Identifying the best regimen for primary eradication of Helicobacter pylori: analysis of 240 cases
10 ‐day amoxicillin–clarithromycin‐containing bismuth quadruple therapy may be recommended for the primary empirical treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in China. The 14‐day therapy is expensive, uncomfortable for the patients, and has an increased risk of side effects. The 10‐day ther apy was not inferior to the 14‐day therapy in terms of efficacy. AbstractThe treatment regimen for the eradication ofHelicobacter pylori may be best when therapy is susceptibility guided. However, it is unrealistic to use a strategy based on susceptibility testing to prioritize therapy for every patient in China. Empir...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - October 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yao Chen, Qingyi Liu, Fulian Hu, Jizheng Ma Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide and potassium citrate synergistically inhibit calcium oxalate crystallization induced by renal epithelial cells and cytotoxicity of the formed crystals
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2020Source: Materials Science and Engineering: CAuthor(s): Xin-Yuan Sun, Hui Zhang, Jia-Yun Chen, Guo-Hua Zeng, Jian-Ming Ouyang (Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C)
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - September 5, 2020 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

“Nephrolithiasis from an Unexpected Cause: Phosphaturia”
A 54-year-old woman with a history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and breast cancer with bilateral mastectomy presented to the nephrology clinic for evaluation of nephrolithiasis. She was first diagnosed with nephrolithiasis 3 years prior to arrival requiring lithotripsy and treated with oral potassium citrate. On physical examination, she was a pleasant, middle aged woman with normal blood pressure, regular pulse and mild costovertebral tenderness bilaterally. Her laboratory studies were remarkable for serum creatinine of 1.29 mg/dl (normal value 0.5-1.2 mg/dl), serum calcium 10.7 mg/dl (normal value 8.8-10.7 mg/dl), serum a...
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - August 25, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ankit B. Patel, Ashish Verma, Gearoid M. McMahon Tags: Clinical Communication to the Editor Source Type: research

Nephrolithiasis from an Unexpected Cause: Phosphaturia
A 54-year-old woman with a history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and breast cancer with bilateral mastectomy presented to the nephrology clinic for evaluation of nephrolithiasis. She was first diagnosed with nephrolithiasis 3 years prior to arrival requiring lithotripsy and was treated with oral potassium citrate. On physical examination, she was a pleasant woman of middle age with normal blood pressure, regular pulse, and mild costovertebral tenderness bilaterally. Her laboratory studies were remarkable for serum creatinine of 1.29 mg/dL (normal value 0.5-1.2 mg/dL), serum calcium 10.7 mg/dL (normal value 8.8-10.7 Lg/dL), s...
Source: The American Journal of Medicine - August 25, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ankit B. Patel, Ashish Verma, Gearoid M. McMahon Tags: Clinical Communication to the Editor Source Type: research

Biological properties of yeast-based mannoprotein for prospective biomedical applications.
CONCLUSION: Comprehensive biological evaluations in this study are expected to expand the potential of KM as a natural material. PMID: 32819224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening)
Source: Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening - August 18, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hosseini M, Sharifan A Tags: Comb Chem High Throughput Screen Source Type: research

Oral chemolysis is an effective, non-invasive therapy for urinary stones suspected of uric acid content
AbstractDespite the possible benefit from avoiding stone surgery with all its possible complications, oral chemolysis is rarely performed in patients with urinary stones suspected of uric acid content. Among the reasons for its limited use is the sparse and low-quality data on its efficacy and the lack of reliable factors predicting its outcome. We thus performed a retrospective single-center cohort study of 216 patients (median patient age 63  years) with 272 renal (48%) and/or ureteral (52%) stones treated with oral chemolysis from 01/2010 to 12/2019. Patients with low urine pH (
Source: Urolithiasis - August 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Hypomagnesemia with Hypercalciuria Leading to Nephrocalcinosis, Amelogenesis Imperfecta, and Short Stature in a Child Carrying a Homozygous Deletion in the CLDN16 Gene
AbstractFamilial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in theCLDN16 orCLDN19 gene; however, few cases develop classical amelogenesis imperfecta. Herein, we report the case of a boy with early clinical renal manifestations that started at 1  year of age and presenting with dental hypoplasia and growth delay. The patient presented with vomiting, polyuria, and polydipsia. Apart from recurrent sterile leukocyturia, erroneously treated as infectious, he was normal, except for short stature and amelogenesis imperfecta with gradually discol o...
Source: Calcified Tissue International - July 24, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

