Prediction pipeline for discovery of regulatory motifs associated with < i > Brugia malayi < /i >  molting
by Alexandra Grote, Yichao Li, Canhui Liu, Denis Voronin, Adam Geber, Sara Lustigman, Thomas R. Unnasch, Lonnie Welch, Elodie Ghedin Filarial nematodes can cause debilitating diseases in humans. They have complicated life cycles involving an insect vector and mammalian hosts, and they go through a number of developmental molts. While whole genome sequences of parasitic worms are now available, very little is known about transcr iption factor (TF) binding sites and their cognate transcription factors that play a role in regulating development. To address this gap, we developed a novel motif prediction pipeline, Emotif Alph...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - June 23, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alexandra Grote Source Type: research

Elimination of Simulium neavei-Transmitted Onchocerciasis in Wambabya-Rwamarongo Focus of Western Uganda.
Abstract Wambabya-Rwamarongo onchocerciasis focus is one of the eight foci Uganda verified using the WHO verification guidelines. The approach for elimination was twice yearly treatment with ivermectin for every round, treating at least 90% of all the eligible population. This was in combination with vector elimination using Abate® since elimination nationwide policy was launched. From 2008 to 2013, the program distributed ivermectin with a mean treatment coverage of the ultimate treatment goal (UTG) or eligible population of 91.2%, with a range of 85-96%. In 2009, vector elimination based on ground larvicidin...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - June 22, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Katabarwa MN, Habomugisha P, Khainza A, Oguttu D, Byamukama E, Katamanywa J, Isingooma T, Bwenume F, Nahabwe C, Ngabirano M, Akampurira P, Bernard L, Unnasch TR, Richards F Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Global Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
On September 5, 2002, the CEO of Merck, global health officials, and government officials from East Africa, gathered at Bombani village in the Tanga Region of Tanzania to mark 250 million doses of Mectizan having been given in Africa. This drug, manufactured and donated free by Merck, was used to combat Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, to prevent the loss of vision that had marked the lives of millions of Africans over generations. Globalization has often been condemned for its many shortcomings, but I was watching a miracle of globalization. (Source: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics)
Source: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics - June 9, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: William Foege Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Biochemical basis for the regulation of biosynthesis of antiparasitics by bacterial hormones
We present crystal structures of the butenolide receptor AvaR1 in is olation, and in complex with avenolide, as well as AvaR1 bound to an oligonucleotide derived from its operator. Biochemical studies guided by the co-crystal structures enable identification of 90 new actinobacteria that may be regulated by butenolides, two of which are experimentally verified. These studies provide a foundation for understanding regulation of microbial secondary metabolite production, which may be exploited for the discovery and production of novel medicines. (Source: eLife)
Source: eLife - June 8, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biochemistry and Chemical Biology Source Type: research

Socioeconomic impacts of elimination of onchocerciasis in Abu-Hamed focus, northern Sudan: lessons after elimination
Onchocerciasis is one of the most devastating neglected tropical diseases and it is mostly prevalent in Africa. The disease has important heavy social and economic burdens on the infected populations including... (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - May 26, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Ayman Ahmed, Anas Elbashir, Asgad A. Mohamed, Asha A. Alim, Asia Mubarak, Duaa Abdelrahman, Eilaf Mohammed, Nouh S. Mohamed, Arwa H. Elaagip, Isam M. A. Zarroug, Noma Mounkaila and Hanan Tahir Tags: Research note Source Type: research

