Perspectives on the utility of moxidectin for the control of parasitic nematodes in the face of developing anthelmintic resistance
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug ResistanceAuthor(s): Roger K. Prichard, Timothy G. GearyAbstractMacrocyclic lactone (ML) anthelmintics are the most important class of anthelmintics because of our high dependence on them for the control of nematode parasites and some ectoparasites in livestock, companion animals and in humans. However, resistance to MLs is of increasing concern. Resistance is commonplace throughout the world in nematode parasites of small ruminants and is of increasing concern in horses, cattle, dogs and other animals. It is suspe...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance - June 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

The Efficacy of Doxycycline Treatment on Mansonella perstans Infection: An Open-Label, Randomized Trial in Ghana.
f A Abstract Treating Mansonella perstans is challenged by the low efficacy of registered antihelminthics. Wolbachia endobacteria provide an alternative treatment target because depletion results in amicrofilaremia in filarial infections with Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus infections. This open-label, randomized study sought to confirm that i) Wolbachia are present in M. perstans in Ghana and ii) doxycycline treatment will deplete Wolbachia and cause a slow, sustained decline in microfilariae (MF). Two hundred and two Ghanaians with M. perstans infection were randomized into early (immediate) and del...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - June 3, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Batsa Debrah L, Phillips RO, Pfarr K, Klarmann-Schulz U, Opoku VS, Nausch N, Owusu W, Mubarik Y, Sander AL, Lämmer C, Ritter M, Layland LE, Jacobsen M, Debrah AY, Hoerauf A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 1925: Emerging Resistance of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Scoping Review of the Literature
Conclusions: Based on this study we deduce that monitoring and surveillance systems need to be strengthened to enable the early detection of AMR and the mitigation of its global spread. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - May 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Folahanmi T. Akinsolu Priscilla O. Nemieboka Diana W. Njuguna Makafui N. Ahadji Dora Dezso Orsolya Varga Tags: Review Source Type: research

Notes on distribution of Simulium damnosum s. l. along Atbara River in Galabat sub-focus, eastern Sudan
Onchocerciasis is caused by a nematode worm Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted in Sudan by black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum sensu lato species complex. In Sudan, the disease is found in four foci... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - May 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Isam M. A. Zarroug, Arwa Elaagip, Suhaib G. Gumaa, Altayeb K. Ali, Ayman Ahmed, Hanaa A. M. Siam, Deena M. Abdelgadir, Olabanji A. Surakat, Olatunwa J. Olamiju, Daniel A. Boakye, Nabil Aziz and Kamal Hashim Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy: another piece in the puzzle from the Mahenge mountains, southern Tanzania
AbstractIn a study from the onchocerciasis-endemic area of Mahenge in southern Tanzania, Mmbando et al. [Inf Dis Poverty. 2018;7:64] demonstrate that in four selected villages the overall epilepsy prevalence was high, and significantly more elevated in the two villages of higher onchocerciasis endemicity compared to those of lower endemicity. This is replicating earlier findings from many other areas of tropical Africa. The authors are also providing data indicating that in the Mahenge focus, the prevalence of nodding syndrome may be related to that of onchocerciasis in the same way as epilepsy in general. The application ...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - May 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Barriers to the National Onchocerciasis Control Programme at operational level in Cameroon: a qualitative assessment of stakeholders ’ views
The global burden of onchocerciasis is the heaviest in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies have shown the importance of the role of Community-Directed Distributors (CDDs) and nurses in onchocerciasis control, but litt... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fanny Nadia Dissak-Delon, Guy-Roger Kamga, Perrine Claire Humblet, Annie Robert, Jacob Souopgui, Joseph Kamgno, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu and Isabelle Godin Tags: Research Source Type: research