From Bartter's syndrome to renal tubular acidosis in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A case report 
.
We report an HT patient who initially developed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and then developed metabolic acidosis within a few years. To our knowledge, this is the first report of two completely opposite acid-base disturbances associated with renal tubular diseases occurring consecutively in the same patient with HT. Our case may provide a valuable clue for exploring the mechanism of renal involvement in autoimmune diseases. PMID: 32691728 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Nephrology)
Source: Clinical Nephrology - July 21, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wang S, Dong B, Wang C, Lu J, Shao L Tags: Clin Nephrol Source Type: research

Treatment with compound Lactobacillus acidophilus followed by a tetracycline- and furazolidone-containing quadruple regimen as a rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection
Conclusions: Patients who failed multiple attempts at H. pylori eradication may benefit from a treatment with probiotics followed by a tetracycline- and furazolidone-containing quadruple regimen. (Source: The Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology)
Source: The Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology - April 21, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Airu Liu Yuxin Wang Yingxiao Song Yiqi Du Source Type: research

The Impact of Alternative Alkalinizing Agents on 24-hour Urine Parameters
To determine if alternative alkalinizing agents (AA) lead to similar changes in 24-hour urine pH and citrate compared to potassium citrate (KCIT). Many stone formers cannot tolerate KCIT due to side effects or cost. In these patients, we have prescribed potassium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate as alternative alkalinizing agents, though their efficacy is unclear. (Source: Urology)
Source: Urology - April 21, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kohldon Boydston, Russell Terry, Brenton Winship, Leah Davis, Sarah Yttri, Evan Carlos, Charles Scales, Michael Lipkin, Glenn M. Preminger Source Type: research

Ectopic Prostatic Tissue in the Right Paracolic Gutter: A Case Report.
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of febuxostat in patients with radiolucent nephrolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2016 to June 2018, data of 96 patients with radiolucent nephrolithiasis and hyperuricemia who referred to the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into allopurinol 300mg/d (control), febuxostat 40mg/d (F40) and 80mg/d (F80) groups respectively. All patients took potassium citrate as a combination treatment and had been followed up for at least 6 months. Before treatment and on the day of the 1st, 3...
Source: Urology Journal - April 19, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yunhua M, Hao Z, Ke L, Wentao H, Xiaokang L, Jie S Tags: Urol J Source Type: research

Occupational kidney stones
Purpose of review Kidney stones are a common and preventable disorder. Certain occupations may increase risk for stone disease which will be discussed in this review. Few observational studies have examined this association. Recent findings Some occupations prevent individuals from drinking enough fluids to maintain a dilute urine or to void when they need to. People may have poor access to fluids or to bathroom facilities. These issues pose a risk for stone disease and are exacerbated by those who work in warmer climates. Individuals who do more activity while working, especially outdoors, perspire more, leading to m...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - January 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY: Edited by David S. Goldfarb Source Type: research

The safety of ureteral stenting with the use of potassium citrate for management of renal uric acid stones
Conclusion: Short-term use of ureteral stents is safe during the management of uric acid stones with K citrate. (Source: Urology Annals)
Source: Urology Annals - January 13, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nawaf Abdulaziz Alenezi Fouad Zanaty Amr Hodhod Mohammed El-Gharabawy Eid El-Sherif Atef Badawy Mohammed El-Shazly Source Type: research

Efficiency of Ionic Liquids-Based Aqueous Two-phase Electrophoresis for Partition of Cytochrome c.
Abstract Cytochrome c is a small water-soluble protein that is abundantly found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space of microorganism, plants and mammalians. Ionic liquids (ILs)-based aqueous two-phase electrophoresis system (ATPES) was introduced in this study to investigate the partition efficiency of cytochrome c to facilitate subsequent development of two-phase electrophoresis for the separation of cytochrome c from microbial fermentation. The 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, (C6mim)Br and potassium citrate salt were selected as the phase-forming components. Effects of phase composition; position of el...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - January 6, 2020 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kee PE, Lan JC, Yim HS, Tan JS, Chow YH, Ng HS Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research