Assessing Onchocerciasis Subcriticality from Pre-Intervention Cross-Sectional Surveys.
Abstract Elimination of an infectious disease requires subcritical transmission, or a reproductive number less than one, and can be assessed with cross-sectional surveys conducted by neglected tropical disease programs. Here, we assess the distribution of onchocerciasis prevalence taken from surveys across sub-Saharan Africa before the initiation of ivermectin in mass drug administrations. Pre-intervention nodular palpation cross-sectional surveys were available from 15 countries in the Expanded Special Project for Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (ESPEN) database. We determined whether the distribution ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - May 26, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kelly JD, Rebollo Polo M, Marie Zoure HG, Oldenburg CE, Keenan JD, Porco TC, Lietman TM Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Dried Blood Microsampling-Based Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antiepileptic Drugs in Children With Nodding Syndrome and Epilepsy in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Abstract: Nodding syndrome is a highly debilitating, generalized seizure disorder, affecting children in subregions of sub-Saharan Africa. Despite numerous efforts to uncover the etiology, the exact cause of this syndrome still remains obscure. Therefore, to date, patients only receive symptomatic care, including the administration of first-generation antiepileptic drugs for seizure control. As data on the efficacy of drugs within this population are completely lacking, the aim of this study was to explore how therapeutic drug monitoring could help to understand the differential response to therapy. Considering the chall...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - May 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Individuals living in an onchocerciasis focus and treated three-monthly with ivermectin develop fewer new onchocercal nodules than individuals treated annually
Little information is available on the effect of ivermectin on the third- and fourth-stage larvae of Onchocerca volvulus. To assess a possible prophylactic effect of ivermectin on this parasite, we compared the e... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - May 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: J érémy T. Campillo, Cédric B. Chesnais, Sébastien D. S. Pion, Jacques Gardon, Joseph Kamgno and Michel Boussinesq Tags: Research Source Type: research

Motile Onchocerca volvulus Microfilariae in the Anterior Chamber of the Eye.
PMID: 32383434 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - May 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gyasi ME, Hong AR, Weil GJ Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

From nodding syndrome to onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy.
Authors: Hotterbeekx A, Van Hees S, Siewe Fodjo JN, Colebunders R PMID: 32303344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue Neurologique)
Source: Revue Neurologique - April 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Rev Neurol (Paris) Source Type: research

Study of onchocerciasis-related visual impairment in North Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa
Conclusion: Features of ocular onchocerciasis usually described in forest and savanna areas were relatively less common than expected in and around Goma, the capital of the Nord Kivu province of the DRC. (Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology)
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - April 20, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Vinod K Baranwal Kripanidhi Shyamsundar Vamble Kabuyaya Jyotirmay Biswas Harikrishnan Vannadil Source Type: research

Mapping the burden of onchocercal skin disease.
Abstract Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by a nematode parasite, Onchocerca volvulus, and transmitted by bites of Simulium blackflies which breed near fast-flowing rivers. In humans thousands of microfilariae (immature worms) migrate to the skin and eyes where they cause pathology. Historically, much research was devoted to the serious effect of blindness, from which the disease earns its alternative name of "river blindness". Mapping the burden of onchocercal skin disease (OSD) was expedited by the development of a clinical classification and grading system which facilitated compar...
Source: The British Journal of Dermatology - April 17, 2020 Category: Dermatology Authors: Murdoch ME Tags: Br J Dermatol Source Type: research

Ivermectin suppresses tumour growth and metastasis through degradation of PAK1 in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
In this study, we found that ivermectin, an effective antiparasitic drug that has been approved for patients to orally treat onchocerciasis for over 30 years, displayed potent antitumour activity against ESCC cells in vitro and in nude mice. We demonstrated that ivermectin significantly inhibited cell viability and colony formation, and induced apoptosis through a mitochondrial-dependent manner in ESCC cells. Ivermectin also abrogated ESCC cell migration, invasion, as well as the protein levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Mechanistically, ivermectin strongly inhibited the expression of PAK1; by further gain- and loss-of-funct...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - March 31, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Chen L, Bi S, Wei Q, Zhao Z, Wang C, Xie S Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research

