Emergency room imaging in patients with genitourinary cancers: analysis of the spectrum of CT findings and their relation to patient outcomes
AbstractPurposeTo assess the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with genitourinary cancers visiting the emergency room (ER) and evaluate the relationship between CT findings and overall survival (OS).MethodsRetrospective analysis of consecutive patients with genitourinary cancers undergoing CT during an ER visit at a tertiary cancer center during a 20-month period. CTs were considered positive if there were findings relevant to the presenting complaint(s). Demographic/clinical variables were recorded. OS was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards reg...
Source: Emergency Radiology - April 6, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical benefits of fast-track rehabilitation program for patients with uncomplicated type B acute aortic dissection
ConclusionsOur fast-track rehabilitation program for patients with UTBAAD resulted in a better in-hospital clinical course and lower expense than conventional medical treatment without any adverse aortic events. (Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - April 6, 2020 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Incidence and Risk of Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Adults with Distinct Underlying Medical Conditions: A Population-Based Study
ConclusionOld age, immunocompromising conditions and chronic pulmonary/respiratory disease are major risk factors for pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. Our data underline the need for better prevention strategies in these persons. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - April 6, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy on Pancreatic Fistula Rates Following Pancreatectomy: a Population-Based Propensity-Matched Analysis
This study examined the effect of NAC on POPF rates and postoperative outcomes in PDAC.MethodsThe American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Targeted Pancreatectomy dataset was queried to identify PDAC patients who underwent curative-intent pancreatectomies. Propensity score matching was used to stratify patients by receipt of NAC. Postoperative outcomes were compared and logistic regression applied to identify POPF predictors.ResultsSix thousand eight hundred sixty-three patients met the inclusion criteria; of those, 1908 (27.8%) received NAC and 4955 (72.2%) did not (NNAC). Two tho...
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery - April 6, 2020 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 inflames the heart. The importance of awareness of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)- Coronavirus (CoV)-2. The main clinical manifestation that leads to hospital admission is the novel coronavirus pneumonia. The latter is characterized by partial filling of air spaces by exudate or transudate, as well as interstitial thickening or partial collapse of the lung alveoli giving the ground-glass opacities, often accompanied by consolidation and vascular enlargement, at CT of the lungs. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - April 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Enrico Ammirati, Dao Wen Wang Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

COVID-19 pneumonia manifestations at the admission on chest ultrasound, radiographs, and CT: single-center study and comprehensive radiologic literature review
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2020Source: European Journal of Radiology OpenAuthor(s): Pascal Lomoro, Francesco Verde, Filippo Zerboni, Igino Simonetti, Claudia Borghi, Camilla Fachinetti, Anna Natalizi, Alberto Martegani (Source: European Journal of Radiology Open)
Source: European Journal of Radiology Open - April 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A persuasive approach to antimicrobial stewardship in Christchurch hospitals produced a sustained decrease in intravenous clarithromycin dosing and expenditure via a switch to azithromycin orally.
CONCLUSIONS: A persuasive multimodel approach to support adoption of CAP guidelines produced a sustained decrease in IV clarithromycin use, which may have clinical benefits such as reduced occurrence of catheter-related complications. PMID: 32242175 [PubMed - in process] (Source: New Zealand Medical Journal)
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - April 5, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research

Lung injury patterns in newborns, infants and young children - morphological and immunohistochemical approaches.
Authors: Cotoi CT, Turdean SG, Turcu ML, Pop OL, Baba DF, Mărginean CO, Buicu CF, Muntean DL Abstract Lower respiratory infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, especially in newborns, infants and young children. We conducted a retrospective study and we analyzed the causes of death in newborns, infants and young children, in the necropsy protocols from two Departments of Pathology (Mureş County Hospital and Emergency County Hospital of Târgu Mureş, Romania), between 2016-2018. We performed descriptive statistics: number of necropsies per year, distribution by gender (male...
Source: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology - April 5, 2020 Category: General Medicine Tags: Rom J Morphol Embryol Source Type: research

