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Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: chest CT findings
Conclusions: The most common tomography findings were nodular formations in the trachea, as well as solid or cavitated nodules and masses in the lung parenchyma. Malignant transformation of the lesions was observed in 5 cases.RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar os achados em TCs de t órax em 16 pacientes (8 homens e 8 mulheres) com papilomatose laringotraqueobrônquica. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo que incluiu pacientes com idade variando de 2 a 72 anos. As imagens de TC foram avaliadas por dois observadores, de forma independente, e os casos discordantes foram resolvidos po r consenso. Os critérios de inc...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - September 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

High-resolution computed tomography findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients
Conclusions: The predominant HRCT pattern was ground-glass attenuation with consolidation, followed by cavitation and centrilobular nodules with a tree-in-bud pattern. These findings are similar to those reported for immunocompetent patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and considerably different from those reported for AIDS patients with the same disease.RESUMO Objetivo: As infec ções respiratórias constituem a principal causa de morbidade e mortalidade em transplantados de órgãos sólidos. A incidência de tuberculose pulmonar é alta entre esses pacientes. Em exames de ...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - September 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pathophysiology and Management of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Children
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a syndrome of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and hypoxia that accompanies up to 30% of deaths in pediatric intensive care units. Pediatric ARDS (PARDS) is diagnosed by the presence of hypoxia, defined by oxygenation index or Pao2/Fio2 ratio cutoffs, and new chest infiltrate occurring within 7  days of a known insult. Hallmarks of ARDS include hypoxemia and decreased lung compliance, increased work of breathing, and impaired gas exchange. Mortality is often accompanied by multiple organ failure. Although many modalities to treat PARDS have been investigated, supportive ther...
Source: Pediatric Clinics of North America - September 21, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sabrina M. Heidemann, Alison Nair, Yonca Bulut, Anil Sapru Source Type: research

Respiratory morbidity was an important consequence of prematurity in the first two years after discharge in three cohorts from 1996 ‐2009
ConclusionThis study showed that when cohorts of preterm infants were compared over time, respiratory morbidity in the first two years of life remained an important consequence after discharge.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Paediatrica)
Source: Acta Paediatrica - September 21, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Estelle E M Mulder, Monique Rijken, Lotte Smet, Steffen Pauws, Enrico Lopriore, Arjan B te Pas Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome: A meta-analysis.
Authors: Zhang Y, Ding S, Li C, Wang Y, Chen Z, Wang Z Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious complication of acute lung injury. Severe systemic inflammation is the main cause of multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality. Removal of reactive oxygen species by anti-oxidants has been applied in clinical practice. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the most commonly used anti-oxidant. However, the benefit of anti-oxidant therapy was not consistently demonstrated by previous studies. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of NAC for adult patients with ARDS. The...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

Late-onset Pompe disease in a 54 year-old sportsman with an episode of syncope: a case report.
Authors: Walczak-Galezewska M, Skrypnik D, Szulinska M, Musialik K, Skrypnik K, Bogdanski P Abstract Pompe disease is an extra-rare metabolic storage disease with deficiency of acid-alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity, which leads to the pathologic accumulation of glycogen in target tissues (skeletal muscles, heart, brain). Clinical features and severity vary by the age of onset, rate of extent of organ involvement. In the late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) form, essential cardiomyopathy seems to be uncommon. Muscles weakness and respiratory failure are the main symptoms of adult patient with Pompe disease. In pre...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - September 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Takotsubo-like Myocardial Dysfunction in a Patient with Botulism.
Authors: Tonomura S, Kakehi Y, Sato M, Naito Y, Shimizu H, Goto Y, Takahashi N Abstract Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) can disrupt the neuromuscular and autonomic functions. We herein report a case of autonomic system dysfunction that manifested as Takotsubo-like myocardial dysfunction in a patient with botulism. Takotsubo syndrome results in acute cardiac insufficiency, another fatal complication of botulism in addition to respiratory muscle paralysis, particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID: 28924131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Internal Medicine)
Source: Internal Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research