Historical Elimination of Onchocerciasis from Victoria Nile Focus in Central Uganda Verified Using WHO Criteria.
The objective of this study was to verify this focus to the WHO verification guidelines and bring it in line with recently eliminated foci. Vector control with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was the main intervention used at the Victoria Nile from the 1950s to the 1970s. Historical fly collection sites along River Nile were identified for recent fly collection. Relevant health workers near the sites were trained to supervise fly collection activity. With support from communities, fly collectors were identified, trained, and equipped to collect Simulium flies for at least a year. A total of 854 Simulium flies were collecte...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Katabarwa MN, Habomugisha P, Khainza A, Oguttu D, Byamukama E, Katamanywa J, Nahabwe C, Ngabirano M, Akampurira P, Bernard L, Unnasch TR, Richards F Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Prevalence and incidence of nodding syndrome and other forms of epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic areas in northern Uganda after the implementation of onchocerciasis control measures
This study evaluated the effect of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) and ground larviciding of rivers initiated after 2009 and 2012 respectively, on the epidemiology of NS and other forms of epilepsy (OFE) in some districts of northern Uganda.MethodsIn 2012, a population-based community survey of NS/epilepsy was carried out by the Ugandan Ministry of Health in Kitgum and Pader districts. In August 2017, we conducted a new survey in selected villages of these districts and compared our findings with the 2012 data. In addition, two villages in Moyo district (where CDTI was ongoing since 1993) served as comp...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - March 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Onchocerca jakutensis ocular infection in Poland: a new vector-borne human health risk?
Zoonotic onchocerciasis is a vector-borne disease, which involves many animal species, including large ungulates, boars, dogs, and sporadically, humans. So far, 39 cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis have been re... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - February 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maria Weso łowska, Hanna Zając-Pytrus, Aleksander Masny, Wiktoria Pytrus, Brygida Knysz, Elzbieta Golab and Rusłan Sałamatin Tags: Short report Source Type: research

Situation analysis of onchocerciasis in Cameroon: a protocol for systematic review of epidemiological studies and impact of disease control interventions
This study will provide the health authorities as well as the scientific community with up-to-date information about the epidemiological situation of onchocerciasis in Cameroon. Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of the infection will help to define alternative and complementary strategies to accelerate onchocerciasis elimination in the country. Results of this review will also be used to update existing epidemiological models for onchocerciasis in order to fine-tune predictions of elimination timeframes in the country.Systematic review registrationThis protocol is under registration review in PROSPERO. (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Source: Systematic Reviews - February 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Challenges to Making the Decision to Stop Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis: Lessons Learned from Nigeria.
Abstract Challenges to Making the Decision to Stop Mass Drug Administration for Onchocerciasis: Lessons Learned from Nigeria. PMID: 32043450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Evans DS Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

The Interruption of Transmission of Human Onchocerciasis by an Annual Mass Drug Administration Program in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria.
Abstract Plateau and Nasarawa states in central Nigeria were endemic for onchocerciasis. The rural populations of these two states received annual ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) for a period of 8-26 years (1992-2017). Ivermectin combined with albendazole was given for 8-13 of these years for lymphatic filariasis (LF); the LF MDA program successfully concluded in 2012, but ivermectin MDA continued in areas known to have a baseline meso-/hyperendemic onchocerciasis. In 2017, serological and entomological assessments were undertaken to determine if MDA for onchocerciasis could be stopped in accordance with...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Richards FO, Eigege A, Umaru J, Kahansim B, Adelamo S, Kadimbo J, Danboyi J, Mafuyai H, Saka Y, Noland GS, Anyaike C, Igbe M, Rakers L, Griswold E, Unnasch TR, Nwoke BEB, Miri E Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Description, molecular characteristics and Wolbachia endosymbionts of Onchocerca borneensis Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the Bornean bearded pig Sus barbatus M üller (Cetartiodactyla: Suidae) of Sarawak, Malaysia
The genus Onchocerca Diesing, 1841 includes species of medical importance, such as O. volvulus (Leuckart, 1893), which causes river blindness in the tropics. Recently, zoonotic onchocercosis has been reported in ... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - February 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shigehiko Uni, Ahmad Syihan Mat Udin, Takeshi Agatsuma, Kerstin Junker, Weerachai Saijuntha, Naruemon Bunchom, Masako Fukuda, Coralie Martin, Emilie Lefoulon, Amandine Labat, Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan, Van Lun Low, Phaik Leng Cheah, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Ros Tags: Research Source Type: research

The Galabat-Metema cross-border onchocerciasis focus: The first coordinated interruption of onchocerciasis transmission in Africa
by Moses N. Katabarwa, Isam M. A. Zarroug, Nebiyu Negussu, Nabil M. Aziz, Zerihun Tadesse, Wigdan A. Elmubark, Zainab Shumo, Kadu Meribo, Hashim Kamal, Aderajew Mohammed, Yewondwossen Bitew, Tewodros Seid, Firdaweke Bekele, Abebual Yilak, Tekola Endeshaw, Mohammed Hassen, Abate Tillahun, Fikresilasie Samuel, Henok Birhanu, Tadesse Asmare, Daniel Boakye, Sindew M. Feleke, Thomas Unnasch, Rory Post, Tarig Higazi, Emily Griswold, Charles Mackenzie, Frank Richards BackgroundOnchocerciasis transmission across international borders is not uncommon, yet a coordinated cross border stops mass drug administration (MDA) decision has ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Moses N. Katabarwa Source Type: research