Stigma and epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic regions in Africa: a review and recommendations from the onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy working group
ConclusionsEducating healthcare workers and communities about OAE, strengthening onchocerciasis elimination programs, decreasing the anti-epileptic treatment gap, improving the care of epilepsy-related injuries, and prioritising epilepsy research is the way forward to decreasing the stigma associated with epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic regions. (Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty)
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - May 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ivermectin impairs the development of sexual and asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.
Conclusion Ivermectin might add a chapter on its "wonder" drug properties - with activity against asexual stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Observed activities might be difficult to reach with current regimens but will be more relevant in future high-dose regimens under investigation. Further studies should be done to confirm these results in vitro as well as in vivo. PMID: 31109978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - May 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pessanha de Carvalho L, Sandri TL, José Tenório de Melo E, Fendel R, Kremsner PG, Mordmüller B, Held J Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Onchocerciasis: the beginning of the end?
PMID: 31086442 [PubMed] (Source: Community Eye Health)
Source: Community Eye Health - May 17, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Hopkins A Tags: Community Eye Health Source Type: research

Prevalence of onchocerciasis and associated clinical manifestations in selected hypoendemic communities in Ghana following long-term administration of ivermectin
Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease which is still of immense major public health concern in several areas of Africa and the Americas. The disease manifests either as ocular or as dermal onchocercia... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - May 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kenneth Bentum Otabil, Samuel Fosu Gyasi, Esi Awuah, Daniels Obeng-Ofori, Robert Junior Atta-Nyarko, Dominic Andoh, Beatrice Conduah, Lawrence Agbenyikey, Philip Aseidu, Comfort Blessing Ankrah, Abdul Razak Nuhu and H. D. F. H. Schallig Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Predictive Value of Ov16 Antibody Prevalence in Different Sub-Populations for Elimination of African Onchocerciasis.
Abstract The World Health Organization currently recommends to evaluate elimination of onchocerciasis by testing whether Ov16 antibody prevalence in 0-9-year-old children is below 0.1%. However, the certainty of evidence for this recommendation is considered to be low. We use the established ONCHOSIM model to investigate the predictive value of different Ov16 antibody prevalence thresholds in various age groups for elimination of onchocerciasis in a variety of endemic settings and for various mass drug administration scenarios. According to our simulations, the predictive value of Ov16 antibody prevalence for elim...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - May 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Coffeng LE, Stolk WA, Golden A, de Los Santos T, Domingo GJ, de Vlas SJ Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Aldolase From Trichinella spiralis and Its Potential in Inducing Immune Protection
Yong Yang1,2†, Xue Bai1†, Chengyao Li1†, Mingwei Tong3, Peihao Zhang2, Wei Cai4, Xiaolei Liu1* and Mingyuan Liu1,5* 1Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Zoonosis, Jilin University, Changchun, China 2Wu Xi Medical School, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China 3School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China 4Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, The Fourth People's Hospital of Wuxi City, Wuxi, China 5Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Di...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - April 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Blackflies in the ointment: < i > O < /i > . < i > volvulus < /i > vector biting can be significantly reduced by the skin-application of mineral oil during human landing catches
ConclusionsVector collectors captured significantly more simuliids per counted bite mark with mopHLCs than with sHLCs. Further investigations into the utility of mopHLCs for onchocerciasis xenomonitoring and beyond are merited. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - April 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: T úllio Romão Ribeiro da Silva Source Type: research

Comparison of Reported and Survey-Based Coverage in Onchocerciasis Programs over a Period of 8 Years in Cameroon and Uganda.
Abstract Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin must reach a high treatment coverage (90% of the eligible population) if onchocerciasis is to be eliminated. Questions have been raised as to whether reported treatment figures reaching such high coverage are reliable. Sample surveys are proposed as the method of choice for "validating" reported coverage figures. The purpose of this study was to compare the district-level MDA coverage reported by programs with contemporaneous surveys of randomly selected respondents living in those same districts. Over an 8-year period, 19,219 households were select...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - March 25, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Katabarwa MN, Griswold E, Habomugisha P, Eyamba A, Byamukama E, Nwane P, Khainza A, Hudson-Davis L, Weiss P, Richards FO Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Impact of 19 years of mass drug administration with ivermectin on epilepsy burden in a hyperendemic onchocerciasis area in Cameroon
Surveys conducted in 1991 –1992 in the Mbam Valley (Cameroon) revealed that onchocerciasis was highly endemic, with community microfilarial loads (CMFL) > 100 microfilariae/snip in some villages. Also in 1991–1... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - March 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Charlotte Boull é, Alfred K. Njamnshi, Fidèle Dema, Michel K. Mengnjo, Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Patrick Suykerbuyk, Cédric G. Lenou-Nanga, Hugues C. Nana-Djeunga, Joseph Kamgno, Cédric B. Chesnais, Michel Boussinesq Tags: Research Source Type: research

