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Effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome: A meta-analysis.
Authors: Zhang Y, Ding S, Li C, Wang Y, Chen Z, Wang Z Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious complication of acute lung injury. Severe systemic inflammation is the main cause of multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality. Removal of reactive oxygen species by anti-oxidants has been applied in clinical practice. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the most commonly used anti-oxidant. However, the benefit of anti-oxidant therapy was not consistently demonstrated by previous studies. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of NAC for adult patients with ARDS. The...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

Late-onset Pompe disease in a 54 year-old sportsman with an episode of syncope: a case report.
Authors: Walczak-Galezewska M, Skrypnik D, Szulinska M, Musialik K, Skrypnik K, Bogdanski P Abstract Pompe disease is an extra-rare metabolic storage disease with deficiency of acid-alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity, which leads to the pathologic accumulation of glycogen in target tissues (skeletal muscles, heart, brain). Clinical features and severity vary by the age of onset, rate of extent of organ involvement. In the late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) form, essential cardiomyopathy seems to be uncommon. Muscles weakness and respiratory failure are the main symptoms of adult patient with Pompe disease. In pre...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - September 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Takotsubo-like Myocardial Dysfunction in a Patient with Botulism.
Authors: Tonomura S, Kakehi Y, Sato M, Naito Y, Shimizu H, Goto Y, Takahashi N Abstract Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) can disrupt the neuromuscular and autonomic functions. We herein report a case of autonomic system dysfunction that manifested as Takotsubo-like myocardial dysfunction in a patient with botulism. Takotsubo syndrome results in acute cardiac insufficiency, another fatal complication of botulism in addition to respiratory muscle paralysis, particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID: 28924131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Internal Medicine)
Source: Internal Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research

Bloody Bronchial Cast Formation Due to Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with H1N1 Influenza Infection.
Authors: Okada Y, Okada A, Narumiya H, Iiduka R, Katsura K Abstract A previously healthy 55-year-old man with H1N1 influenza A presented with severe respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Following the return of spontaneous circulation, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required to maintain oxygenation. On day 2, bronchoscopy revealed a bloody bronchial cast obstructing the right main bronchus. A pathological examination revealed that it was composed of intrabronchial and intra-alveolar hemorrhagic tissue. Unfortunately, the patient died due to severe brain ischemia; a subsequent autopsy revealed ...
Source: Internal Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effect of 5 ɑ-androst-3β,5,6β-triol on retinal ganglion cells in a rat chronic ocular hypertension model
Publication date: 1 November 2017 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 660 Author(s): Yan-Qiu Chen, Shu-Min Zhong, Shu-Ting Liu, Feng Gao, Fang Li, Yuan Zhao, Xing-Huai Sun, Yanying Miao, Zhongfeng Wang Previous studies have demonstrated that 5ɑ-androst-3β,5,6β-triol (Triol), a synthesized steroid compound, showed notable neuroprotective effect in cultured cortical neurons. In the present study, we explored whether and how Triol have neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model. COH model was produced by injecting superparamagnetic iron oxide micro-bead...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Shelf life extension of white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) by low temperatures conditioning, modified atmosphere, and nanocomposite packaging material
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017 Source:Food Packaging and Shelf Life Author(s): Rashid Gholami, Ebrahim Ahmadi, Stefano Farris In this work, we have explored a new integrated approach for the shelf life extension of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). The effect of temperature (4°C and 25°C), packaging configuration (PET/coating/LLDPE oxygen barrier material over conventional PVC stretchable film), and modified atmosphere (15% O2/5% CO2/80% N2 over air) were monitored during 10days of storage. The influence of a chitosan coating deposited on the cap surface was also investigated. Temperature...
Source: Food Packaging and Shelf Life - September 21, 2017 Category: Food Science Source Type: research

