. I., Moxham, J., Steier, J. Tags: Open access Sleep Source Type: research

Non-invasive ventilation in obesity hypoventilation syndrome without severe obstructive sleep apnoea
Conclusions NIV is more effective than lifestyle modification in improving daytime PaCO2, sleepiness and polysomnographic parameters. Long-term prospective studies are necessary to determine whether NIV reduces healthcare resource utilisation, cardiovascular events and mortality. Trial registration number NCT01405976; results. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Masa, J. F., Corral, J., Caballero, C., Barrot, E., Teran-Santos, J., Alonso-Alvarez, M. L., Gomez-Garcia, T., Gonzalez, M., Lopez-Martin, S., De Lucas, P., Marin, J. M., Marti, S., Diaz-Cambriles, T., Chiner, E., Egea, C., Miranda, E., Mokhlesi, B., on b Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Health education, Obesity (public health) Non-invasive ventilation Source Type: research

Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients during critical illness: an overview of systematic reviews
Conclusions Patients derive short-term benefits from physical rehabilitation delivered during ICU admission. Further robust trials of electrical muscle stimulation in the ICU and rehabilitation delivered following ICU discharge are needed to determine the long-term impact on patient care. This overview provides recommendations for design of future interventional trials and SR. Trial registration number CRD42015001068. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Connolly, B., O'Neill, B., Salisbury, L., Blackwood, B., on behalf of the Enhanced Recovery After Critical Illness Programme Group Tags: Patients, Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Physiotherapy, Sports and exercise medicine, Internet Critical care Source Type: research

Stimulating therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea
The burden of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasing due to the worldwide obesity epidemic and the ageing of the population.1 2 The treatment of OSA is unsatisfactory for some patients since tolerance of the gold standard treatment positive airway pressure (PAP) is quite variable. Among patients who tolerate PAP, results are excellent; however, effectiveness is limited by variable adherence.3 4 Improvements in our understanding of OSA pathogenesis have led to a concept that the mechanism (endotype) underlying OSA is highly variable across individuals such that some patients have primarily an upper airway anatomical p...
Source: Thorax - September 13, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Strollo, P. J., Malhotra, A. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research