Epidemiological evidence concerning the association between onchocerciasis and epilepsy
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: J.N.F. Siewe, F. Tepage, R. Colebunders Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

[Research Articles] Preclinical development of an oral anti-Wolbachia macrolide drug for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis
There is an urgent global need for a safe macrofilaricide drug to accelerate elimination of the neglected tropical diseases onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. From an anti-infective compound library, the macrolide veterinary antibiotic, tylosin A, was identified as a hit against Wolbachia. This bacterial endosymbiont is required for filarial worm viability and fertility and is a validated target for macrofilaricidal drugs. Medicinal chemistry was undertaken to develop tylosin A analogs with improved oral bioavailability. Two analogs, A-1535469 and A-1574083, were selected. Their efficacy was tested against the gold-s...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Taylor, M. J., von Geldern, T. W., Ford, L., Hübner, M. P., Marsh, K., Johnston, K. L., Sjoberg, H. T., Specht, S., Pionnier, N., Tyrer, H. E., Clare, R. H., Cook, D. A. N., Murphy, E., Steven, A., Archer, J., Bloemker, D., Lenz, F., Koschel, M., Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Discovery of ABBV-4083, a novel analog of Tylosin A that has potent anti- < i > Wolbachia < /i > and anti-filarial activity
by Thomas W. von Geldern, Howard E. Morton, Rick F. Clark, Brian S. Brown, Kelly L. Johnston, Louise Ford, Sabine Specht, Robert A. Carr, Deanne F. Stolarik, Junli Ma, Matthew J. Rieser, Dominique Struever, Stefan J. Frohberger, Marianne Koschel, Alexandra Ehrens, Joseph D. Turner, Marc P. H übner, Achim Hoerauf, Mark J. Taylor, Stephen A. Ward, Kennan Marsh, Dale J. Kempf There is a significant need for improved treatments for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, diseases caused by filarial worm infection. In particular, an agent able to selectively kill adult worms (macrofilaricide) would be expected to substan...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - February 28, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Thomas W. von Geldern Source Type: research

[ASAP] Boron-Pleuromutilins as Anti- < italic toggle="yes" > Wolbachia < /italic > Agents with Potential for Treatment of Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01854 (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - February 26, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Robert T. Jacobs, Christopher S. Lunde, Yvonne R. Freund, Vincent Hernandez, Xianfeng Li, Yi Xia, David S. Carter, Pamela W. Berry, Jason Halladay, Fernando Rock, Rianna Stefanakis, Eric Easom, Jacob J. Plattner, Louise Ford, Kelly L. Johnston, Darren A. Source Type: research

Macro and microfilaricidal activities of extracts of Annona senegalensis and Milletia comosa against Onchocerca ochengi and Loa loa.
Abstract Despite the efforts employed for the control of onchocerciasis, the latter has remained a significant public health problem, due mainly to the lack of safe and effective adult worm drugs and/or microfilaricides that do not kill Loa loa microfilariae (mf). Serious adverse events have been encountered after administering ivermectin to some onchocerciasis patients coinfected with Loa loa. There is therefore, an urgent need for a macro and/or microfilaricidal drug which kills Onchocerca but not L. loa microfilariae. A total of 12 crude extracts from Milletia comosa and Annona senegalensis were prepared and sc...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - February 13, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ngwewondo A, Tsague Manfo FP, Samje M, Monya E, Cho-Ngwa F Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research