The prevalence and risk factors for Acute Respiratory Infections in children aged 0 ‐59 months in rural Malawi: a cross‐sectional study
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - September 21, 2017 Category: Virology Authors: Miriam Cox, Louis Rose, Khumbo Kalua, Gilles Wildt, Robin Bailey, John Hart Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Induction of reactive oxygen species: an emerging approach for cancer therapy
AbstractReactive oxygen species (ROS), a group of ions and molecules, include hydroxyl radicals ( ·OH), alkoxyl radicals, superoxide anion (O2·−), singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydroxyl radicals and alkoxyl radicals are extremely and highly reactive species respectively. Endogenous ROS are mainly formed in mitochondrial respiratory chain. Low levels of ROS play important roles in regulating biological functions in mammalian cells. However, excess production of ROS can induce cell death by oxidative damaging effects to intracellular biomacromolecules. Cancer cell death types induced ...
Source: Apoptosis - September 21, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mechanical ventilation in patients subjected to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017 Source:Medicina Intensiva (English Edition) Author(s): M. López Sanchez Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a crucial element in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), because there is high level evidence that a low tidal volume of 6ml/kg (protective ventilation) improves survival. In these patients with refractory respiratory insufficiency, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used. This salvage technique improves oxygenation, promotes CO2 clearance, and facilitates protective and ultraprotective MV, potentially minimizi...
Source: Medicina Intensiva - September 21, 2017 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Personalised medicine for IPF: getting closer, but not there yet
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): Seidai Sato, Martin R J Kolb (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Validation of a 52-gene risk profile for outcome prediction in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an international, multicentre, cohort study
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): Jose D Herazo-Maya, Jiehuan Sun, Philip L Molyneaux, Qin Li, Julian A Villalba, Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Heather Lynn, Brenda M Juan-Guardela, Cristobal Risquez, Juan C Osorio, Xiting Yan, George Michel, Nachelle Aurelien, Kathleen O Lindell, Melinda J Klesen, Miriam F Moffatt, William O Cookson, Yingze Zhang, Joe G N Garcia, Imre Noth, Antje Prasse, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Kevin F Gibson, Hongyu Zhao, Erica L Herzog, Ivan O Rosas, Toby M Maher, Naftali Kaminski Background The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) ...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - September 21, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory infections due to nontuberculous mycobacterias.
Authors: Máiz Carro L, Barbero Herranz E, Nieto Royo R Abstract The most common infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are lung infections. The microorganisms causing these infections most frequently are Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Their incidence has increased in the last three decades. After identifying an NTM in the respiratory tract, clinical and radiological aspects must be considered to determine if isolations are clinically relevant. Predisposing conditions that could contribute to infection must also be investigated. Pulmona...
Source: Medicina Clinica - September 20, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: Med Clin (Barc) Source Type: research

Integrating Health into Local Climate Response: Lessons from the U.S. CDC Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative
Conclusion Through relatively small amounts of grant support over the last 6 y, CRSCI has helped local public health agencies in sixteen states and two cities—whose combined population reaches half of the U.S. total—identify critical climate impacts and vulnerable populations. In the process, the program has helped to integrate health more fully into local climate change efforts. As a result of CRSCI support, these local public health agencies—the backbone of public health climate response capacity—have tools to enhance real-life adaptive capacity and increase the effectiveness of existing intervent...
Source: EHP Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Daniil Lyalko Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research

The role of upper airway pathology as a co-morbidity in severe asthma.
Authors: Licari A, Brambilla I, De Filippo M, Poddighe D, Castagnoli R, Marseglia GL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Severe asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease that is refractory to standard treatment and is complicated by multiple co-morbidities and risk factors. Several co-morbidities may contribute to worsen asthma control and complicate diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe asthmatic patients. Areas covered: A prevalent cluster of chronic upper airway co-morbid diseases is recognized in severe asthma. Evaluation for these disorders should always be considered in clinical practice. The aim of this review ...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research

The impact of long-term systemic glucocorticoid use in severe asthma: A UK retrospective cohort analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with severe asthma are exposed to SGC, which increases SGC-related AE risk. This suggests that SGC exposure should be minimized as recommended by asthma treatment guidelines. PMID: 28925768 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Asthma)
Source: Journal of Asthma - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Correlation of Types of Food and Asthma Diagnosis in Childhood: A Case-Control Study.
This study included 1276 children (976 healthy and 300 asthmatic children). Eating dairy products less than twice a week, 3-6 times per week and daily were significantly and inversely associated with asthma, as compared to never eating dairy product (p = 0.02, ORa = 0.285, CI 0.099-0.821; p
Source: Journal of Asthma - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Asthma Source Type: research