Post-elimination surveillance in formerly onchocerciasis endemic focus in Southern Mexico
Conclusions/SignificanceThese provide support to the conclusion that onchocerciasis has been eliminated from Mexico. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Nadia A. Fern ández-Santos Source Type: research

< i > In vivo < /i > efficacy of the boron-pleuromutilin AN11251 against < i > Wolbachia < /i > of the rodent filarial nematode < i > Litomosoides sigmodontis < /i >
by Alexandra Ehrens, Christopher S. Lunde, Robert T. Jacobs, Dominique Struever, Marianne Koschel, Stefan J. Frohberger, Franziska Lenz, Martina Fendler, Joseph D. Turner, Stephen A. Ward, Mark J. Taylor, Yvonne R. Freund, Rianna Stefanakis, Eric Easom, Xianfeng Li, Jacob J. Plattner, Achim Hoerauf, Marc P. H übner The elimination of filarial diseases such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis is hampered by the lack of a macrofilaricidal–adult worm killing–drug. In the present study, we tested thein vivo efficacy of AN11251, a boron-pleuromutilin that targets endosymbioticWolbachia bacteria from fil...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Alexandra Ehrens Source Type: research

The Pathogenesis of Nodding Syndrome.
Abstract Nodding syndrome is a rare, enigmatic form of pediatric epilepsy that has occurred in an epidemic fashion beginning in the early 2000s in geographically distinct regions of Africa. Despite extensive investigation, the etiology of nodding syndrome remains unclear, although much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as in treatment and prevention. Nodding syndrome is recognized as a defined disease entity, but it is likely one manifestation along a continuum of Onchocerca volvulus-associated neurological complications. This review examines the epidemiology of noddi...
Source: Annual Review of Pathology - January 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Johnson TP, Sejvar J, Nutman TB, Nath A Tags: Annu Rev Pathol Source Type: research

Natural infections with larvae of Onchocerca species type I in the human-biting black fly, Simulium nigrogilvum (Diptera: Simuliidae), in western Thailand.
This study aims to clarify the vectorial roles of black fly species in zoonotic filarial transmission in Tak province, western Thailand. The integrated approach of morphological and DNA sequence-based analyses was used to identify species of both wild-caught female black flies and infective filarial larvae found in the infected black flies. All of 494 female black flies captured were identified as Simulium nigrogilvum, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and DNA sequence analyses based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and subunit II (COII), and the fast-evolving nuclear elongation complex protein 1 (ECP1)...
Source: Acta Tropica - January 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saeung A, Srisuka W, Aupalee K, Fukuda M, Otsuka Y, Taai K, Maleewong W, Takaoka H Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Ivermectin as an adjuvant to anti-epileptic treatment in persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy: A  randomized proof-of-concept clinical trial
ConclusionWhether ivermectin has an added value in reducing the frequency of seizures in PWE treated with AED remains to be determined. A larger study in persons with OAE on a stable AED regimen and in persons with recent epilepsy onset should be considered to further investigate the potential beneficial effect of ivermectin treatment in persons with OAE. Trial registrationRegistration: www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT03052998. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 10, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Michel Mandro Source Type: research