An uncommon case of arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome and review of the renal involvement: Questions
AbstractArthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the VPS33B and VIPAR genes. Most cases are fatal within the first year of life. Here we describe one of the two oldest patients with arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis syndrome. This is a 12-year-old Hispanic female, from a non-consanguineous parents, diagnosed with an incomplete phenotype of arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis syndrome with arthrogryposis and renal tubular dysfunction but without cholestasis. At 11 years of age, she was found to have impaired rena...
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - January 2, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Established and recent developments in the pharmacological management of urolithiasis: an overview of the current treatment armamentarium.
Authors: Abou Chakra M, Dellis AE, Papatsoris AG, Moussa M Abstract Introduction: Urolithiasis is a common, highly recurrent disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. There are many dietary and pharmacological measures to prevent kidney stones.Areas covered: Herein, the authors explore medical expulsive therapy as well as pharmacological therapies to prevent/treat urolithiasis.Expert opinion: All stone formers should be advised to increase their fluid intake sufficiently to achieve a urine volume of at least 2.5 L/day. In the case of hypercalciuria, a thiazide diuretic should be prescribed while in cases o...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Correction to: Recent advances in the identification and management of inherited hyperoxalurias
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. On page 84, the dose for oral potassium citrate is incorrectly written as “0.1 mg/kg/day divided BID-QID for children, 30–60 mg per day divided BID-QID for adults”. (Source: Urolithiasis)
Source: Urolithiasis - October 13, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Oral dissolution therapy for renal radiolucent stones, outcome, and factors affecting response: A prospective study
Conclusion: ODT is safe and effective in the treatment of radiolucent renal stones. The efficacy was affected by stone density and stone size with more tendencies to failure with bigger stones and denser stones. Double J stent insertion may facilitate dissolution rate. There was no effect of the baseline urinarypH, hyperuricemia, or stone location on the dissolution rate of the stones. (Source: Urology Annals)
Source: Urology Annals - October 9, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shady Mohammed Salem Mohammed Farag Sultan Atef Badawy Source Type: research

Medullary Sponge Kidney: Current Perspectives.
Authors: Imam TH, Patail H, Patail H Abstract Medullary Sponge Kidney (MSK) disease is a rare congenital malformation of the distal nephron where cystic dilatation is appreciable in the collecting ducts and renal papillae. Most cases of the malformation are thought to arise from a malfunction within neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase interactions. Presentation and prognosis are usually indolent; however, they include urinary tract infections (UTI), nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and hypocitraturia. With an insidious and asymptomatic onset, MSK is a difficult renal ma...
Source: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease - October 4, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis Source Type: research

One-Pot Synthesis of Activated Porous Graphitic Carbon Spheres with Cobalt Nanoparticles
This study is focused on the development of in-situ activated graphitic carbon spheres (AGCSs) by adopting a one-pot modified Stӧber-like synthesis and restricting temperature treatment to a single step. Cobalt acetate and potassium citrate were added in the synthesis, where the former acted as a graphitization catalyst, while the latter acted as an activator. The resulting carbon spheres were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetry, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. These spheres possess high volumes of ultramicropores in additi...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects - September 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

ESR investigation on the potential use of potassium citrate as a dosimeter material.
Abstract Un-irradiated potassium citrate exhibited a weak ESR singlet at g = 2.0045 ± 0.0003 with peak-to-peak line-width of ΔHpp = 0.16 mT. However, multi-resonance signals spreading over a magnetic field range of ~5 mT were observed in gamma irradiated potassium citrate. A linear function of absorbed radiation dose was found to describe well the dose-response curves of the resonance signals A, B and C in a dose range of 5-5000 Gy. Room temperature fading study showed that radiation-induced radicals in potassium citrate are highly stable but less stable when exposed to the sunlight....
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - July 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Korkmaz G, Dilaver M, Polat M Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research

Charge storage mechanism of copper hexacyanoferrate nanocubes for supercapacitors
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: Chinese Chemical LettersAuthor(s): Zhaoxia Song, Wei Liu, Xiaofei Wei, Quan Zhou, Hongda Liu, Zheng Zhang, Guichang Liu, Zhongfu ZhaoAbstractThe widely accepted theory concerning the electrochemical energy storage mechanism of copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) for supercapacitors is that CuHCF stores charge by the reversible redox processes of Fe3+/Fe2+ couple and Cu cations are electrochemically inactive. In this work, CuHCF nanocubes (CuHCF-NC) were synthesized in the presence of potassium citrate and its electrochemical properties were tentatively studied in 1 m...
Source: Chinese Chemical Letters - July 10, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