COVID-19 pneumonia: a review of typical CT findings and differential diagnosis
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2020Source: Diagnostic and Interventional ImagingAuthor(s): Chahinez Hani, Nghi Hoang Trieu, Inès Saab, Séverine Dangeard, Souhail Bennani, Guillaume Chassagnon, Marie-Pierre Revel (Source: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging)
Source: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging - April 5, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Interleukin-6 use in COVID-19 pneumonia related macrophage activation syndrome
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2020Source: Autoimmunity ReviewsAuthor(s): Dennis McGonagle, Kassem Sharif, Anthony O'Regan, Charlie Bridgewood (Source: Autoimmunity Reviews)
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - April 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

ACE2 at the centre of COVID-19 from paucisymptomatic infections to severe pneumonia
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2020Source: Autoimmunity ReviewsAuthor(s): Felice Rivellese, Edoardo Prediletto (Source: Autoimmunity Reviews)
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - April 4, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Predictors of complications associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
CONCLUSIONS: different predictors were identified to ECMO complications. The knowledge of these predictors enables the individualized targeting of preventive interventions by multidisciplinary team for modifiable factors, as well as intensification of monitoring for early recognition of non-modifiable factors. PMID: 32236371 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem - April 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Nakasato GR, Lopes JL, Lopes CT Tags: Rev Bras Enferm Source Type: research

Clinical Course and Outcomes of Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: a Preliminary Report of the First 28 Patients from the Korean Cohort Study on COVID-19.
CONCLUSION: The prodromal symptoms of COVID-19 were mild and most patients did not have limitations of daily activity. Viral shedding from URT was high from the prodromal phase. Radiological pneumonia was common from the early days of illness, but it was frequently not evident in simple CXR. These findings could be plausible explanations for the easy and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the community. PMID: 32242348 [PubMed - in process] (Source: J Korean Med Sci)
Source: J Korean Med Sci - April 4, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Kim ES, Chin BS, Kang CK, Kim NJ, Kang YM, Choi JP, Oh DH, Kim JH, Koh B, Kim SE, Yun NR, Lee JH, Kim JY, Kim Y, Bang JH, Song KH, Kim HB, Chung KH, Oh MD, Korea National Committee for Clinical Management of COVID-19 Tags: J Korean Med Sci Source Type: research

Lopinavir/ritonavir did not shorten the duration of SARS CoV-2 shedding in patients with mild pneumonia in Taiwan
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2020Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Chien-Yu Cheng, Yu-Lin Lee, Cheng-Pin Chen, Yi-Chun Lin, Chun-Eng Liu, Chia-hung Liao, Shu-Hsing Cheng (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection)
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - April 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chest radiography and computed tomography findings from a Brazilian patient with COVID-19 pneumonia
Abstract In Brazil, rabies occurs mainly within an urban cycle, in which dogs and bats are reservoirs. This paper aims to report the occurrence of rabies in Callithrix sp. in Niter ói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In June 2019 a hybrid specimen was referred for diagnosis. The Direct Fluorescent Antibody, Mouse Inoculation, and Polymerase Chain Reaction tests were positive. A phylogenetic analysis was compatible with antigenic variant 3, characteristic of Desmodus rotundus. New stu dies should be undertaken to elucidate the real role of callitrichids in the urban rabies cycle. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - April 4, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

The safety of antimicrobials for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.
Authors: Bastida C, Soy D, Torres A Abstract Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevalence continues to increase. Despite the efficacy of antimicrobials, their safety and tolerability remain topics of interest and concern for clinicians and patients alike.Areas covered: This review outlines the main antimicrobial classes recommended for the empirical treatment of CAP in current guidelines, together with a potential new class. Each pharmacological group underwent a safety evaluation based on all available data about drug-related toxicitie...
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety - April 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Drug Saf Source Type: research

Primary stratification and identification of suspected Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from clinical perspective by a simple scoring proposal
AbstractIn this Commentary, we would like to comment on the article titled “A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)” as a featured article inMilitary Medical Research. In the guideline, except for “confirmed cases”, “suspected cases”, “close contact” and “suspicious exposure” were defined by clinical perspective based on epidemiological risk, clinical symptoms and auxiliary examination. Combined with our experience, we introduced a simple scoring proposal additionally base...
Source: Military Medical Research - April 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Immune-epidemiological parameters of the novel coronavirus - a perspective.
Authors: Saghazadeh A, Rezaei N Abstract Introduction: At the end of 2019, Wuhan, a city in China with a population of about 11 million, witnessed the outbreak of unusual pneumonia. As of March 29, 2020, the disease has spread to more 199 countries and territories worldwide. The 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, is known as the probable causative agent of the illness.Areas covered: Here, the epidemiological dynamics of the disease that stand in close relation to distinct immunogenetic characters of the pathogen are discussed, to understand the ability and inability of the immune system in combatting the 2019-nCoV ...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology - April 3, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Immunol Source Type: research