Bloody Bronchial Cast Formation Due to Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with H1N1 Influenza Infection.
Authors: Okada Y, Okada A, Narumiya H, Iiduka R, Katsura K Abstract A previously healthy 55-year-old man with H1N1 influenza A presented with severe respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Following the return of spontaneous circulation, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required to maintain oxygenation. On day 2, bronchoscopy revealed a bloody bronchial cast obstructing the right main bronchus. A pathological examination revealed that it was composed of intrabronchial and intra-alveolar hemorrhagic tissue. Unfortunately, the patient died due to severe brain ischemia; a subsequent autopsy revealed ...
Source: Internal Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 9, Pages 269: Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine contains Substantial and Unexpected Amounts of Defective Viral Genomic RNA
mmock The live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist® was withdrawn in the USA by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its failure to provide adequate protective immunity during 2013–2016. The vaccine uses attenuated core type A and type B viruses, reconfigured each year to express the two major surface antigens of the currently circulating viruses. Here Fluenz™ Tetra, the European version of this vaccine, was examined directly for defective-interfering (DI) viral RNAs. DI RNAs are deleted versions of the infectious virus genome, and have powerful biological properties including attenuati...
Source: Viruses - September 21, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Philip Gould Andrew Easton Nigel Dimmock Tags: Article Source Type: research

Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase is an Interferon-inducible Factor that Protects against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Zhongbao Song, Qiaoya Zhang, Xuewei Liu, Juan Bai, Yongxiang Zhao, Xianwei Wang, Ping Jiang Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of the Arteriviridae family, has become a global health threat for swine. Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of cholesterol to 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). The purpose of this study was to explore the antiviral activity of CH25H against PRRSV infection. We found that CH25H was induced by interfero...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - September 21, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Airborne bioaerosols and their impact on human health
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017 Source:Journal of Environmental Sciences Author(s): Ki-Hyun Kim, Ehsanul Kabir, Shamin Ara Jahan Bioaerosols consist of aerosols originated biologically such as metabolites, toxins, or fragments of microorganisms that are present ubiquitously in the environment. International interests in bioaerosols have increased rapidly to broaden the pool of knowledge on their identification, quantification, distribution, and health impacts (e.g., infectious and respiratory diseases, allergies, and cancer). However, risk assessment of bioaerosols based on conventional culture method...
Source: Journal of Environmental Sciences - September 21, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Biallelic C1QBP Mutations Cause Severe Neonatal-, Childhood-, or Later-Onset Cardiomyopathy Associated with Combined Respiratory-Chain Deficiencies
Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein (C1QBP; also known as p32) is a multi-compartmental protein whose precise function remains unknown. It is an evolutionary conserved multifunctional protein localized primarily in the mitochondrial matrix and has roles in inflammation and infection processes, mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis, and regulation of apoptosis and nuclear transcription. It has an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide that is proteolytically processed after import into the mitochondrial matrix, where it forms a homotrimeric complex organized in a doughnut-shaped structure. (Source: The Ame...
Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics - September 21, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ren é G. Feichtinger, Monika Oláhová, Yoshihito Kishita, Caterina Garone, Laura S. Kremer, Mikako Yagi, Takeshi Uchiumi, Alexis A. Jourdain, Kyle Thompson, Aaron R. D’Souza, Robert Kopajtich, Charlotte L. Alston, Johannes Koch, Wolfgang Sperl, Elisa Tags: Article Source Type: research

Peak Inspiratory Flow Rate in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Implications for Dry Powder Inhalers
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery - September 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sohini Ghosh Jill A. Ohar M. Bradley Drummond Source Type: research

Gastroesophageal reflux disease: An important consideration for respiratory disorders
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Respiratory Investigation, Volume 55, Issue 5 Author(s): Akio Niimi (Source: Respiratory Investigation)
Source: Respiratory Investigation - September 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Perceptions of barriers to the management of respiratory tract infections in general practice settings in Australia
Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Rabia Khan (Source: Australian Journal of Primary Health)
Source: Australian Journal of Primary Health - September 21, 2017 Category: Primary Care Authors: Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey Rabia Khan Source Type: research