A novel homozygous deletion in ATP6V0A4 causes distal renal tubular acidosis: A case report
Rationale: Autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare condition, most cases of which are caused by genetic mutations. Several loss-of-function mutations in the ATP6V0A4 gene have been recently reported. Patient concerns: A 2-month, 24-day-old Chinese girl presenting with vomiting and diarrhea. Diagnosis: dRTA was established by metabolic acidosis and hypokalemia. Mutational analysis of the ATP6V0A4 gene revealed a homozygous deletion of exons 13 and 14. The father was found to have a heterozygous loss of both exons, whereas the mother was normal. Interventions: Patient was treated with po...
Source: Medicine - July 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Prevention of Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Elective Coronary Angioplasty or Angiography with Sodium Potassium Citrate Solution, a Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.
Authors: Ghorbani A, Yazdankhah S, Adel MH, Tabesh H, Sattari AR, Sattari SA, Heybar H, Madjidi S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a frequent complication of contrast exposure. A recent study suggested that Na/K citrate might have a preventive role. We investigated the efficacy of Na/K citrate to prevent CIN in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary intervention. METHODS: The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 201 patients with estimated creatinine clearance .05). Post-exposure Cr values were not significantly different between the two groups (1....
Source: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases - June 19, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Iran J Kidney Dis Source Type: research

Green and scalable synthesis of porous carbon nanosheet-assembled hierarchical architectures for robust capacitive energy harvesting
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: CarbonAuthor(s): Lu Guan, Lei Pan, Tingyue Peng, Tong Qian, Yunchun Huang, Xinxin Li, Cai Gao, Zhen Li, Han Hu, Mingbo WuAbstractHierarchical carbon architectures offer superb advantages for energy storage, but their general synthesis requires tedious template methods and subsequent activation processes employing highly corrosive potassium hydroxide as the activation agent. Herein, we report a green and scalable production of the nanosheet-assembled hierarchical carbon architecture using potassium citrate as a green activation agent as well as an in-situ template and p...
Source: Carbon - June 15, 2019 Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

Effects of ternary potassium containing intumescent flame retardant coating on the combustion and thermal degradation properties of reconstituted tobacco sheet
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: Thermochimica ActaAuthor(s): Ning Shao, Fang Xue, Li Hou, Dongliang Li, Yun Gao, Xiaolan ZhuAbstractReconstituted tobacco sheet (RTS) was first modified by ternary intumescent flame retardant (IFR) coating, composed of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), chitosan (CS), and potassium citrate (PC) by spraying deposition sequentially. The effects of composite coating on the combustion behavior and thermal degradation of RTS were studied by micro-scale combustion calorimetry (MCC), cone calorimetry (CC) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled by Fourier transform infrared spectrom...
Source: Thermochimica Acta - June 7, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

An Improved Method for Extracting Viruses From Sediment: Detection of Far More Viruses in the Subseafloor Than Previously Reported
In this study, we infer SYBR-stained fluorescent particles that pass through some size cutoff, generally 0.2 μm, to be viruses. This operational definition will exclude prophage, giant viruses, and may exclude viruses that do not stain efficiently such as ssDNA and RNA viruses. It will also encompass membrane vesicles, gene transfer agents and very small cells. However, recent studies have suggested that membrane vesicles are only a minor portion of SYBR-stained particles compared to viruses (Biller et al., 2017). The majority of studies employing fluorescent staining techniques use this general criterion when determini...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Short-Term High-Fat Diet Alters Glutathione Levels and IL-6 Gene Expression in Oxidative Skeletal Muscles of Young Rats
This study was carried out in strict accordance with recommendations of the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals. Before undergoing the experimental work, the protocol was approved by the Comité Institutionnel de Protection des Animaux (CIPA) of UQAM (Permit Number: 0515-R3–759-0516). After a 3-day acclimatization period at UQAM’s animal facility, young (100–125 g; approximately 4 weeks old) male Wistar rats (Charles River, St-Constant, QC, Canada) were randomly fed with a regular chow diet (RCD; n = 13) or HFD (n = 12) for 14&...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Crystal structure of dilithium potassium citrate, Li2KC6H5O7 determined from powder diffraction data and DFT calculations
The crystal structure of poly[ μ -citrato-dilithium(I)potassium(I)], [Li2K(C6H5O7)]n, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The citrate anion triply chelates to the K+ cation through the hydroxyl group, the central carboxylate, and the terminal carboxylate. The KO7 coordination polyhedra share edges, forming chains parallel to the a axis. These chains share edges with one tetrahedral Li ion, and are bridged by edge-sharing pairs of the second tetrahedral Li ion, forming layers parallel to the ac plane. (Source: Acta Crystallographica Section E)
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section E - February 28, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Cigler, A.J. Kaduk, J.A. Tags: powder diffraction density functional theory citrate lithium potassium research communications Source Type: research