COVID-19 pneumonia in Taiwan
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2020Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Beuy joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - April 3, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory syncytial virus causes more hospitalizations and deaths in equatorial Brazil than influenza (including during the 2009 pandemic).
Abstract Despite numerous studies evaluating influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), there is still a lack of knowledge about them, especially in tropical countries. We compared the relative importance of respiratory viruses by examining their spatiotemporal patterns, age-specific hospitalization data and mortality data for 2007-2012 obtained from official sources. The data were aggregated into "respiratory infection seasonal zones" formed combining states that had similar seasonal patterns of pneumonia and influenza (P&I). Equatorial-North where P&I peaks in the middle of the year, Equa...
Source: An Acad Bras Cienc - April 3, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alonso WJ, Tamerius J, Freitas ARR Tags: An Acad Bras Cienc Source Type: research

Clinical Outcomes of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit.
Conclusions: PEG is a safe and feasible method of enteral feeding for critically ill patients who require ICU care after surgery. PMID: 32229800 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Endoscopy)
Source: Clinical Endoscopy - April 3, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Clin Endosc Source Type: research

Determinants of empirical antipseudomonal antibiotic prescription for adults with pneumonia in the emergency department
Antipseudomonal antibiotics should be restricted to patients at risk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. However, the indications in different guidelines on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are discordant. Our... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - April 3, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nuria Angrill, Miguel Gallego, Juli Font, Jordi Vall és, Anisi Morón, Eduard Monsó and Jordi Rello Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Bacterial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent hospitalized patients and appropriateness of empirical treatment recommendations: an international point-prevalence study
This study aims at the following: (i) describing the bacterial etiologic distribution of CAP and (ii) assessing the appropriateness of the empirical treatment recommendations by clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for CAP in light of the bacterial pathogens diagnosed as causative agents of CAP. Secondary analysis of the GLIMP, a point-prevalence international study which enrolled adults hospitalized with CAP in 2015. The analysis was limited to immunocompetent patients tested for bacterial CAP agents within 24  h of admission. The CAP CPGs evaluated included the following: the 2007 and 2019 American Thoracic Society/I...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - April 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Covid-19: automatic detection from X-ray images utilizing transfer learning with convolutional neural networks
In this study, a dataset of X-ray images from patients with common bacterial pneumonia, confirmed Covid-19 disease, and normal incidents, was utilized for the automatic detection of the Coronavirus  disease. The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art convolutional neural network architectures proposed over the recent years for medical image classification. Specifically, the procedure called Transfer Learning was adopted. With transfer learning, the detection of v arious abnormalities in small medical image datasets is an achievable target, often yielding remarkable results. The datase...
Source: Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine - April 3, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Difference of coagulation features between severe pneumonia induced by SARS-CoV2 and non-SARS-CoV2
AbstractSevere coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is commonly complicated with coagulopathy, the difference of coagulation features between severe pneumonia induced by SARS-CoV2 and non-SARS-CoV2 has not been analyzed. Coagulation results and clinical features of consecutive patients with severe pneumonia induced by SARS-CoV2 (COVID group) and non-SARS-CoV2 (non-COVID group) in Tongji hospital were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Whether patients with elevated D-dimer could benefit from anticoagulant treatment was evaluated. There were 449 COVID patients and 104 non-COVID patients enrolled into the study. The 28-da...
Source: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis - April 3, 2020 Category: Hematology Source Type: research

Bacterial burden in the lower airways predicts disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and is independent of radiological disease extent
Increasing bacterial burden in the lower airways of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis confers an increased risk of disease progression and mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this increased bacterial burden directly influences progression of fibrosis or simply reflects the magnitude of the underlying disease extent or severity. We prospectively recruited 193 patients who underwent bronchoscopy and received a multidisciplinary diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Quantification of the total bacterial burden in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was performed by 16S rRNA gene qPCR. Imaging was independe...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 3, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Invernizzi, R., Barnett, J., Rawal, B., Nair, A., Ghai, P., Kingston, S., Chua, F., Wu, Z., Wells, A. U., Renzoni, E. R., Nicholson, A. G., Rice, A., Lloyd, C. M., Byrne, A. J., Maher, T. M., Devaraj, A., Molyneaux, P. L. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung disease Source Type: research