Differences in the Clinical and Laboratory Features of Imported Onchocerciasis in Endemic Individuals and Temporary Residents.
Abstract Many parasitic infections have different presenting features in endemic individuals (ENDs) and immunologically naive temporary residents (TRs). Temporary residents with loiasis often display acute symptoms and hypereosinophilia, in contrast to a parasite-induced subclinical state in chronically infected ENDs. Few studies have examined differences in ENDs and TRs infected with the related filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. We identified 40 TRs and 36 ENDs with imported onchocerciasis at the National Institutes of Health between 1976 and 2016. All study subjects received an extensive pretreatment histor...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Showler AJ, Kubofcik J, Ricciardi A, Nutman TB Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Comprehensive management of epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic areas: lessons learnt from community-based surveys
ConclusionsA community-based approach with task-shifting of epilepsy care from specialists to non-physician health workers will reduce epilepsy-associated morbidity. Increased advocacy and collaboration with various stakeholders is needed to establish a sustainable, cost-effective chronic care model for epilepsy that will significantly improve the quality of life of PWE in onchocerciasis-endemic regions. (Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty)
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - February 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Integrated seroprevalence-based assessment of < i > Wuchereria bancrofti < /i > and < i > Onchocerca volvulus < /i > in two lymphatic filariasis evaluation units of Mali with the SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid Test
Conclusions/SignificanceThe SD Bioline Onchocerciasis/LF IgG4 Rapid test appears to be a good tool for integrated exposure measures of LF and onchocerciasis in co-endemic areas. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 30, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Housseini Dolo Source Type: research

Patent infections with soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni are not associated with increased prevalence of antibodies to the Onchocerca volvulus peptide epitopes OvMP-1 and OvMP-23
Ov16 serology is considered a reference method for Onchocerca volvulus epidemiological mapping. Given the suboptimal sensitivity of this test and the fact that seroconversion takes more than a year after infectio... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Johnny Vlaminck, Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Daniel Dana, Bieke Van Dorst, Zeleke Mekonnen, Bruno Levecke and Lieven J. Stuyver Tags: Research Source Type: research

Low prevalence of epilepsy and onchocerciasis after more than 20  years of ivermectin treatment in the Imo River Basin in Nigeria
AbstractBackgroundHigh epilepsy prevalence and incidence have been reported in areas with high onchocerciasis transmission. Recent findings suggest that proper community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) is potentially able to prevent onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE). We assessed the epilepsy prevalence and onchocerciasis transmission in two Nigerian villages following more than 20  years of CDTI.MethodsA cross-sectional door-to-door survey was performed in two villages in the Imo River Basin reported to be mesoendomic for onchocerciasis (Umuoparaodu and Umuezeala). Individuals were screened for epil...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - January 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

AWZ1066S, a highly specific anti-Wolbachia drug candidate for a short-course treatment of filariasis [Pharmacology]
Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are two neglected tropical diseases that together affect ∼157 million people and inflict severe disability. Both diseases are caused by parasitic filarial nematodes with elimination efforts constrained by the lack of a safe drug that can kill the adult filaria (macrofilaricide). Previous proof-of-concept human trials have... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 22, 2019 Category: Science Authors: W. David Hong, Farid Benayoud, Gemma L. Nixon, Louise Ford, Kelly L. Johnston, Rachel H. Clare, Andrew Cassidy, Darren A. N. Cook, Amy Siu, Motohiro Shiotani, Peter J. H. Webborn, Stefan Kavanagh, Ghaith Alȷayyoussi, Emma Murphy, Andrew Steven, Joh Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Development of a preliminary < i > in vitro < /i > drug screening assay based on a newly established culturing system for pre-adult fifth-stage < i > Onchocerca volvulus < /i > worms
ConclusionThe culture system we have established forO.volvulus young adult worms offers a promising new platform to advance drug discovery against the human filarial parasite,O.volvulus and thus supports the continuous pursuit for effective macrofilaricidal drugs. However, thisin vitro culturing system will have to be further validated for reproducibility before it can be rolled out as a drug screen for decision making in macrofilaricide drug development programs. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 17, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Denis Voronin Source Type: research