Medical dissolution therapy for the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis
ConclusionBased on our study population, medical dissolution therapy is a well-tolerated, non-invasive option for UA nephrolithiasis. (Source: World Journal of Urology)
Source: World Journal of Urology - February 27, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) for Treatment and Prevention of Urolithiasis: A Drosophila Animal Study.
In conclusion, Danshen revealed both preventive and treatment effects on CaOx crystal formation in a fly model. PMID: 30800166 [PubMed] (Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - February 26, 2019 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Comparison the cost-efficacy of furazolidone-based versus clarithromycin-based quadruple therapy in initial treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in a variable clarithromycin drug-resistant region, a single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label study
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) drug resistant rate to clarithromycin (CLA) has increased to 20% to 50%, which cause concerns regarding its effectiveness in eradicating Hp, we aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of CLA-based versus furazolidone (FZD)-based quadruple therapy, and assess factors that affect anti-Hp efficacy. One hundred eighty-five patients were enrolled in this single-center, prospective, randomized, open-label study. In FZD group, 92 patients were treated with FZD plus esomeprazole, bismuth potassium citrate, and amoxicillin for 14 days. In CLA group, 93 patients were treated with the same regimen except FZD ...
Source: Medicine - February 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research

Nephrocalcinosis in adolescent girl with medullary sponge kidney and mild hemihypertrophy: A case report
We present a case of 17-year old girl who was referred for metabolic evaluation of bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Physical examination showed signs of mild, left-sided hemihypertrophy involving the lower limb, buttock, trunk, face, and tongue. The imaging studies of kidneys including intravenous urography and contrast computed tomography showed numerous medullary calcification and a typical picture of MSK—“paint brush”/“bouquet of flowers” appearance of the dilated tubules within the renal medulla. Laboratory evaluation revealed sterile pyuria, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia. Intervention: ...
Source: Medicine - February 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Familial hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis with novel mutation
S Margabandhu, M DoshiIndian Journal of Nephrology 2019 29(1):57-61 Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by mutation in genes coding for tight junction proteins claudin-16 and claudin-19. It is characterized by renal wasting of magnesium and calcium associated with the development of nephrocalcinosis and renal stones by early childhood. Most of them progress to end-stage renal failure by the second or third decade. Here, we report two siblings with FHHNC, who presented with nephrocalcinosis without any extrarenal manifestations, one ...
Source: Indian Journal of Nephrology - January 30, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: S Margabandhu M Doshi Source Type: research

Citrate therapy for calcium phosphate stones
Purpose of review Calcium phosphate (CaP) stones represent an increasingly encountered form of recurrent nephrolithiasis, but current prophylactic medical regimens are suboptimal. Although hypocitraturia is a well-described risk factor for CaP stones, strategies that enhance citrate excretion have not consistently been effective at reducing CaP saturation and stone recurrence. This review summarizes the role of citrate therapy in CaP nephrolithiasis. Recent findings Citrate in urine inhibits CaP stone formation through multiple mechanisms, including the formation of soluble citrate–calcium complexes, and inhibit...
Source: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension - January 28, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY: Edited by David S. Goldfarb Source Type: research