A Practical Approach to the Management of Cancer Patients During the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: An International Collaborative Group.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 32243668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Oncologist)
Source: The Oncologist - April 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Al-Shamsi HO, Alhazzani W, Alhuraiji A, Coomes EA, Chemaly RF, Almuhanna M, Wolff R, Nuhad IK, Chua MLK, Hotte SJ, Meyers BM, Elfiki T, Curigliano G, Eng C, Grothey A, Xie C Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research

Profiling of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in an Acute Care Hospital Setting.
CONCLUSIONS: This study adds knowledge about the causes and characteristics of oropharyngeal dysphagia in an acute tertiary medical setting. It also provides insights regarding the role, and the consequences of a swallowing intervention led by an ENT specialist in collaboration with the members of the health team. PMID: 32242742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal)
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - April 3, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Matar N, Smaily H, Cherfane P, Hanna C Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research

Clinics in Diagnostic Imaging: COVID-19 atypical pneumonia.
Abstract A 53-year-old man presented with high fever and a non-productive cough but had no recent travel history. He deteriorated clinically very rapidly and was intubated. The endotracheal tube microbiological culture isolated Klebsiella pneumoniae. On chest computed tomography, the presence of mixed ground-glass airspace opacities, patchy consolidation and a ‘crazy paving’ appearance was atypical for Klebsiella infection. As there was also a lack of cavitating nodules, lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion, atypical pneumonia due to COVID-19 was diagnosed. The patient tested positive for COVID-19. He ...
Source: Singapore Medical Journal - April 3, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Liew JRP, Lim YRD, Liew JYC, Poh CCA Tags: Singapore Med J Source Type: research

Alpha-tocopherol Attenuates the Severity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced Pneumonia.
Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a lethal pathogen that causes high mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. The Type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. aeruginosa mediates many of the adverse effects of infection with this pathogen including increased lung permeability in a toll-like receptor 4/Rho A/plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1-dependent manner. Alpha-tocopherol has anti-inflammatory properties that may make it a useful adjunct in treatment of this moribund infection. We measured transendothelial and transepithelial resistance, Rho A and PAI-1 activation, stress fiber...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - April 3, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wagener BM, Anjum N, Evans C, Brandon A, Honavar J, Creighton J, Traber MG, Stuart RL, Stevens T, Pittet JF Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

How to reduce the likelihood of coronavirus-19 (CoV-19 or SARS-CoV-2) infection and lung inflammation mediated by IL-1.
Authors: Conti P, Gallenga CE, Tetè G, Caraffa A, Ronconi G, Younes A, Toniato E, Ross R, Kritas SK Abstract SARS-CoV-2, also referred to as CoV-19, is an RNA virus which can cause severe acute respiratory diseases (COVID-19), with serious infection of the lower respiratory tract followed by bronchitis, pneumonia and fibrosis. The severity of the disease depends on the efficiency of the immune system which, if it is weak, cannot stem the infection and its symptoms. The new CoV-19 spreads in the population at a rate of 0.8-3% more than normal flu and mostly affects men, since immune genes are more expressed o...
Source: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents - April 2, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: J Biol Regul Homeost Agents Source Type: research

New biomarkers for respiratory infections
Purpose of review Although pneumonia, either community or hospital-acquired, is the most frequent severe respiratory infection, it is an infection difficult to diagnose. At present, the diagnosis of pneumonia relies on a combination of clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic criteria. However, these criteria are far from perfect leading to uncertainty in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and choice of antibiotic therapy. Biomarkers have been used to bring additional information in this setting. Recent findings The aim of this review is to provide a clear overview of the current evidence for biomarkers to distinguish...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Michael S. Niederman and Alimuddin Zumla Source Type: research