Efficacy of subcutaneous doses and a new oral amorphous solid dispersion formulation of flubendazole on male jirds ( < i > Meriones unguiculatus < /i > ) infected with the filarial nematode < i > Brugia pahangi < /i >
by Chelsea Fischer, Iosune Ibiricu Urriza, Christina A. Bulman, KC Lim, Jiri Gut, Sophie Lachau-Durand, Marc Engelen, Ludo Quirynen, Fetene Tekle, Benny Baeten, Brenda Beerntsen, Sara Lustigman, Judy Sakanari River blindness and lymphatic filariasis are two filarial diseases that globally affect millions of people mostly in impoverished countries. Current mass drug administration programs rely on drugs that primarily target the microfilariae, which are released from adult female worms. The female worms can live for several years, releasing millions of microfilariae throughout the course of infection. Thus, to stop transmi...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Chelsea Fischer Source Type: research

Flubendazole as a macrofilaricide: History and background
by Timothy G. Geary, Charles D. Mackenzie, Steven A. Silber Benzimidazole anthelmintics have long been employed for the control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Flubendazole (FBZ) was approved in 1980 for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematode infections in both veterinary and human medicine. It has also long been known that parenteral administ ration of FBZ can lead to high macrofilaricidal efficacy in a variety of preclinical models and in humans. As part of an effort to stimulate the discovery and development of new macrofilaricides, particularly for onchocerciasis, research has recently been devoted to the...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Timothy G. Geary Source Type: research

Short-course, oral flubendazole does not mediate significant efficacy against < i > Onchocerca < /i > adult male worms or < i > Brugia < /i > microfilariae in murine infection models
In conclusion, multiple oral FBZ formulation doses, whilst achieving substantial bioavailability, do not emulate the efficacy delivered by the parenteral routein vivo against adultO.ochengi. PK analysis determined FBZ efficacy was related to sustained systemic drug levels rather than achievable Cmax. PK modelling predicted that oral FBZ would have to be given at low dose for up to 5 weeks in the mouse model to achieve a matching efficacious exposure profile. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Hanna T. Sjoberg Source Type: research

Macrofilaricidal efficacy of single and repeated oral and subcutaneous doses of flubendazole in < i > Litomosoides sigmodontis < /i > infected jirds
by Marc P. H übner, Alexandra Ehrens, Marianne Koschel, Bettina Dubben, Franziska Lenz, Stefan J. Frohberger, Sabine Specht, Ludo Quirynen, Sophie Lachau-Durand, Fetene Tekle, Benny Baeten, Marc Engelen, Charles D. Mackenzie, Achim Hoerauf Flubendazole (FBZ) is highly efficacious against filarial nematodes after parenteral administration and presents a promising macrofilaricidal drug candidate for the elimination of onchocerciasis and other filariae. In the present study the efficacy of a newly developed bioavailable amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) oral formulation of FBZ was investigated in theLitomosoides sigmodon...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - January 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Marc P. H übner Source Type: research

Entomological assessment of the transmission following recrudescence of onchocerciasis in the Como é Valley, Burkina Faso
Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a dermal filariasis caused by infection with the nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted to humans through the bites of blackflies of the genus Simulium. Despite ... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lassane Koala, Achille S. Niki èma, Alain B. Paré, François Drabo, Laurent D. Toé, Adrien M. G. Belem, Daniel A. Boakye, Soungalo Traoré and Roch K. Dabiré Tags: Research Source Type: research

Development of < i > Onchocerca volvulus < /i > in humanized NSG mice and detection of parasite biomarkers in urine and serum
Conclusions/SignificanceThe newly identified mouse models for onchocerciasis will enable the development ofO.volvulus specific biomarkers, screening for new therapeutic approaches and potentially studying the human immune response to infection withO.volvulus. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - December 12, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: John B. Patton Source Type: research