A novel way to synthesize nitrogen doped porous carbon materials with high rate performance and energy density for supercapacitors
We report a novel, facile method for the synthesis of nitrogen doped porous carbon with three-dimensional interconnected porous framework by one-step pyrolysis of the mixture of agar, potassium citrate and urea. The optimized material possesses large specific surface area, interconnected porous framework and massive heteroatom functional groups. As an electrode material, it delivers a high specific capacity of 357 F g−1 at 1 A g−1, good rate performance (267 F g−1 at 50 A g−1) and good electrochemical stabilization (95.6% initial capacitance retained after 10,000 cycles) in 6 M KOH...
Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - January 22, 2019 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Quantifying hydrophobicity of natural organic matter using partition coefficients in aqueous two-phase systems.
In this study, the hydrophobicity of NOM spanning a wide range of origins and properties was quantified based on their partition coefficients (KATPS) in poly (ethylene glycol)/potassium citrate aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). The LnKATPS of NOM correlated well with the elemental, structural, and thermodynamic indices commonly used to characterize NOM hydrophobicity, including (O + N)/C, O/C, aromatic and aliphatic carbon, and the free energy of interactions between molecules (ΔGiwi). A simple linear model was developed to predict NOM hydrophobicity using KATPS. The model was validated using 20 natural wat...
Source: Chemosphere - January 6, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Fu H, Liu K, Alvarez PJJ, Yin D, Qu X, Zhu D Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Empiric therapy for kidney stones
AbstractCareful phenotyping of patients to classify those with kidney stones has a long and important history in revealing the chemical basis for stone formation. Advances in our genetic understanding of kidney stones will lead to incredible insights regarding the pathophysiology of this common disorder. At this time, both evaluation of urine chemistry and genotyping of patients are extremely useful in the setting of a university and research-based kidney stone clinic. For much of the world, in a more clinically focused setting, these techniques are neither available nor absolutely necessary. Careful implementation of an e...
Source: Urolithiasis - November 26, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Drosophila melanogaster as a function-based high-throughput screening model for antinephrolithiasis agents in kidney stone patients [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
This article has an associated First Person interview with the first authors of the paper. (Source: DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms)
Source: DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms - November 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ali, S. N., Dayarathna, T. K., Ali, A. N., Osumah, T., Ahmed, M., Cooper, T. T., Power, N. E., Zhang, D., Kim, D., Kim, R., St. Amant, A., Hou, J., Tailly, T., Yang, J., Luyt, L., Spagnuolo, P. A., Burton, J. P., Razvi, H., Leong, H. S. Tags: Drosophila as a Disease Model RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

[Therapeutic compliance in patients with renal lithiasis and biochemical risk factors.]
CONCLUSIONS: Despite urine metabolic study being well valued and treatment well tolerated therapeutic compliance is very low. Most patients would repeat or restart the treatment prescribed in case of recurrence. Diagnostic and therapeutic information provided was not understood. PMID: 30403379 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Archivos Espanoles de Urologia)
Source: Archivos Espanoles de Urologia - November 8, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Arch Esp Urol Source Type: research

Protective potential of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide extract against ethylene glycol-induced calcium oxalate urolithiasis.
Authors: Wang S, Li X, Bao J, Chen S Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate a Angelica sinensis polysaccharide aqueous extract as a preventive agent in experimentally induced urolithiasis using in- vitro and vivo models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Angelica sinensis polysaccharide was investigated in vitro to determine its antilithiatic effects on the formation and morphology of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and was analyzed in vivo to determine its ability to prevent CaOx urolithiasis in rats subjected to ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis. Potassium citrate administration was used in the positive control group. The urol...
Source: Renal Failure - November 8, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Ren Fail Source Type: research

Primary biliary cirrhosis with refractory hypokalemia: A case report
Rationale: Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) represents a class of metabolic disorders characterized by metabolic acidosis with a normal plasma anion gap. As a rare complication of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), RTA is easily overlooked, likely leading to misdiagnosis. Patient concerns: A 32-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with PBC at our hospital was found to have hypokalemia due to repeated fatigue for 2 years, and the etiology was unknown. Diagnoses: Due to the laboratory test results, radiographic findings, and pathologic results, she was diagnosed with PBC associated with RTA. Interventions: She was then...
Source: Medicine - November 1, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Porous carbon nanoplate/Se composite derived from potassium citrate as high-performance Li-Se battery cathode: a study on structure-function relation
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2018Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering AspectsAuthor(s): Chenhao Zhao, Zhibiao Hu, Jiangshui LuoAbstractrPorous carbon box or nanoplate has been prepared by synchronous carbonization/activation of potassium citrate, and the corresponding porous carbon nanoplate/Se composite can be obtained using a melting-diffusion method. The influence of structure parameters including specific surface area and porous structure of porous carbon and resultant carbon/Se composite on electrochemical properties are studied. It is found a moderate micropore size of carb...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects - October 6, 2018 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Antiurolithiatic effect of the taraxasterol on ethylene glycol induced kidney calculi in male rats
AbstractTaraxasterol is one of the important constituents ofTaraxacum officinale L. (Compositae) with antioxidant potential. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the antiurolithiatic effects of taraxasterol and potassium citrate in the ethylene glycol induced urolithiatic rat. Urolithiasis was induced by ammonium chloride and ethylene glycol in adult male rats. Taraxasterol (2, 4 and 8  mg/kg) and potassium citrate (2.5 g/kg) were treated for 33 days by gavage. Then, the animals were anesthetized and weighted and blood, urine, liver and kidney sampling were done. The kidney sections were prepare...
Source: Urolithiasis - October 1, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Editorial Comment
This is an informative study based on a multi-institutional cross-sectional study of stone formers. It summarizes their health related quality of life as measured by the well-defined WisCOL survey instrument. It included 1,511 patients with some on potassium citrate and/or thiazide diuretics. It provides a good snapshot of these patients at the time of the survey. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - September 11, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Demetrius Bagley Tags: Adult Urology Source Type: research