Genomic Epidemiology in Filarial Nematodes: Transforming the Basis for Elimination Program Decisions
Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are targeted for elimination, primarily using mass drug administration at the country and community levels. Elimination of transmission is the onchocerciasis target and global elimination as a public health problem is the end point for lymphatic filariasis. Where program duration, treatment coverage, and compliance are sufficiently high, elimination is achievable for both parasites within defined geographic areas. However, transmission has re-emerged after apparent elimination in some areas, and in others has continued despite years of mass drug treatment. A critical question is whet...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - January 9, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Frequency and distribution of neglected tropical diseases in Mozambique: a systematic review
ConclusionsThis review assembles NTDs burden and distribution in Mozambique. Thus, contributes to the understanding of NTDs epidemiology in Mozambique and highlights knowledge gaps. Hence, the study provides key elements to progress towards the control and interruption of transmission of these diseases in the country. (Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty)
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - December 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Short-course quinazoline drug treatments are effective in the Litomosoides sigmodontis and Brugia pahangi jird models
In conclusion, CBR417 or CBR490 are pre-clinical candidates for filarial diseases, which achieve long-term clearance of Wolbachia endosymbionts of filarial nematodes, inhibit filarial embryogenesis and clear microfilaremia with treatments as short as 7 days.Graphical abstract (Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance)
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance - December 10, 2019 Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

Modelling exposure heterogeneity and density dependence in onchocerciasis using a novel individual-based transmission model, EPIONCHO-IBM: Implications for elimination and data needs
Conclusions/SignificanceThis is the first, stochastic model of onchocerciasis, that accounts for and estimates density-dependent parasite establishment in humans alongside exposure heterogeneity. Capturing the interaction between these processes is fundamental to our understanding of resilience to MDA interventions. Given that uncertainty in these processes results in very different treatment dynamics, collecting data on exposure heterogeneity would be essential for improving model predictions during MDA. We discuss possible ways in which such data may be collected as well as the importance of better understanding the effe...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - December 5, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jonathan I. D. Hamley Source Type: research

Implementation of test-and-treat with doxycycline and temephos ground larviciding as alternative strategies for accelerating onchocerciasis elimination in an area of loiasis co-endemicity: the COUNTDOWN consortium multi-disciplinary study protocol
Onchocerciasis is a priority neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination by 2025. The standard strategy to combat onchocerciasis is annual Community-Directed Treatment with ivermectin (CDTi). Yet, high... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - December 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Samuel Wanji, Theobald Mue Nji, Louise Hamill, Laura Dean, Kim Ozano, Abdel J. Njouendou, Raphael A. Abong, Elisabeth Dibando Obie, Andrew Amuam, Relindis Ekanya, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Bertrand L. Ndzeshang, Ebua Gallus Fung, Dum-Buo Nnamdi, De Tags: Research Source Type: research

Assessment of multiplex Onchocerca volvulus peptide ELISA in non-endemic tropical regions
Currently, serodiagnosis of infection with the helminth parasite Onchocerca volvulus is limited to the Ov-16 IgG4 test, a test that has limited sensitivity and suboptimal specificity. In previous studies, we iden... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - November 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ole Lagatie, Elodie Granjon, Maurice R. Odiere, Maan Zrein and Lieven J. Stuyver Tags: Methodology Source Type: research

Onchocerca volvulus is not detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: An Hotterbeekx, Stephen Raimon, Gasim Abd-Elfarag, Jane Y Carter, Wilson Sebit, Abozer Suliman, Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo, Peter De Witte, Makoy Yibi Logora, Robert Colebunders, Samir Kumar-Singh Source Type: research

Ivermectin use in children below 15 kg: potential benefits for onchocerciasis and scabies elimination programs.
Abstract We read with interest the paper by M Levy et al about the treatment of scabies with ivermectin in infants and children under 15kg of body weight1 . The authors describe the results of a multicentre observational study conducted in France between 2012-15, among 170 children with body weight 4 to 14.5kg. Children were treated with a mean dose of ivermectin of 223µg/kg, and 89% of them had received two doses. Adverse events were observed in only seven participants (4%), none of which were severe. Therefore, they concluded that a therapeutic trial in infants and young children needs to be performed. ...
Source: The British Journal of Dermatology - November 6, 2019 Category: Dermatology Authors: Colebunders R, Wafula ST, Hotterbeekx A, Siewe-Fodjo JN Tags: Br J Dermatol Source Type: research

