Impact of Post–Refractive Surgeries on Corneal Biomechanics—A Review
A stable shape for the human cornea prevents complications of post–refractive surgeries. Variation in corneal lamellae and collagen fibers is induced by recent laser refractive surgical procedures utilizing laser ablation and disruption techniques. Noninvasive prediction of corneal biomechanics and structural strength is not quite accurate pre– and post–refractive surgery despite the great advance in assessment methods. This is due to the alteration happening to the corneal structure post–refractive surgery. Many different methods have been developed to measure corneal and subcorneal biomechanics. I...
Source: Journal of Clinical Engineering - September 26, 2021 Category: Medical Devices Tags: FEATURE ARTICLES Source Type: research

Sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on Paederus fuscipes (Staphylinidae: Coleoptera), a general predator in paddle field
This study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole at lethal and sublethal levels against P. fuscipes larvae and adults. The LC50 of chlorantraniliprole against P. fuscipes adults and larvae were respectively 535.49 and 111.24 mg a.i. L-1, which is higher than the dosage recommended for use in the field (59.38 mg a.i. L-1), but the LC30 and LC10 for larvae are lower than the recommended field dose which showed that the sublethal effects on immature stages are inevitable. Treatment at larval stage with LC30 of chlorantraniliprole significantly elongated the pre-imaginal developmental and pre-oviposition...
Source: Environmental Pollution - September 25, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Muhammad Musa Khan Muhammad Hafeez Karam Elgizawy Hanyu Wang Jing Zhao Wanlun Cai Weihua Ma Hongxia Hua Source Type: research

Cancer as a homeostatic challenge: the role of the hypothalamus
Trends Neurosci. 2021 Sep 21:S0166-2236(21)00167-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2021.08.008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe initiation, progression, and metastatic spread of cancer elicits diverse changes in systemic physiology. In this way, cancer represents a novel homeostatic challenge to the host system. Here, we discuss how the hypothalamus, a critical brain region involved in homeostasis senses, integrates and responds to cancer-induced changes in physiology. Through this lens, cancer-associated changes in behavior (e.g., sleep disruption) and physiology (e.g., glucocorticoid dysregulation) can be viewed as the result of ...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - September 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nikita Francis Jeremy C Borniger Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Role of calcium oscillations in sperm physiology" [BioSystems 209 (2021) 104524]
Biosystems. 2021 Sep 21:104546. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystems.2021.104546. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34561129 | DOI:10.1016/j.biosystems.2021.104546 (Source: Biosystems)
Source: Biosystems - September 25, 2021 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Esperanza Mata-Mart ínez Claudia S ánchez-Cárdenas Julio C Ch ávez Ad án D Guerrero Claudia L Trevi ño Gabriel Corkidi Fernando Montoya Paul Hern ández-Herrera Mariano G Buffone Paula A Balestrini Alberto Darszon Source Type: research

Special Considerations in Facial Reconstruction in the Non-White Patient
The principles of facial reconstruction are well established and some unique modifications apply to the non-White population. Anatomic and physiologic distinctions to this group give rise to alterations in design and surgical planning. Different ethnic groups have different skin anatomy and physiology and that should be taken into consideration. Healing differs among the different ethnic groups, affecting the final result regardless of method chosen. Variations in aesthetic units can lead to different flap selection and design. These should be considered for this population to maximize aesthetic outcomes and patient satisf...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jenica Su-ern Yong, Stephen S. Park Source Type: research

Beyond linear conciliation
AbstractFormal epistemologists criticise the Conciliatory View of peer disagreement for being non-commutative with conditionalisation, path dependent and does not preserve the independence between propositions. Failing to commute with conditionalisation, one may switch the order between conciliating and conditionalising and obtain different outcomes. Failing to be path independent, the outcome of conciliation varies with the order of the acquisition of new testimonies. Failing to preserve the independence between propositions, one may suffer from a sure-loss and hence be deemed irrational. The three formal deficiencies urg...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Objective consequentialism and the plurality of chances
AbstractI claim that objective consequentialism (OC) faces a problem stemming from the existence in some situations of a plurality of chances relevant to the outcomes of an agent ’s acts. I suggest that this phenomenon bears structural resemblance to the well-known Reference Class problem. I outline a few ways in which one could attempt to deal with the issue, suggesting that it is the higher-level chance that should be employed by OC. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Ophthalmic Sensing Technologies for Ocular Disease Diagnostics
This article is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.Yuqi Shi, Nan Jiang, Priyanka Bikkannavar, M. Francesca Cordeiro, Ali Kemal Yetisen Point-of-care diagnosis and personalized treatments are critical in ocular physiology and disease. Continuous sampling of tear fluid for ocular diagnosis is a need for further exploration. Several techniques have been... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles)
Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles - September 24, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Yuqi Shi Source Type: research