Pneumocystis jirovecii genotyping: experience in a tertiary-care hospital in Northern Italy.
Authors: Pini P, Orsi CF, La Regina A, Peppoloni S, Berrilli F, Blasi E, Di Cave D Abstract Respiratory samples from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) cases collected at a tertiary-care university hospital in Modena were analyzed for the presence of specific polymorphisms in the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU-rRNA). Retrospectively, 57 cases were selected in a six-year period and 34 out of the 57 processed BAL samples returned PCR positive results, thus allowing further molecular analysis. The following P.jirovecii genotype distribution was observed: genotype 3 (50%), genotype 2 (23%), genoty...
Source: New Microbiologica - September 20, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Pulmonary Dysfunction and Heart Failure
In patients with heart failure (HF), particularly in elderly patients, pulmonary dysfunction is frequent. There might be bidirectional interaction in between pulmonary dysfunction and HF. One is from HF to pulmonary dysfunction, possibly through the enlarged heart and pulmonary congestion in association with HF. The other is from pulmonary dysfunction and/or respiratory-control disorders associated with comorbid pulmonary diseases to HF. Among such comorbid pulmonary diseases, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are particularly important in elderly patients with HF, since in genera...
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Takatoshi Kasai Source Type: research

Respiratory Exchange Ratio at Anaerobic Threshold Predicts Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure
Purpose: To clarify the clinical relevance of respiratory exchange ratio at anaerobic threshold (AT RER) in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results: We retrospectively studied 261 HF patients (age: 58  ± 15 years, NYHA class I - III) who underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise testing. According to the median value of AT RER (0.97), we divided into two groups; high AT RER and low AT RER (n = 88, each). After propensity score matching, peak VO2 tended to be higher in high AT RER than low AT RER group (16.2 ± 4.6 vs. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Naoya Kakutani, Arata Fukushima, Takashi Yokota, Takashi Katayama, Ryosuke Shirakawa, Satoshi Maekawa, Hideo Nambu, Takahiro Abe, Koichi Okita, Shintaro Kinugawa Source Type: research

Multiple Segmental Pulmonary Edema Following Acute Pulmonary Embolism in an Obesity Patient
A 33-years-old Caucasian female with severe obesity (BMI 40.1) developed severe acute respiratory distress. She was diagnosed as massive acute pulmonary embolism. At the same time, multiple segmental pulmonary edema was noted. Pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy revealed that segmental pulmonary edema was observed only in pulmonary segments that survived thromboembolism. What is the mechanism? (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yu Harada, Yoshihiro Dohi, Kanako Izumi, Hiroshi Susawa, Mirai Kinoshita, Hiroto Utsunomiya, Akinori Sairaku, Takayuki Hidaka, Yasuki Kihara Source Type: research

The Problem between Clinical Ethics and Medical Therapy
Background: The problem of clinical ethics is not a special case. In daily clinical practice, with considering and analyzing various problems among patients, their families, and surround medical stuffs, to search for the best solution with respect is an important attitude. In recent 2 years we have experienced 9 times for 6 cases of discussion at clinical ethics committee (CEC) (42 to 85 year-old) in our hospital. We have reported with scientific investigation. Four cases were discussed about extubation on the assumption without performing intubation in case of worsening respiratory failure. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yasuyo Taniguchi, Shogo Oishi, Tetsuari Onishi, Wataru Fujimoto, Akira Shimane, Yoshinori Yasaka, Hiroya Kawai Source Type: research

Very Complicated Case of Acute Heart Failure with Background of Intracranial Tumor
We report a very complicated case of acute heart failure with background of intracranial tumor. A 17-year-old female was brought to our emergency department due to adrenal crisis. She was diagnosed secondary panhypopituitarism and central diabetes inspidus (DI) caused by intracranial tumor. Although an appropriate hormone and fluid replacement therapy helped to normalize her blood pressure, her respiratory status drastically deteriorated. A severe generalized edema and bilateral pleural effusions developed and the laboratory data showed prominent elevation of serum BNP. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chinatsu Komiyama, Takahide Kodama, Haruo Mitani Source Type: research