Advances in molecular diagnostic tests for pneumonia
Purpose of review Pneumonia is the main global cause of sepsis, and has been associated with high morbidity and high short and long-term mortality rates. As it may be caused by a wide spectrum of microorganisms, microbial diagnosis is challenging and the choice of adequate therapy remains an important problem. This review focuses on recently published studies of microbiological diagnostic tests and clinical assessments for pneumonia, including community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Recent findings Over the past decade, the microbiological diagnosis of pneumonia ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Michael S. Niederman and Alimuddin Zumla Source Type: research

Strategies for prediction of drug-resistant pathogens and empiric antibiotic selection in community-acquired pneumonia
Purpose of review Although most patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are appropriately treated with narrow-spectrum antibiotics, predicting which patients require coverage of drug-resistant pathogens (DRP) remains a challenge. The 2019 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America CAP guidelines endorse using locally validated prediction models for DRP. Here we review risk factors for DRP and provide a summary of available risk prediction models. Recent findings Both inadequate initial empiric spectrum as well as unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotic use are associated with poor outcomes...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Michael S. Niederman and Alimuddin Zumla Source Type: research

Update in adult community-acquired pneumonia: key points from the new American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America 2019 guideline
Purpose of review The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America recently released their joint guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The co-chairs of the guideline committee provide a summary of the guideline process, key recommendations from the new guideline and future directions for CAP research. Recent findings The guideline committee included 14 experts from the two societies. Sixteen questions for the guideline were selected using the PICO format. The GRADE approach was utilized to review the available evidence and generate recommen...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Michael S. Niederman and Alimuddin Zumla Source Type: research

Viral respiratory infections: a cause of community-acquired pneumonia or a predisposing factor?
Purpose of review A cause for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is only identified in ∼50% of cases. Nasopharyngeal PCR panels contain more viruses than previously. The problem then becomes determining the relevance of the organisms identified rather than figuring out which virus is present. This review addresses how to distinguish between viral CAP and bacterial CAP, how viral CAP predisposes to bacterial CAP and some novel antiviral treatment being conducted. Recent findings The pneumonia severity index has been studied in patients with viral CAP. There are new studies using biomarkers to help determine when an...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Michael S. Niederman and Alimuddin Zumla Source Type: research

Pneumococcal virulence factors in community-acquired pneumonia
Purpose of review This manuscript reviews the recent literature related to new developments in the understanding of existing and novel virulence factors of the pneumococcus that are of potential importance in the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies. Recent findings The pneumococcal capsule and pneumolysin have long been recognized as being two of the most prominent virulence factors, with much recent research having revealed previously unrecognized mechanisms by which they contribute to the pathogenesis of infection. Although the pneumococcal capsule has been considered a sine qua non for virule...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Michael S. Niederman and Alimuddin Zumla Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Position and the Incidence, Severity, and Clinical Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.
The objective of our study was to evaluate the relationship between community-level socioeconomic position, as measured by an area deprivation index, and the incidence, severity, and outcomes among adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: This was an ancillary study of a population-based, prospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with CAP in Louisville, Kentucky, from June 1, 2013, through May 31, 2015. We used a race-specific, block group-level area deprivation index as a proxy for community-level socioeconomic position and evaluated it as a predictor of CAP incidence, CAP severity, early clini...
Source: Public Health Reports - April 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Public Health Rep Source Type: research

Author reply to Letters to the Editor “COVID-19 pneumonia in Taiwan”
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2020Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Shao-Chung Cheng, Yu-Long Fan Chiang, Chia-Husn Huang, Yuan-Nian Hsu (Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - April 2, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Several potential risks of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia outbreaks in hospitals
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2020Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Xianjie Wen, Chen Ling, Yiqun Li (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Favorable changes of CT findings in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia after treatment with tocilizumab
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2020Source: Diagnostic and Interventional ImagingAuthor(s): Michaela Cellina, Marcello Orsi, Francesco Bombaci, Maurizio Sala, Pietro Marino, Giancarlo Oliva (Source: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging)
Source: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging - April 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Traditional Chinese Medicine: an effective treatment for 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP)
Publication date: March 2020Source: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, Volume 18, Issue 3Author(s): Hong-Zhi DU, Xiao-Ying HOU, Yu-Huan MIAO, Bi-Sheng HUANG, Da-Hui LIU (Source: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines)
Source: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines - April 2, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research