Community perceptions of epilepsy and its treatment in an onchocerciasis endemic region in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo
ConclusionsClinical signs of convulsive epilepsy were recognized by the community in the Logo and Rethy health zones but many misconceptions about epilepsy were identified. A comprehensive community-based epilepsy treatment programme with an affordable uninterrupted AEM supply needs to be established. Such a programme should address stigma, misconceptions, sexual abuse and foster the rehabilitation of PWE to alleviate poverty. (Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty)
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - December 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiology of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in the Mbam and Sanaga river valleys of Cameroon: impact of more than 13  years of ivermectin
AbstractBackgroundA high epilepsy prevalence has been reported in several onchocerciasis-endemic villages along the Mbam and Sanaga river valleys in Cameroon, including Bilomo and Kelleng. We sought to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in these two villages following more than 13  years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI).MethodsDoor-to-door surveys were performed on the entire resident population in the villages in August 2017 and January 2018. Epilepsy was diagnosed using a 2-step approach: administration of a standardized 5-item questionnaire followed by confirmation by a neurologist. Previous...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - December 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical presentations of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) in Cameroon
ConclusionPeople with epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic villages in Cameroon present with a wide clinical spectrum including nodding seizures and Nakalanga features. A great majority of participants met the diagnostic criteria for OAE, suggesting that better onchocerciasis control could prevent new cases. Epilepsy management algorithms in these areas must be adjusted to reflect the varied seizure types. (Source: Epilepsy and Behavior)
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical presentations of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy (OAE) in Cameroon.
CONCLUSION: People with epilepsy in onchocerciasis-endemic villages in Cameroon present with a wide clinical spectrum including nodding seizures and Nakalanga features. A great majority of participants met the diagnostic criteria for OAE, suggesting that better onchocerciasis control could prevent new cases. Epilepsy management algorithms in these areas must be adjusted to reflect the varied seizure types. PMID: 30513438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour)
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Siewe JFN, Ngarka L, Tatah G, Mengnjo MK, Nfor LN, Chokote ES, Boullé C, Nkouonlack C, Dema F, Nkoro GA, Njamnshi WY, Tabah EN, Zoung-Kanyi Bissek AC, Colebunders R, Njamnshi AK Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research

Spatial clustering of onchocerciasis in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
Conclusion: No environmental factors related with onchocerciasis were found, including proximity to rivers. This could be partially explained by the fact that the vector was eliminated in 2005. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - November 30, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Baseline Characterization of Epilepsy in an Onchocerciasis Endemic Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Abstract Increased epilepsy prevalence is reported in onchocerciasis (OC) endemic areas and is associated with the occurrence of distinct syndromes such as nodding disease and Nakalanga syndrome. To date, a causal relationship between OC and epilepsy is still a matter of controversy. We conducted a case-control study of participants with epilepsy and age- and gender-matched presumably healthy controls to elucidate the relationships between OC and epilepsy and explore the role of inflammation and growth factors in an OC endemic area in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Eighty-two participants with epilepsy (m...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Burfeind KG, Kashama JK, Bora BK, Murchison CF, Ramos-Crawford AL, Nseka MT, Kunyu SB, Okitundu DL, Mashukano NL, Banea JM, Boivin Michael J, Mwanza JK, Mumba D, Tshala-Katumbay DD Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Neurological Manifestations in Onchocerca volvulus infection; a Review.
Abstract Human onchocerciasis, caused by infection by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is a major neglected public health problem that affects millions of people in the endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Onchocerciasis is known to be associated with skin and eye disease and more recently, neurological features have been recognized as a major manifestation. Especially the latter poses a severe burden on affected individuals and their families. Although definite studies are awaited, preliminary evidence suggests that neurological disease may include the nodding syndrome, Nakalanga syn...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - November 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hotterbeekx A, Namale Ssonko V, Oyet W, Lakwo T, Idro R Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Creative use of the priority review voucher by public and not-for-profit actors delivers the first new FDA-approved treatment for river blindness in 20 years
by Piero L. Olliaro, Annette C. Kuesel, Christine M. Halleux, Mark Sullivan, John C. Reeder (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - November 15, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Piero L. Olliaro Source Type: research

High prevalence of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in villages in Maridi County, Republic of South Sudan: a community-based survey
ConclusionA very high prevalence and incidence of epilepsy was observed in several villages in Maridi County located close to the Maridi River and the Maridi dam. Urgent action is needed to prevent children in Maridi County from developing OAE by strengthening the onchocerciasis elimination program. (Source: Seizure)
Source: Seizure - November 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The effect of bi-annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin on the incidence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic villages in South Sudan: a study protocol
This study is designed to evaluate the potential effects of bi-annual CDTi on reducing the incidence of NS/OAE in onchocerciasis-endemic areas in South Suda n.MethodsA pre-intervention door-to-door population-based household survey will be conducted in selected onchocerciasis-endemic villages in Mundri and Maridi Counties, which have a high prevalence of epilepsy. Using a validated questionnaire, the entire village will be screened by community research assistants for suspected epilepsy cases. Suspected cases will be interviewed and examined by a trained clinical officer or medical doctor who will confirm or reject the dia...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - November 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