Intravenous Administration of Beta Blocker and Amiodarone Was Helpful for VA-ECMO Withdrawal in a Patient with Severe Heart Failure
Case: 42 y.o. male. Chief Complaint: Dyspnea. Present History: Mitral valve replacement and myectomy was performed for familial hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. AF had been chronic for over than 10 years. He admitted to our hospital because of rapid atrial fibrillation and acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure. Clinical Course: On admission day 6, fever and following respiratory failure resulted in sudden cardiopulmonary arrest. CPR was immediately started, however, asystole continued. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shinya Ito, Takashi Morinaga, Akihito Isotani, Makoto Hyodo, Shinichi Shirai, Kenji Ando Source Type: research

Two Different Cause of Acute Heart Failure Due to Localized Aortic Dissection
Case 1: A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with chest pain and dyspnea. Chest X ray showed congestive heart failure (CHF). Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and plain chest CT revealed severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) and aortic root dilation without apparent flap. Despite treatment of heart failure CHF was worsened, in order to stabilize his respiratory status, mechanical ventilation was started. We diagnosed cause of his heart failure was acute AR, and then, performed surgical operation. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hajime Nakaoka, Yuya Terao, Syouta Yamana, Makoto Kadotani, Hiroki Shimizu, Toshihito Sakamoto, Aayako Maruo, Hidetaka Wakiyama, Hidefumi Ohbo, Yoshio Ohnishi Source Type: research

Diagnosing Kingella kingae infections in infants and young children.
Authors: Yagupsky P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Kingella kingae is currently recognized as the prime etiology of skeletal system infections in children aged 6-48 months. The organism is notoriously fastidious, its growth is inhibited by synovial fluid and bone exudates, and its presence in clinical specimens is commonly missed by traditional culture methods. Areas covered. The present review discusses the use of improved laboratory methods to detect the organism in normally sterile body fluids, exudates, and upper respiratory tract specimens. Expert commentary. While inoculation of joint and bone exudates into blood cul...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - September 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide in neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension: the Japanese experience
Journal Name: Journal of Perinatal Medicine Issue: Ahead of print (Source: Journal of Perinatal Medicine)
Source: Journal of Perinatal Medicine - September 20, 2017 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Source Type: research

ERJ September Podcast: The hidden burden of severe asthma
As part of the September issue, the European Respiratory Journal presents the latest in its series of podcasts. Chief editor Marc Humbert discusses the publication of the results of a survey of patients with severe asthma with Prof. Helen K. Reddel from the University of Sydney, Sydney, and the NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in Severe Asthma, Newcastle, Australia. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Electronic Resources Source Type: research

The risk of mycobacterial infections associated with inhaled corticosteroid use
This study was performed to determine if ICS use is associated with an increased risk of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) or tuberculosis (TB). We conducted a population-based nested case–control study using linked laboratory and health administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, including adults aged ≥66 years with treated obstructive lung disease (i.e. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma–COPD overlap syndrome) between 2001 and 2013. We estimated odds ratios comparing ICS use with nonuse among NTM-PD and TB cases and controls using conditional logistic...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brode, S. K., Campitelli, M. A., Kwong, J. C., Lu, H., Marchand-Austin, A., Gershon, A. S., Jamieson, F. B., Marras, T. K. Tags: Original Articles: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Predicting epiglottic collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea
This study demonstrates that epiglottic collapse can be identified from the airflow signal measured during a sleep study. This method may enable clinicians to use clinically collected data to characterise underlying physiology and improve treatment decisions. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Azarbarzin, A., Marques, M., Sands, S. A., de Beeck, S. O., Genta, P. R., Taranto-Montemurro, L., de Melo, C. M., Messineo, L., Vanderveken, O. M., White, D. P., Wellman, A. Tags: Sleep medicine Original Articles: Sleep Source Type: research

Unemployment in chronic airflow obstruction around the world: results from the BOLD study
We aimed to examine associations between chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) and unemployment across the world. Cross-sectional data from 26 sites in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study were used to analyse effects of CAO on unemployment. Odds ratios for unemployment in subjects aged 40–65 years were estimated using a multilevel mixed-effects generalised linear model with study site as random effect. Site-by-site heterogeneity was assessed using individual participant data meta-analyses. Out of 18 710 participants, 11.3% had CAO. The ratio of unemployed subjects with CAO divided by subjects without...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gronseth, R., Erdal, M., Tan, W. C., Obaseki, D. O., Amaral, A. F. S., Gislason, T., Juvekar, S. K., Koul, P. A., Studnicka, M., Salvi, S., Burney, P., Buist, A. S., Vollmer, W. M., Johannessen, A. Tags: Original Articles: COPD Source Type: research