Can only one physiological trait determinate the adverse effect of green fluorescent protein (GFP) incorporation on Vibrio virulence?
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11556-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGreen fluorescent protein (GFP) has been used extensively for in situ animal studies that follow up bacterial infection under epifluorescence microscopy. It is assumed that GFP is acting as a "neutral" protein with no influence on the bacterial physiology. To verify this hypothesis, the virulence of Vibrio splendidus ME9, Vibrio anguillarum NB10, and their respective GFP-tagged strains ME9-GFP and NB10-GFP (transconjugants) was compared in vitro and tested in vivo towards blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae. Res...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dongdong Wang Gilbert Van Stappen Alfredo Loor Nelia Mbewe Peter Bossier Nancy Nevejan Source Type: research

Autophagy, TERT, and mitochondrial dysfunction in hyperoxia
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00166.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTVentilation with gases containing enhanced fractions of oxygen is the cornerstone of therapy for patients with hypoxia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Yet, hyperoxia treatment increases free reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lung injury, which is reported to disrupt autophagy/mitophagy. Altered extranuclear activity of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, TERT, plays a protective role in ROS injury and autophagy in the systemic and coronary endothelium. We investigated interactions between autophagy/mi...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Andreas M Beyer Laura E Norwood Toro William E Hughes Micaela Young Anne V Clough Feng Gao Meetha Medhora Said H Audi Elizabeth R Jacobs Source Type: research

Resistance but not endurance exercise training induces changes in cerebrovascular function in healthy young subjects
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00230.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAIM: It is generally considered that regular exercise maintains brain health and reduces the risk of cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke and dementia. Since the benefits of different 'types' of exercise are unclear, we sought to compare the impacts of endurance and resistance training on cerebrovascular function.METHODS: In a randomized and cross-over design, 68 young healthy adults were recruited to participate in 3-months of resistance and endurance training. Cerebral hemodynamics through the internal carotid...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Hannah J Thomas Channa E Marsh Louise H Naylor Philip N Ainslie Kurt J Smith Howard H Carter Daniel J Green Source Type: research

Transverse tubule remodelling in the atrophied left ventricle in right ‑sided heart failure
We examined remodelling across tissue anatomical regions of both ventricles: trabeculae, papillary muscles, and free walls. Our analyses demonstrated in MCT hearts significant loss of t-tubule periodicity, disruption of the normal sarcomere striated pattern with JPH2 labelling, and also a disorganised striated pattern of RyR2 - a feature not previously reported in heart failure. Remodelling of JPH2 and RyR2 in the MCT heart was more pronounced in papillary muscles and trabeculae - particularly in the left ventricle, indicating that these anatomical structures, used as ex vivo isolated muscle preparations, are more sensitiv...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kevin Howe Jacqueline M Ross Denis S Loiselle June-Chiew Han David J Crossman Source Type: research

The actin depolymerizing factor, Destrin, serves as a negative feedback inhibitor of smooth muscle cell differentiation
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00142.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe have previously shown that several components of the RhoA signaling pathway control SMC phenotype by altering SRF-dependent gene expression. Because our genome wide analyses of chromatin structure and transcription factor binding suggested that the actin depolymerizing factor, DSTN, was regulated in a SMC-selective fashion, the goals of the current study were to identify the transcription mechanisms that control DSTN expression in SMC and to test whether it regulates SMC function. Immunohistochemical analyses re...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kuo An Liao Krsna V Rangarajan Xue Bai Joan M Taylor Christopher P Mack Source Type: research