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and anesthesia: a case series
AbstractChronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune demyelinating polyneuropathy characterized by symmetrical diffuse weakness that also can rarely affect bulbar and respiratory muscles. The study objective was to describe perioperative outcomes of patients with CIDP who received general anesthesia. This retrospective observational study evaluated patients with active (diagnosed or treated within the previous year) CIDP who underwent general anesthesia at our institution between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015. Medical records were reviewed for perioperative outcomes wi...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - September 21, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of 5 ɑ-androst-3β,5,6β-triol on retinal ganglion cells in a rat chronic ocular hypertension model
Publication date: 1 November 2017 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 660 Author(s): Yan-Qiu Chen, Shu-Min Zhong, Shu-Ting Liu, Feng Gao, Fang Li, Yuan Zhao, Xing-Huai Sun, Yanying Miao, Zhongfeng Wang Previous studies have demonstrated that 5ɑ-androst-3β,5,6β-triol (Triol), a synthesized steroid compound, showed notable neuroprotective effect in cultured cortical neurons. In the present study, we explored whether and how Triol have neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model. COH model was produced by injecting superparamagnetic iron oxide micro-bead...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Shelf life extension of white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) by low temperatures conditioning, modified atmosphere, and nanocomposite packaging material
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017 Source:Food Packaging and Shelf Life Author(s): Rashid Gholami, Ebrahim Ahmadi, Stefano Farris In this work, we have explored a new integrated approach for the shelf life extension of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). The effect of temperature (4°C and 25°C), packaging configuration (PET/coating/LLDPE oxygen barrier material over conventional PVC stretchable film), and modified atmosphere (15% O2/5% CO2/80% N2 over air) were monitored during 10days of storage. The influence of a chitosan coating deposited on the cap surface was also investigated. Temperature...
Source: Food Packaging and Shelf Life - September 21, 2017 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

The prevalence and risk factors for Acute Respiratory Infections in children aged 0 ‐59 months in rural Malawi: a cross‐sectional study
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - September 21, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Miriam Cox, Louis Rose, Khumbo Kalua, Gilles Wildt, Robin Bailey, John Hart Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Induction of reactive oxygen species: an emerging approach for cancer therapy
AbstractReactive oxygen species (ROS), a group of ions and molecules, include hydroxyl radicals ( ·OH), alkoxyl radicals, superoxide anion (O2·−), singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydroxyl radicals and alkoxyl radicals are extremely and highly reactive species respectively. Endogenous ROS are mainly formed in mitochondrial respiratory chain. Low levels of ROS play important roles in regulating biological functions in mammalian cells. However, excess production of ROS can induce cell death by oxidative damaging effects to intracellular biomacromolecules. Cancer cell death types induced ...
Source: Apoptosis - September 21, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mechanical ventilation in patients subjected to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017 Source:Medicina Intensiva (English Edition) Author(s): M. López Sanchez Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a crucial element in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because there is high level evidence that a low tidal volume of 6ml/kg (protective ventilation) improves survival. In these patients with refractory respiratory insufficiency, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used. This salvage technique improves oxygenation, promotes CO2 clearance, and facilitates protective and ultraprotective MV, potentially minimizi...
Source: Medicina Intensiva - September 21, 2017 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Personalised medicine for IPF: getting closer, but not there yet
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): Seidai Sato, Martin R J Kolb (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Validation of a 52-gene risk profile for outcome prediction in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an international, multicentre, cohort study
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): Jose D Herazo-Maya, Jiehuan Sun, Philip L Molyneaux, Qin Li, Julian A Villalba, Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Heather Lynn, Brenda M Juan-Guardela, Cristobal Risquez, Juan C Osorio, Xiting Yan, George Michel, Nachelle Aurelien, Kathleen O Lindell, Melinda J Klesen, Miriam F Moffatt, William O Cookson, Yingze Zhang, Joe G N Garcia, Imre Noth, Antje Prasse, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Kevin F Gibson, Hongyu Zhao, Erica L Herzog, Ivan O Rosas, Toby M Maher, Naftali Kaminski Background The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) ...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory infections due to nontuberculous mycobacterias.
Authors: Máiz Carro L, Barbero Herranz E, Nieto Royo R Abstract The most common infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are lung infections. The microorganisms causing these infections most frequently are Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Their incidence has increased in the last three decades. After identifying an NTM in the respiratory tract, clinical and radiological aspects must be considered to determine if isolations are clinically relevant. Predisposing conditions that could contribute to infection must also be investigated. Pulmona...
Source: Medicina Clinica - September 20, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: Med Clin (Barc) Source Type: research