"I have lost in every facet of my life": the hidden burden of severe asthma
This study aimed to explore the little-known life experiences of people living with severe asthma. Adults with severe asthma were invited for telephone interview. Semistructured interviews were conducted until no new themes emerged. The 25 interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Four themes emerged. 1) "The body as a hindrance": severe asthma placed broad limits on life from daily chores to career, relationships and family life that left interviewees feeling emotionally distressed. 2) "Burden of treatment": participants mostly accepted the need to take treatment, but were partic...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Foster, J. M., McDonald, V. M., Guo, M., Reddel, H. K. Tags: Asthma and allergy Original Articles: Asthma Source Type: research

Targeting fatty acid amide hydrolase as a therapeutic strategy for antitussive therapy
Cough is the most common reason to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that breaks down endocannabinoids, and inhibition of FAAH produces analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Cannabinoids inhibit vagal sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, so it was hypothesised that FAAH inhibition would produce antitussive activity via elevation of endocannabinoids. Primary vagal ganglia neurons, tissue bioassay, in vivo electrophysiology and a conscious guinea pig cough model were utilised to investigate a role for fatty acid amides in modulati...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wortley, M. A., Adcock, J. J., Dubuis, E. D., Maher, S. A., Bonvini, S. J., Delescluse, I., Kinloch, R., McMurray, G., Perros-Huguet, C., Papakosta, M., Birrell, M. A., Belvisi, M. G. Tags: Pulmonary pharmacology and therapeutics Original Articles: Cough Source Type: research

Determinants of diaphragm thickening fraction during mechanical ventilation: an ancillary study of a randomised trial
Ultrasonography of the diaphragm is the subject of a growing interest in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting [1–6]. Observing the diaphragm in its zone of apposition allows measurement of its thickness and computation of its thickening fraction (TFdi), which depends on diaphragmatic activity [3] and reflects the diaphragm work of breathing [1]. A recent study showed that the TFdi correlated well with the endotracheal pressure variation generated by phrenic stimulation [6]. This index was also proposed for clinical evaluation of diaphragm weakness to detect ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction (VIDD) and pre...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vivier, E., Roche-Campo, F., Brochard, L., Mekontso Dessap, A. Tags: Acute lung injury and critical care Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Evaluation of criteria for exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension in patients with resting pulmonary hypertension
Owing to the lack of a suitable definition, exercise criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) were removed from consensus guidelines following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008 [1] and have remained absent following the 5th World Symposium [2] and recent European Cardiology Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines [3]. Nonetheless, there remains significant interest in properly defining an abnormal pulmonary vascular response to exercise [4–6]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mullin, C. J., Hsu, S., Amancherla, K., Wand, A., Rhodes, P., Leary, P. J., Mukherjee, M., Damico, R. L., Kolb, T. M., Mathai, S. C., Hassoun, P. M., Tedford, R. J. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

TRPA1 activation in a human sensory neuronal model: relevance to cough hypersensitivity?
The cough reflex becomes hyperresponsive in acute and chronic respiratory diseases, but understanding the underlying mechanism is hampered by difficulty accessing human tissue containing both nerve endings and neuronal cell bodies. We refined an adult stem cell sensory neuronal model to overcome the limited availability of human neurones and applied the model to study transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel expression and activation. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were differentiated towards a neuronal phenotype, termed peripheral neuronal equivalents (PNEs). Using molecular and immunohistochemical te...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Clarke, R., Monaghan, K., About, I., Griffin, C. S., Sergeant, G. P., El Karim, I., McGeown, J. G., Cosby, S. L., Curtis, T. M., McGarvey, L. P., Lundy, F. T. Tags: Mechanisms of lung disease Original Articles: Cough Source Type: research