Coxiella burnetti Infection in Children
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and management ofCoxiella burnetti infection in children have not been summarized and updated since 2002.Recent FindingsAerosolization from the birth process of infected mammals accounts for almost all cases. Diagnosis requires a compatible clinical picture and serology that meets the criteria for acute or for persistent focal (chronic) infection. Acute disease is rarely diagnosed in children but it is not clear whether this is because infection is rare, infection is usually asymptomatic, or the diagnosis is usually missed. Fever is the main manifestation ...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Potential role of full-length and nonfull-length progranulin in affecting aortic valve calcification
Inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) which is a major contributor to cardiovascular mortality and lacks non-surgical treatment. The progranulin (PGRN) is an important immunomodulatory factor in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and pneumonia. However, its role in calcification of aortic valve remains unknown.We firstly found that PGRN was increased in calcified human aortic valve (AV) tissues. (Source: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology)
Source: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology - April 2, 2020 Category: Cytology Authors: Gaigai Huang, Liqin An, Mengtian Fan, Menghao Zhang, Bin Chen, Mengying Zhu, Jinghong Wu, Yan Liu, Yue Wang, Qin Huang, Qiong Shi, Yaguang Weng Source Type: research

Perioperative Echocardiography: Key Considerations During the Coronavirus Pandemic
THE CURRENT pandemic stemming from severe acute respiratory syndrome –related coronavirus-2 began in December 2019 with an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China.1,2 Since the initial cases, the outbreak has spread rapidly around the world, presenting health care systems with a global health crisis. This enveloped virus has an incubation period up to 14 days and pro duces a spectrum of clinical disease in humans.3 It can vary from mild upper respiratory tract infection with fever and cough to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome that may progress to sepsis and multiorgan failure. (Source: Journal of Cardiothorac...
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - April 2, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: John G. Augoustides Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Protecting High-Risk Cardiac Patients During the COVID-19 Outbreak
In the effort to face the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, which caused severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission in up to 15% of confirmed cases so far, many hospitals in Italy are setting up new ICUs, stopping nonurgent admissions, limiting the access to emergency rooms and wards, and providing separate pathways for suspected COVID-19 and other diseases. In parallel, it is mandatory to continue ensuring the provision of non-postponable treatments (eg, primary percutaneous coronary interventions or urgent/emergency cardiac surgical procedures). (Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic a...
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - April 2, 2020 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Antonio Pisano, Giovanni Landoni, Alberto Zangrillo Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Delivery of infection from asymptomatic carriers of COVID-19 in a familial cluster
On Dec 31, 2019, the government of Hubei Province, China, first reported a group of confused patients with pneumonia (The Central Government of the People ’s Republic of China, 2020). Metagenomics sequencing analysis revealed a novel coronavirus, which was officially named SARS-CoV-2 and is the cause of the disease named COVID-19 (World health Organization, 2020). The National Health Commission (NHC) set COVID-19 as a category B infectious disease w ith A-class management on Jan 20 (The Central Government of the People’s Republic of China, 2020). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Feng Ye, Shicai Xu, Zhihua Rong, Ronghua Xu, Xiaowei Liu, Pingfu Deng, Hai Liu, Xuejun Xu Source Type: research

Synthesis of new Enrofloxacin Derivatives as potential antibiofilm drugs against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
CONCLUSION: These compounds can be used alone or with FDA approved drugs to overcome biofilm related K. pneumoniae and S. aureus infections. PMID: 32238140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Medicinal Chemistry - April 2, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Siddiqui H, Haniffa HM, Ahmed A, Choudhary MI Tags: Med Chem Source Type: research

Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation.
CONCLUSIONS: Burkholderia cepacia complex infections present a significant challenge for people with cystic fibrosis and their clinicians. The incidence is likely to increase as the cystic fibrosis population ages; and managing and treating these infections will become more important. There is a lack of trial evidence to guide decision making and no conclusions can be drawn from this review about the optimal antibiotic regimens for people with cystic fibrosis who have chronic Burkholderia cepacia complex infections. Clinicians must continue to assess each person individually, taking into account in vitro antibiotic suscept...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 2, 2020 Category: General Medicine Authors: Lord R, Jones AM, Horsley A Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

A glass half-full: defining ventilator-associated pneumonia in the neonatal intensive care unit.
PMID: 32241018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Research)
Source: Pediatric Research - April 2, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Whitesel ED, Gupta M Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research