Ubiquitin Ligase Wwp1 Gene Deletion Attenuates Diastolic Dysfunction in Pressure Overload Hypertrophy
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00032.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Heart failure with a preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFpEF) often arises from a prolonged LV pressure overload (LVPO) and accompanied by abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1 is a fundamental determinant ECM turnover. We tested the hypothesis that genetic ablation of Wwp1 would alter the progression of LVPO induced HFpEF.METHODS/RESULTS: LV echocardiography in mice with global Wwp1 deletion (n=41; Wwp1-/-) was performed at 12 weeks of age (Base...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Laura B Snyder Yimu Lai Heather Doviak Lisa A Freeburg Valerie K Laney Amber Moore Kia N Zellars Lydia E Matesic Francis G Spinale Source Type: research

The role of microbiota in respiratory health and diseases, particularly in tuberculosis
Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Sep 21;143:112108. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112108. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTrillions of beneficial and hostile microorganisms live in the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, which act as gatekeepers in maintaining human health, i.e., protecting the body from pathogens by colonizing mucosal surfaces with microbiota-derived antimicrobial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids or host-derived cytokines and chemokines. It is widely accepted that the microbiome interacts with each other and with the host in a mutually beneficial relationship. Microbiota in the respiratory tract...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - September 24, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Taif Shah Zahir Shah Zulqarnain Baloch XiuMing Cui Source Type: research

Downregulation of acylglycerol kinase suppresses high glucose-induced endothelial-mesenchymal transition in HRECs through regulating the LPAR1/TGF- β/Notch signaling pathway
In conclusion, we demonstrate that downregulation of acylglycerol kinase suppresses high glucose-induced endothelial-mesenchymal transition in HRECs through regulating the LPAR1/TGF-β/Notch signaling pathway, indicating that AGK might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of DR.PMID:34559978 | DOI:10.1139/cjpp-2021-0265 (Source: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology)
Source: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - September 24, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Haijing Wang Zhuolei Feng Xue Han Yue Xing Xiaomei Zhang Source Type: research

Midazolam suppresses ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting the JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2021-0289. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMyocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury causes irreversible injury to the heart, causing mainly acute myocardial infarction. Midazolam is a benzodiazepine commonly utilized in anesthesia and intensive care. Research has indicated midazolam plays a critical role in many diseases. However, the function of midazolam in myocardial injury induced by I/R warrants further investigation. The infarct size was examined through 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The CK-MB, LDH, and AST levels were tested using comme...
Source: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - September 24, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Weixiao Zhou Dongjiang Cai Source Type: research

Inhibition of microRNA-297 alleviates THLE-2 cell injury induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation via SIRT3
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2021-0287. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt has been acknowledged that microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) assume a critical role in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced hepatocyte injury. Therefore, cell experiments were performed in this study to investigate the mechanism of miR-297 in H/R-induced hepatocyte injury with the involvement of Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) and NLRP3. Initially, THLE-2 cells were utilized for H/R challenge. After miR-297 antagomir and NLRP3 adenovirus vector delivery, THLE-2 cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by MTT, EdU and TUNEL assays, respectively...
Source: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - September 24, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yuan Yue Zhilin Du Jie Tao Lei Shi Source Type: research

Cardioprotective effect of fingolimod against calcium paradox-induced myocardial injury in the isolated rat heart
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2021-0381. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFingolimod (FTY720) inhibits Ca2+-permeable, Mg2+-sensitive channels called transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), but its effects on Ca2+ paradox (CP)-induced myocardial damage have not been evaluated. We studied the effect of FTY720 on CP-induced myocardial damage, and used other TRPM7 channel inhibitors nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and Mg2+ to test if any effect of FTY720 was via TRPM7 inhibition. Langendorff-perfused Wistar rat hearts were treated with FTY720 or NDGA and subjected to a CP protocol consisting...
Source: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - September 24, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fatma Alatrag Matthew Amoni Roisin Kelly-Laubscher Asfree Gwanyanya Source Type: research

Risk of delirium and impaired neurological outcome associated with delay in neurorehabilitation after acquired brain injury
CONCLUSIONS In this study, mortality and neurological outcome were comparable with those reported in similar studies. Waiting for transfer to another facility due to capacity significantly impairs neurological outcome and increases delirium. FUNDING none. TRIAL REGISTRATION not relevant.PMID:34558409 (Source: Danish Medical Journal)
Source: Danish Medical Journal - September 24, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Peter Martin Hansen J ørgen Trankjær Lauridsen Nicole Sb Frandsen Source Type: research