An invisible disease: severe asthma is more than just "bad asthma"
Severe asthma, although a small portion of all asthma, still impacts millions of patients worldwide. It drives more morbidity, mortality and costs than milder asthma [1, 2]. However, its human toll is much less appreciated. In their timely, moving article, Foster et al. [3] describe the enormous impact of severe asthma on patient's lives [4]. Interviewing 25 severe asthmatic patients, the authors identified four common themes, including those related to personal interactions, medications, isolation and adaptation of their life. The quotes are simple and pointed. For many reasons, much of this patient perspective has n...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wenzel, S. E., Brillhart, S., Nowack, K. Tags: Asthma and allergy Editorials Source Type: research

The validation of the sit-to-stand test for COPD patients
We read with interest the publication by Crook et al. [1] on the validation and responsive properties of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. The authors performed a comprehensive evaluation of the minimal clinical meaningful difference of the 1-min STS test. In our own dataset of patients from a multicentre study, this STS test exhibited similar level of reliability, intra-subject repeatability [2], and responsiveness to pulmonary rehabilitation with an estimated minimal important difference (MID) of three repetitions [3]....
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chambellan, A., Nusinovici, S., Vaidya, T., Gourraud, P.-A., de Bisschop, C. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Correspondence Source Type: research

Two valves in the pharynx
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is caused by repetitive closure of the upper airway during sleep. While the retropalatal airway is reported to be the most collapsible site [1], any state-dependent segments within the upper airway are candidates for closure. Correct identification of the closure site in each OSA patient could lead to the development of individualised OSA treatment strategies [2]. In this issue of the European Respiratory Journal, Azarbarzin et al. [3] propose a model for prediction of epiglottic collapse for each breath by assessing the nasal airflow waveform in sleeping OSA patients. They employed a ma...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Isono, S. Tags: Sleep medicine Editorials Source Type: research

The validation of the sit-to-stand test for COPD patients
We thank A. Chambellan and colleagues for their interest in our study on the validation of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients published in the European Respiratory Journal [1]. The authors highlighted some discrepancies between our study results and the results that they found in a similar study of COPD patients, raised questions over the possible cause of this difference and discuss results from their own study that they believe may provide additional information on the responsiveness of the 1-min STS test. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Crook, S., Puhan, M. A., Frei, A., on behalf of the STAND-UP and RIMTCORE study groups Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Correspondence Source Type: research

Can epidemiological studies determine the productivity-related burden of COPD?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death around the world [1]. Chronic airflow obstruction (CAO), measured by spirometry, is the most commonly used objective characteristic of COPD [2]. Epidemiological research has provided researchers and clinicians with critical information about the burden of COPD and its risk factors; [3–9]; however, very few studies have investigated the productivity-related burden of COPD [10–12]. The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study is one of the best designed epidemiological studies investigating prevalence and risk factors for CO...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stanojevic, S. Tags: COPD and smoking Editorials Source Type: research

New drug targets for chronic cough: research you can literally sink your teeth into!
Cough is an essential neurally mediated reflex that has evolved to protect the upper airways from obstruction, and to expel chemical and mechanical irritants. When heightened or persistent, however, cough presents a clinically challenging source of considerable physical and psychological morbidity [1, 2]. In the USA, cough continues to be the commonest single symptom for which patients seek a medical consultation [3]. Chronic cough, defined as cough continuing for>8 weeks, is also globally prevalent and accounts for 10% of respiratory referrals to secondary care [4]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jolley, C. J., Birring, S. S. Tags: Pulmonary pharmacology and therapeutics, Mechanisms of lung disease Editorials Source Type: research

10 years since TORCH: shining a new light on the risks of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD
10 years ago, in February 2007, the Towards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) study was published in the New England Journal of Medicine [1]. While the objective of the study was to demonstrate a survival benefit of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) compared to placebo in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), arguably the most lasting impact of the study on the field of COPD has been a progressive re-evaluation of the safety of ICS [1]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chalmers, J. D., Keir, H. R. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Editorials Source Type: research

Respiratory Viral Infections in Solid Organ and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Respiratory viruses are common in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and a recognized cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Epidemiology, risk factors, and attributable mortality in both populations are reviewed. In addition, virus-specific prevention and treatment options, including emerging investigational therapies, are discussed for respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, adenovirus, parainfluenza, and other respiratory viruses. (Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Grant C. Paulsen, Lara Danziger-Isakov Source Type: research