On-going transmission of human onchocerciasis in the Massangam health district in the West Region of Cameroon: Better understanding transmission dynamics to inform changes in programmatic interventions
Conclusions/SignificanceThis study provides evidence of a particular geographic area of high transmission in an approximate 12 km range around the sentinel community of Makouopsap and the neighbouring breeding sites on the River Nja. To eliminate onchocerciasis by 2025, there is a need to explore alternative intervention strategies in this area of high transmission. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - November 14, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Didier Bakajika Source Type: research

High prevalence of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in villages in Maridi County, Republic of South Sudan: a community-based survey
South Sudan is amongst the highly endemic countries for onchocerciasis in Africa, with the disease endemic in around half (49%) the country (1). The most highly endemic foci of onchocerciasis in South Sudan are in Western Equatoria, and Northern and Western Bahr el Ghazal regions. However, in 2006 only 26% of the eligible population received ivermectin in five community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) targeted areas (2) (Fig. 1). (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)
Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy - November 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Robert Colebunders, Jane Y Carter, Peter Claver Olore, Kai Puok, Samit Bhattacharyya, Sonia Menon, Gasim Abd-Elfarag, Morrish Ojok, Chellafe Ensoy-Musoro, Richard Lako, Makoy Yibi Logora Source Type: research

Estimating the elimination feasibility in the 'end game' of control efforts for parasites subjected to regular mass drug administration: Methods and their application to schistosomiasis
by Arathi Arakala, Christopher M. Hoover, John M. Marshall, Susanne H. Sokolow, Giulio A. De Leo, Jason R. Rohr, Justin V. Remais, Manoj Gambhir Progress towards controlling and eliminating parasitic worms, including schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and lymphatic filariasis, is advancing rapidly as national governments, multinational NGOs, and pharmaceutical companies launch collaborative chemotherapeutic control campaigns. Critical questi ons remain regarding the potential for achieving elimination of these infections, and analytical methods can help to quickly estimate progress towards—and the probability of achie...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - November 12, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Arathi Arakala Source Type: research

Update on the current status of onchocerciasis in C ôte d’Ivoire following 40 years of intervention: Progress and challenges
ConclusionsExtensive data collected over many years document the very significant impact of interventions conducted by the National Onchocerciasis and other Eyes Diseases Control Programme during challenging times with periods of civil unrest. The Health Ministry has now integrated efforts to control neglected tropical diseases and adopted the goal of onchocerciasis elimination. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 23, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Benjamin G. Koudou Source Type: research

Onchocerca volvulus as a risk factor for developing epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a case control study
AbstractBackgroundA high prevalence of epilepsy has been observed in onchocerciasis endemic areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). With this study we aimed to investigate whetherOnchocerca volvulus infection is a risk factor for developing epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions in the DRC.MethodsBetween October and December 2015, a multi-centre case control study was performed in onchocerciasis endemic health zones (HZ) in the DRC: one study site was situated in Tshopo Province in the HZ of Wanierukula (village of Salambongo) where there had been 13 annual community distributions of treatment with ivermectin ...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - October 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The effect of assortative mixing on stability of low helminth transmission levels and on the impact of mass drug administration: Model explorations for onchocerciasis
Conclusions/SignificanceAssortative mixing patterns are an important factor to explain stable low prevalence situations and are highly relevant for prospects of elimination. Their effect on the pre-control distribution of mf intensities in human populations is only detectable in settings with mf prevalences (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - October 8, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Anneke S. de Vos Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy in villages in Maridi County, Republic of South Sudan
ConclusionPWE presented with a wide spectrum of seizures. The high percentage of PWE who met the diagnostic criteria for OAE suggests that better onchocerciasis control could prevent new cases. Urgent action is needed to close the anti-epileptic treatment gap.Graphical abstract (Source: Seizure)
Source: Seizure - October 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research