New | phs001347.v1.p1 | Prematurity, Respiratory Outcomes, Immune System, and Microbiome Study (PRISM
Prematurity, Respiratory Outcomes, Immune System, and Microbiome Study (PRISM)  (study page |release notes) (Source: dbGaP, the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes)
Source: dbGaP, the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes - September 20, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Study Release Source Type: research

Integrating Health into Local Climate Response: Lessons from the U.S. CDC Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative
Conclusion Through relatively small amounts of grant support over the last 6 y, CRSCI has helped local public health agencies in sixteen states and two cities—whose combined population reaches half of the U.S. total—identify critical climate impacts and vulnerable populations. In the process, the program has helped to integrate health more fully into local climate change efforts. As a result of CRSCI support, these local public health agencies—the backbone of public health climate response capacity—have tools to enhance real-life adaptive capacity and increase the effectiveness of existing intervent...
Source: EHP Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Daniil Lyalko Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research

The role of upper airway pathology as a co-morbidity in severe asthma.
Authors: Licari A, Brambilla I, De Filippo M, Poddighe D, Castagnoli R, Marseglia GL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Severe asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease that is refractory to standard treatment and is complicated by multiple co-morbidities and risk factors. Several co-morbidities may contribute to worsen asthma control and complicate diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe asthmatic patients. Areas covered: A prevalent cluster of chronic upper airway co-morbid diseases is recognized in severe asthma. Evaluation for these disorders should always be considered in clinical practice. The aim of this review ...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research

The impact of long-term systemic glucocorticoid use in severe asthma: A UK retrospective cohort analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with severe asthma are exposed to SGC, which increases SGC-related AE risk. This suggests that SGC exposure should be minimized as recommended by asthma treatment guidelines. PMID: 28925768 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Asthma)
Source: Journal of Asthma - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Correlation of Types of Food and Asthma Diagnosis in Childhood: A Case-Control Study.
This study included 1276 children (976 healthy and 300 asthmatic children). Eating dairy products less than twice a week, 3-6 times per week and daily were significantly and inversely associated with asthma, as compared to never eating dairy product (p = 0.02, ORa = 0.285, CI 0.099-0.821; p
Source: Journal of Asthma - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Pneumocystis jirovecii genotyping: experience in a tertiary-care hospital in Northern Italy.
Authors: Pini P, Orsi CF, La Regina A, Peppoloni S, Berrilli F, Blasi E, Di Cave D Abstract Respiratory samples from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) cases collected at a tertiary-care university hospital in Modena were analyzed for the presence of specific polymorphisms in the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU-rRNA). Retrospectively, 57 cases were selected in a six-year period and 34 out of the 57 processed BAL samples returned PCR positive results, thus allowing further molecular analysis. The following P.jirovecii genotype distribution was observed: genotype 3 (50%), genotype 2 (23%), genoty...
Source: New Microbiologica - September 20, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Pulmonary Dysfunction and Heart Failure
In patients with heart failure (HF), particularly in elderly patients, pulmonary dysfunction is frequent. There might be bidirectional interaction in between pulmonary dysfunction and HF. One is from HF to pulmonary dysfunction, possibly through the enlarged heart and pulmonary congestion in association with HF. The other is from pulmonary dysfunction and/or respiratory-control disorders associated with comorbid pulmonary diseases to HF. Among such comorbid pulmonary diseases, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are particularly important in elderly patients with HF, since in genera...
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Takatoshi Kasai Source Type: research