The efficacy of initial ventilation strategy for adult immunocompromised patients with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: study protocol for a multicentre randomized controlled trial (VENIM)
Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is still one of the most severe complications in immunocompromised patients. Our previous systematic review showed noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) reduced mortality, le... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tao Wang, Gang Liu, Kun He, Xin Lu, Xianquan Liang, Meng Wang, Rong Zhu, Zongru Li, Feng Chen, Jun Ke, Qingming Lin, Chuanyun Qian, Bo Li, Jie Wei, Jingjun Lv, Li Li & hellip; Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research

The Effect of Pulmonary Surfactant on the In Vitro Activity of Iclaprim Against Common Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens
The in vitro antimicrobial activity of iclaprim, a novel diaminopyrimidine, against common respiratory bacteria remained unchanged in the presence of pulmonary surfactant (Survanta ®) at concentrations that greatly antagonized the antimicrobial activity of daptomycin. These results indicate that iclaprim could be a potential treatment for pneumonia caused by susceptible and multidrug resistant bacteria. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - September 20, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: David B Huang, Leonard R Duncan, Robert K Flamm, Matthew Dryden, G. Ralph Corey, Mark H Wilcox, Antoni Torres, Thomas M File Tags: Note Source Type: research

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition in infants. Symptoms from pathologic GERD include regurgitation, irritability when feeding, failure to thrive, and respiratory problems. Treatment typically starts with dietary modifications and postural changes. Antireflux medications may then be added. Indications for operative management in neonates and infants include poor weight gain, failure to thrive, acute life-threatening events, and continued respiratory symptoms. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication has become the standard of care for surgical treatment of children with GERD. In this procedure, the fundu...
Source: Clinics in Perinatology - September 20, 2017 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Bethany J. Slater, Steven S. Rothenberg Source Type: research

Avian thermoregulation in the heat: resting metabolism, evaporative cooling and heat tolerance in Sonoran Desert songbirds [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
We examined thermoregulatory performance in seven Sonoran Desert passerine bird species varying in body mass from 10 to 70 g – lesser goldfinch, house finch, pyrrhuloxia, cactus wren, northern cardinal, Abert's towhee and curve-billed thrasher. Using flow-through respirometry, we measured daytime resting metabolism, evaporative water loss and body temperature at air temperatures (Tair) between 30 and 52°C. We found marked increases in resting metabolism above the upper critical temperature (Tuc), which for six of the seven species fell within a relatively narrow range (36.2–39.7°C), but which was c...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - September 20, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Smith, E. K., O'Neill, J. J., Gerson, A. R., McKechnie, A. E., Wolf, B. O. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Primary lung cancer in Assiut University Hospitals: Pattern of presentation within four years (January 2011: December 2014)
Conclusions Knowing that the incidence of lung cancer increased globally in both male and female, the relatively lower male to female ratio when compared with other studies, may reflect at least an increasing in the lung cancer rates among female. Smoking still remains the major risk factor in pathogenesis of primary lung cancer. COPD could be considered an important respiratory disorder that tied to bronchogenic carcinoma risk. Interestingly, the incidence of adenocarcinoma surpassed that of squamous cell carcinoma. Unfortunately, presentation of the patient at later stages of illness was common. (Source: Egyptian Journal...
Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis - September 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemiology and burden of HPV-related disease
Publication date: Available online 2 September 2017 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology Author(s): Beatriz Serrano, María Brotons, Francesc Xavier Bosch, Laia Bruni Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer in both men and women. High-risk HPV types are not only responsible for virtually all cervical cancer cases but also for a fraction of cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and head and neck cancers. Furthermore, HPV is also the cause of anogenital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Des...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology - September 20, 2017 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Cerebral Fat Embolism: Recognition, Complications, and Prognosis
AbstractFat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare syndrome caused by embolization of fat particles into multiple organs including the brain. It typically manifests with petechial rash, deteriorating mental status, and progressive respiratory insufficiency, usually occurring within 24 –48 h of trauma with long-bone fractures or an orthopedic surgery. The diagnosis of FES is based on clinical and imaging findings, but requires exclusion of alternative diagnoses. Although there is no specific treatment for FES, prompt recognition is important because it can avoid unnecessary int erventions and clarify prognosis. Patien...
Source: Neurocritical Care - September 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research