Impact of Potassium Citrate vs. Citric Acid on Urinary Stone Risk in Calcium Phosphate Stone Formers
No medication has been shown to be effective at preventing recurrence of calcium phosphate urinary stones. Potassium citrate may protect against calcium phosphate stones by enhancing urine citrate excretion and lowering urine calcium, but it raises urine pH which increases calcium phosphate saturation and may negate the beneficial effects. Citric acid can potentially raise urine citrate but not pH, and thus may be a useful countermeasure against calcium phosphate stones. We aimed to assess whether these two agents can significantly alter urine composition and reduce calcium phosphate saturation. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - July 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Steeve Doizi, John R. Poindexter, Margaret S. Pearle, Francisco Blanco, Orson W. Moe, Khashayar Sakhaee, Naim M. Maalouf Source Type: research

Impact of Potassium Citrate vs Citric Acid on Urinary Stone Risk in Calcium Phosphate Stone Formers
To our knowledge no medication has been shown to be effective for preventing recurrent calcium phosphate urinary stones. Potassium citrate may protect against calcium phosphate stones by enhancing urine citrate excretion and lowering urine calcium but it raises urine pH, which increases calcium phosphate saturation and may negate the beneficial effects. Citric acid can potentially raise urine citrate but not pH and, thus, it may be a useful countermeasure against calcium phosphate stones. We assessed whether these 2 agents could significantly alter urine composition and reduce calcium phosphate saturation. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - July 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Steeve Doizi, John R. Poindexter, Margaret S. Pearle, Francisco Blanco, Orson W. Moe, Khashayar Sakhaee, Naim M. Maalouf Tags: Adult Urology Source Type: research

Rationale and Design of a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing the Renoprotective Effects of Potassium Supplementation in Chronic Kidney Disease
Conclusion: The K+ in the CKD study will demonstrate if K+ supplementation has a renoprotective effect in progressive CKD, and whether alkali therapy has additional beneficial effects.Nephron (Source: Nephron)
Source: Nephron - June 29, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

The effect of thiazide and potassium citrate use on the health-related quality of life of patients with urolithiasis
It is unknown whether benefits of medical management of urolithiasis outweigh potential side effects of utilized medications including potassium citrate (Kcit) and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the relationship between Kcit or thiazides and overall stone-related health related quality of life (HRQOL). (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - June 15, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Eric P. Raffin, Kristina L. Penniston, Jodi A. Antonelli, Davis P. Viprakasit, Timothy D. Averch, Vincent G. Bird, Ben H. Chew, Sri Sivalingam, Roger L. Sur, Stephen Y. Nakada, Vernon M. Pais Source Type: research

The Effect of Thiazide and Potassium Citrate Use on the Health Related Quality of Life of Patients with Urolithiasis
To our knowledge it is unknown whether the benefits of medical management of urolithiasis outweigh the potential side effects of the medications used, including potassium citrate and thiazide diuretics. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between potassium citrate or thiazides and overall stone related health related quality of life. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - June 15, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Eric P. Raffin, Kristina L. Penniston, Jodi A. Antonelli, Davis P. Viprakasit, Timothy D. Averch, Vincent G. Bird, Ben H. Chew, Sri Sivalingam, Roger L. Sur, Stephen Y. Nakada, Vernon M. Pais Tags: Adult Urology Source Type: research