Respiratory Exchange Ratio at Anaerobic Threshold Predicts Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure
Purpose: To clarify the clinical relevance of respiratory exchange ratio at anaerobic threshold (AT RER) in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results: We retrospectively studied 261 HF patients (age: 58  ± 15 years, NYHA class I - III) who underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise testing. According to the median value of AT RER (0.97), we divided into two groups; high AT RER and low AT RER (n = 88, each). After propensity score matching, peak VO2 tended to be higher in high AT RER than low AT RER group (16.2 ± 4.6 vs. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Naoya Kakutani, Arata Fukushima, Takashi Yokota, Takashi Katayama, Ryosuke Shirakawa, Satoshi Maekawa, Hideo Nambu, Takahiro Abe, Koichi Okita, Shintaro Kinugawa Source Type: research

Multiple Segmental Pulmonary Edema Following Acute Pulmonary Embolism in an Obesity Patient
A 33-years-old Caucasian female with severe obesity (BMI 40.1) developed severe acute respiratory distress. She was diagnosed as massive acute pulmonary embolism. At the same time, multiple segmental pulmonary edema was noted. Pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy revealed that segmental pulmonary edema was observed only in pulmonary segments that survived thromboembolism. What is the mechanism? (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yu Harada, Yoshihiro Dohi, Kanako Izumi, Hiroshi Susawa, Mirai Kinoshita, Hiroto Utsunomiya, Akinori Sairaku, Takayuki Hidaka, Yasuki Kihara Source Type: research

The Problem between Clinical Ethics and Medical Therapy
Background: The problem of clinical ethics is not a special case. In daily clinical practice, with considering and analyzing various problems among patients, their families, and surround medical stuffs, to search for the best solution with respect is an important attitude. In recent 2 years we have experienced 9 times for 6 cases of discussion at clinical ethics committee (CEC) (42 to 85 year-old) in our hospital. We have reported with scientific investigation. Four cases were discussed about extubation on the assumption without performing intubation in case of worsening respiratory failure. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yasuyo Taniguchi, Shogo Oishi, Tetsuari Onishi, Wataru Fujimoto, Akira Shimane, Yoshinori Yasaka, Hiroya Kawai Source Type: research

Very Complicated Case of Acute Heart Failure with Background of Intracranial Tumor
We report a very complicated case of acute heart failure with background of intracranial tumor. A 17-year-old female was brought to our emergency department due to adrenal crisis. She was diagnosed secondary panhypopituitarism and central diabetes inspidus (DI) caused by intracranial tumor. Although an appropriate hormone and fluid replacement therapy helped to normalize her blood pressure, her respiratory status drastically deteriorated. A severe generalized edema and bilateral pleural effusions developed and the laboratory data showed prominent elevation of serum BNP. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chinatsu Komiyama, Takahide Kodama, Haruo Mitani Source Type: research

Intravenous Administration of Beta Blocker and Amiodarone Was Helpful for VA-ECMO Withdrawal in a Patient with Severe Heart Failure
Case: 42 y.o. male. Chief Complaint: Dyspnea. Present History: Mitral valve replacement and myectomy was performed for familial hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. AF had been chronic for over than 10 years. He admitted to our hospital because of rapid atrial fibrillation and acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure. Clinical Course: On admission day 6, fever and following respiratory failure resulted in sudden cardiopulmonary arrest. CPR was immediately started, however, asystole continued. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shinya Ito, Takashi Morinaga, Akihito Isotani, Makoto Hyodo, Shinichi Shirai, Kenji Ando Source Type: research

Two Different Cause of Acute Heart Failure Due to Localized Aortic Dissection
Case 1: A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with chest pain and dyspnea. Chest X ray showed congestive heart failure (CHF). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and plain chest CT revealed severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) and aortic root dilation without apparent flap. Despite treatment of heart failure CHF was worsened, in order to stabilize his respiratory status, mechanical ventilation was started. We diagnosed cause of his heart failure was acute AR, and then, performed surgical operation. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hajime Nakaoka, Yuya Terao, Syouta Yamana, Makoto Kadotani, Hiroki Shimizu, Toshihito Sakamoto, Aayako Maruo, Hidetaka Wakiyama, Hidefumi Ohbo, Yoshio Ohnishi Source Type: research