Infectivity of Simulium damnosum s.l. and therapeutic coverage of ivermectin distribution 10 years post treatment around Owena Dam, Ondo state, Nigeria
ConclusionDespite the years of treatment of onchocerciasis in Owena community, there were still some infective flies capable of transmitting O. volvolus. This could be due to the low rate of therapeutic coverage as a result of non-compliance in the community for various reasons earlier stated. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Infectivity of Simulium damnosum s.l. and therapeutic coverage of ivermectin distribution 10 years post treatment around Owena Dam, Ondo state, Nigeria.
CONCLUSION: Despite the years of treatment of onchocerciasis in Owena community, there were still some infective flies capable of transmitting O. volvolus. This could be due to the low rate of therapeutic coverage as a result of non-compliance in the community for various reasons earlier stated. PMID: 31697923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - November 4, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Akinsanya B, Adewale B, Adedotun A, Lawal A, Rahman O Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Ivermectin concentration in breastmilk of a woman with Strongyloides stercoralis and human T-lymphotropic virus-I co-infection.
Abstract Ivermectin is a widely used drug for the treatment of various neglected tropical diseases, such as lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and strongyloidiasis among others. Despite its excellent safety profile, there are few published studies of the use of ivermectin in children, pregnant and nursing women. In the present study, we report clinical data on ivermectin concentrations in breastmilk of a woman with Strongyloides stercoralis and HTLV-I coinfection. Ivermectin levels in breastmilk ranged from 1.4 to 20.8 ng/ml, with a mean of 9.26 ng/ml after a single dose of 200 µg/kg. We estimated the pos...
Source: Acta Tropica - October 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rodari P, Buonfrate D, Pomari E, Lunardi G, Bon I, Bisoffi Z, Angheben A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa by 2025: an ambitious target requires ambitious interventions
AbstractTo achieve the elimination of onchocerciasis transmission in all African countries will entail enormous challenges, as has been highlighted by the active discussion around onchocerciasis intervention strategies and evaluation procedures in this journal.Serological thresholds for onchocerciasis elimination, adapted for the African setting, need to be established. The Onchocerciasis Technical Advisory Subgroup of the World Health Organization is currently developing improved guidelines to allow country elimination committees to make evidence-based decisions. Importantly, onchocerciasis-related morbidity should not be...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - October 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antibody responses against the vaccine antigens < i > Ov < /i > -103 and < i > Ov < /i > -RAL-2 are associated with protective immunity to < i > Onchocerca volvulus < /i > infection in both mice and humans
Conclusions/SignificanceAlum-adjuvantedOv-103 andOv-RAL-2 vaccines have the potential of reducing infection and thus morbidity associated with onchocerciasis also in humans. The development of cytophilic antibodies, that function in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is essential for a successful prophylactic vaccine against this infection. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jovvian George P. Source Type: research

Neglected Tropical Disease as a ‘Biographical Disruption’: Listening to the Narratives of Affected Persons to Develop Integrated People Centred Care in Liberia
by Laura Dean, Rachel Tolhurst, Gartee Nallo, Karsor Kollie, Anthony Bettee, Sally Theobald BackgroundIntegrated disease management, disability and inclusion (DMDI) for NTDs is increasingly prioritised. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of integrated DMDI from the perspective of affected individuals and how this varies by differing axes of inequality such as age, gender, and disability. We used narrative methods to consider how individuals ’ unique positions of power and privilege shaped their illness experience, to elucidate what practical and feasible steps could support integrated DMDI in Liberia and ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - September 6, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Laura Dean Source Type: research

BioStruct-Africa: empowering Africa-based scientists through structural biology knowledge transfer and mentoring – recent advances and future perspectives
Being able to visualize biology at the molecular level is essential for our understanding of the world. A structural biology approach reveals the molecular basis of disease processes and can guide the design of new drugs as well as aid in the optimization of existing medicines. However, due to the lack of a synchrotron light source, adequate infrastructure, skilled persons and incentives for scientists in addition to limited financial support, the majority of countries across the African continent do not conduct structural biology research. Nevertheless, with technological advances such as robotic protein crystallization a...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 28, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Nji, E. Traore, D.A.K. Ndi, M. Joko, C.A. Doyle, D.A. Tags: BioStruct-Africa structural biology neglected tropical diseases capacity building synchrotron remote data collection African Light Source teaching and education Source Type: research

Would ivermectin for malaria control be beneficial in onchocerciasis-endemic regions?
ConclusionsOnchocerciasis-endemic sites would doubly benefit from ivermectin MDA interventions, as these will alleviate onchocerciasis-associated morbidity and mortality, while potentially curbing malaria transmission. Involving onchocerciasis programs and other relevant stakeholders in the malaria/ivermectin research agenda would foster the implementation of pluri-annual MDA in target communities. (Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty)
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - August 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Analysis of severe adverse effects following community-based ivermectin treatment in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
CONCLUSION: Co-endemicity of loiasis and onchocerciasis is one of the key factors responsible for the occurrence of SAE following ivermectin treatment. Mobilization of resources necessary to the appropriate management of SAE and awareness of populations are essential to achieve onchocerciasis control in DRC. PMID: 31420005 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - August 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research

Advancing a standardised approach to onchocerciasis elimination mapping.
PMID: 31409955 [PubMed] (Source: Community Eye Health)
Source: Community Eye Health - August 16, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hamill L, Hill B, Pavluck A, Downs P Tags: Community Eye Health Source Type: research

Analysis of severe adverse effects following community-based ivermectin treatment in the Democratic Republic of Congo
The progress of mass, community-directed, treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control was disrupted by severe adverse effects (SAE) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The study aimed at... (Source: BMC Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: BMC Clinical Pharmacology - August 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jean-Claude Makenga Bof, Daniel Muteba, Paul Mansiangi, F élicien Ilunga-Ilunga and Yves Coppieters Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of the < i > Onchocerca volvulus < /i > Excretory Secretory Product Ov28CRP, a putative GM2 activator protein
by Ferdinand Ngale Njume, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Robert Adamu Shey, Lea Olive Tchouate Gainkam, Philippe Poelvoorde, Perrine Humblet, Joseph Kamgno, Annie Robert, Leon Mutesa, Christophe Lelubre, Evelina Edelweiss, Arnaud Poterszman, Susi Anheuser, Luc Vanhamme, Jacob SouopguiOnchocerca volvulus is the nematode pathogen responsible for human onchocerciasis also known as “River blindness”, a neglected tropical disease that affects up to 18 million people worldwide. Helminths Excretory Secretory Products (ESPs) constitute a rich repertoire of molecules that can be exploited for host-parasite relationship, diagno...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ferdinand Ngale Njume Source Type: research

From river blindness to river epilepsy: Implications for onchocerciasis elimination programmes
by Robert Colebunders, Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo, Adrian Hopkins, An Hotterbeekx, Thomson L. Lakwo, Akili Kalinga, Makoy Yibi Logora, Maria-Gloria Bas áñez (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Robert Colebunders Source Type: research

Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Clinical description and relationship with microfilarial density
by Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo, Michel Mandro, Deby Mukendi, Floribert Tepage, Sonia Menon, Swabra Nakato, Fran çoise Nyisi, Germain Abhafule, Deogratias Wonya’rossi, Aimé Anyolito, Richard Lokonda, An Hotterbeekx, Robert Colebunders BackgroundHigh epilepsy prevalence and incidence were observed in onchocerciasis-endemic villages in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We investigated the clinical characteristics of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE), and the relationship between seizure severity and microfilarial density. MethodsIn October 2017, ivermectin-naive persons with epilepsy (PWE) were ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 17, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo Source Type: research

Optimization and evaluation of the Esperanza Window Trap to reduce biting rates of < i > Simulium damnosum sensu < /i > lato in Northern Uganda
Conclusions/SignificanceThese results suggest that the optimized EWT might be capable of reducing local vector black fly biting in areas commonly frequented by residents. Together with other recently developed methods of community directed vector control, the traps may augment ivermectin MDA, bringing the goal of onchocerciasis elimination within reach in much of Africa. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - July 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Denis Loum Source Type: research

The need for evidence-based strategies and tools for onchocerciasis elimination in Africa
AbstractIn a recent article we discussed the feasibility of onchocerciasis elimination in Africa by 2025. We expressed concern that elimination may be impeded by failure to build on the lessons learned in the African onchocerciasis control programmes and the introduction of strategies and tools from the Americas. Richards et al. and Cupp et al. wrote to refute our concern and described recent achievements with stopping treatment in some areas.In this response, we discuss their arguments which did not convince us. We point out several scientific flaws in the American conceptual framework of elimination which has led to long...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - July 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research