Diagnosing Kingella kingae infections in infants and young children.
Authors: Yagupsky P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Kingella kingae is currently recognized as the prime etiology of skeletal system infections in children aged 6-48 months. The organism is notoriously fastidious, its growth is inhibited by synovial fluid and bone exudates, and its presence in clinical specimens is commonly missed by traditional culture methods. Areas covered. The present review discusses the use of improved laboratory methods to detect the organism in normally sterile body fluids, exudates, and upper respiratory tract specimens. Expert commentary. While inoculation of joint and bone exudates into blood cul...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide in neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension: the Japanese experience
Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine Issue: Ahead of print (Source: Journal of Perinatal Medicine)
Source: Journal of Perinatal Medicine - September 20, 2017 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Source Type: research

Task-dependent output of human parasternal intercostal motor units across spinal levels.
Abstract During inspiration, there is differential activity in the human parasternal intercostal muscles across interspaces. We studied if the earlier recruitment of motor units in the rostral interspaces, compared to more caudal spaces, during inspiration is preserved for the non-respiratory task of ipsilateral trunk rotation. Single motor unit activity (SMU) was recorded from the first, second and fourth parasternal interspaces on the right side in five participants in two tasks: resting breathing and 'isometric' axial rotation of the trunk during apnoea. Recruitment of the same SMUs was compared between tasks (...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - September 20, 2017 Category: Physiology Authors: Hudson AL, Gandevia SC, Butler JE Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

IL-4-induced caveolin-1-containing lipid rafts aggregation contributes to MUC5AC synthesis in bronchial epithelial cells
Mucus overproduction is an important feature of asthma. Interleukin (IL)-4 is required for allergen-induced airway inflammation and mucus production. MUC5AC gene expression is regulated by transcript factors N... (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yu Xia, Peng-Cheng Cai, Fan Yu, Liang Xiong, Xin-Liang He, Shan-Shan Rao, Feng Chen, Xiang-Ping Yang, Wan-Li Ma and Hong Ye Tags: Research Source Type: research

ERJ September Podcast: The hidden burden of severe asthma
As part of the September issue, the European Respiratory Journal presents the latest in its series of podcasts. Chief editor Marc Humbert discusses the publication of the results of a survey of patients with severe asthma with Prof. Helen K. Reddel from the University of Sydney, Sydney, and the NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in Severe Asthma, Newcastle, Australia. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Electronic Resources Source Type: research

The risk of mycobacterial infections associated with inhaled corticosteroid use
This study was performed to determine if ICS use is associated with an increased risk of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) or tuberculosis (TB). We conducted a population-based nested case–control study using linked laboratory and health administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, including adults aged ≥66 years with treated obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma–COPD overlap syndrome) between 2001 and 2013. We estimated odds ratios comparing ICS use with nonuse among NTM-PD and TB cases and controls using conditional logistic...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brode, S. K., Campitelli, M. A., Kwong, J. C., Lu, H., Marchand-Austin, A., Gershon, A. S., Jamieson, F. B., Marras, T. K. Tags: Original Articles: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Predicting epiglottic collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea
This study demonstrates that epiglottic collapse can be identified from the airflow signal measured during a sleep study. This method may enable clinicians to use clinically collected data to characterise underlying physiology and improve treatment decisions. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Azarbarzin, A., Marques, M., Sands, S. A., de Beeck, S. O., Genta, P. R., Taranto-Montemurro, L., de Melo, C. M., Messineo, L., Vanderveken, O. M., White, D. P., Wellman, A. Tags: Sleep medicine Original Articles: Sleep Source Type: research

Unemployment in chronic airflow obstruction around the world: results from the BOLD study
We aimed to examine associations between chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) and unemployment across the world. Cross-sectional data from 26 sites in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study were used to analyse effects of CAO on unemployment. Odds ratios for unemployment in subjects aged 40–65 years were estimated using a multilevel mixed-effects generalised linear model with study site as random effect. Site-by-site heterogeneity was assessed using individual participant data meta-analyses. Out of 18 710 participants, 11.3% had CAO. The ratio of unemployed subjects with CAO divided by subjects without...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gronseth, R., Erdal, M., Tan, W. C., Obaseki, D. O., Amaral, A. F. S., Gislason, T., Juvekar, S. K., Koul, P. A., Studnicka, M., Salvi, S., Burney, P., Buist, A. S., Vollmer, W. M., Johannessen, A. Tags: Original Articles: COPD Source Type: research

"I have lost in every facet of my life": the hidden burden of severe asthma
This study aimed to explore the little-known life experiences of people living with severe asthma. Adults with severe asthma were invited for telephone interview. Semistructured interviews were conducted until no new themes emerged. The 25 interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Four themes emerged. 1) "The body as a hindrance": severe asthma placed broad limits on life from daily chores to career, relationships and family life that left interviewees feeling emotionally distressed. 2) "Burden of treatment": participants mostly accepted the need to take treatment, but were partic...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Foster, J. M., McDonald, V. M., Guo, M., Reddel, H. K. Tags: Asthma and allergy Original Articles: Asthma Source Type: research

Targeting fatty acid amide hydrolase as a therapeutic strategy for antitussive therapy
Cough is the most common reason to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, and inhibition of FAAH produces analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabinoids inhibit vagal sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, so it was hypothesised that FAAH inhibition would produce antitussive activity via elevation of endocannabinoids. Primary vagal ganglia neurons, tissue bioassay, in vivo electrophysiology and a conscious guinea pig cough model were utilised to investigate a role for fatty acid amides in modulati...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wortley, M. A., Adcock, J. J., Dubuis, E. D., Maher, S. A., Bonvini, S. J., Delescluse, I., Kinloch, R., McMurray, G., Perros-Huguet, C., Papakosta, M., Birrell, M. A., Belvisi, M. G. Tags: Pulmonary pharmacology and therapeutics Original Articles: Cough Source Type: research

Determinants of diaphragm thickening fraction during mechanical ventilation: an ancillary study of a randomised trial
Ultrasonography of the diaphragm is the subject of a growing interest in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting [1–6]. Observing the diaphragm in its zone of apposition allows measurement of its thickness and computation of its thickening fraction (TFdi), which depends on diaphragmatic activity [3] and reflects the diaphragm work of breathing [1]. A recent study showed that the TFdi correlated well with the endotracheal pressure variation generated by phrenic stimulation [6]. This index was also proposed for clinical evaluation of diaphragm weakness to detect ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD) and pre...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vivier, E., Roche-Campo, F., Brochard, L., Mekontso Dessap, A. Tags: Acute lung injury and critical care Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Evaluation of criteria for exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension in patients with resting pulmonary hypertension
Owing to the lack of a suitable definition, exercise criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) were removed from consensus guidelines following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008 [1] and have remained absent following the 5th World Symposium [2] and recent European Cardiology Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines [3]. Nonetheless, there remains significant interest in properly defining an abnormal pulmonary vascular response to exercise [4–6]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mullin, C. J., Hsu, S., Amancherla, K., Wand, A., Rhodes, P., Leary, P. J., Mukherjee, M., Damico, R. L., Kolb, T. M., Mathai, S. C., Hassoun, P. M., Tedford, R. J. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

TRPA1 activation in a human sensory neuronal model: relevance to cough hypersensitivity?
The cough reflex becomes hyperresponsive in acute and chronic respiratory diseases, but understanding the underlying mechanism is hampered by difficulty accessing human tissue containing both nerve endings and neuronal cell bodies. We refined an adult stem cell sensory neuronal model to overcome the limited availability of human neurones and applied the model to study transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel expression and activation. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were differentiated towards a neuronal phenotype, termed peripheral neuronal equivalents (PNEs). Using molecular and immunohistochemical te...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Clarke, R., Monaghan, K., About, I., Griffin, C. S., Sergeant, G. P., El Karim, I., McGeown, J. G., Cosby, S. L., Curtis, T. M., McGarvey, L. P., Lundy, F. T. Tags: Mechanisms of lung disease Original Articles: Cough Source Type: research