Controversial roles of cold ‑inducible RNA‑binding protein in human cancer (Review)
Int J Oncol. 2021 Nov;59(5):91. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2021.5271. Epub 2021 Sep 24.ABSTRACTCold‑inducible RNA‑binding protein (CIRBP) is a cold‑shock protein comprised of an RNA‑binding motif that is induced by several stressors, such as cold shock, UV radiation, nutrient deprivation, reactive oxygen species and hypoxia. CIRBP can modulate post‑transcriptional regulation of target mRNA, which is required to control DNA repair, circadian rhythms, cell growth, telomere integrity and cardiac physiology. In addition, the crucial function of CIRBP in various human diseases, including cancers and inflammatory disease, has be...
Source: International Journal of Oncology - September 24, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Young-Mi Kim Suntaek Hong Source Type: research

Leptin and the Blood-Brain Barrier: Curiosities and Controversies
Compr Physiol. 2021 Sep 23;11(4):1-19. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c200017.ABSTRACTLeptin for over 25 years has been a central theme in the study of appetite, obesity, and starvation. As the major site of leptin production is peripheral, and the site of action of greatest interest is the hypothalamus, how leptin accesses the central nervous system (CNS) and crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been of great interest. We review here the ongoing research that addresses fundamental questions such as the sites of leptin resistances in obesity and other conditions, the causes of resistances and their relations to one another, the th...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: William A Banks Source Type: research

Working Memory: From Neural Activity to the Sentient Mind
Compr Physiol. 2021 Sep 23;11(4):1-41. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c210005.ABSTRACTWorking memory (WM) is the ability to maintain and manipulate information in the conscious mind over a timescale of seconds. This ability is thought to be maintained through the persistent discharges of neurons in a network of brain areas centered on the prefrontal cortex, as evidenced by neurophysiological recordings in nonhuman primates, though both the localization and the neural basis of WM has been a matter of debate in recent years. Neural correlates of WM are evident in species other than primates, including rodents and corvids. A specialized n...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Russell J Jaffe Christos Constantinidis Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide Actions in the Vasculature
This article discusses its many actions in the vascular system and the growing evidence of its role to regulate vascular tone, angiogenesis, endothelial barrier function, redox, and inflammation. Alterations in some disease states are also discussed including potential roles in promoting tumor growth and contributions to the development of metabolic disease. © 2021 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 11:1-22, 2021.PMID:34558672 | DOI:10.1002/cphy.c200036 (Source: Comprehensive Physiology)
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Perenkita J Mendiola Jay S Naik Laura V Gonzalez Bosc Amy S Gardiner Aleksandr Birg Nancy L Kanagy Source Type: research

Regulation of the Cerebral Circulation During Development
Compr Physiol. 2021 Sep 23;11(4):1-62. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c200028.ABSTRACTThe cerebral microcirculation undergoes dynamic changes in parallel with the development of neurons, glia, and their energy metabolism throughout gestation and postnatally. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen consumption, and glucose consumption are as low as 20% of adult levels in humans born prematurely but eventually exceed adult levels at ages 3 to 11 years, which coincide with the period of continued brain growth, synapse formation, synapse pruning, and myelination. Neurovascular coupling to sensory activation is present but attenuated at birth. By...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Raymond C Koehler Source Type: research

Novel Pharmacological Targets for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Compr Physiol. 2021 Sep 23;11(4):1-53. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c200015.ABSTRACTPulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by an obliterative vasculopathy of the distal pulmonary circulation that results in severe elevation in pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. PAH is a progressive and devastating disease that usually results in right heart failure and death. Currently available medications have only moderate effects and none are curative. Thus, there is a pressing need for new pharmacologic approaches to this disease. In order to meaningfully advance the treatment of PAH, new agents ...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: James R Klinger Source Type: research

Why It Is Important to Consider the Effects of Analgesics on Sleep: A Critical Review
Compr Physiol. 2021 Sep 23;11(4):1-31. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c210006.ABSTRACTWe review the known physiological mechanisms underpinning all of pain processing, sleep regulation, and pharmacology of analgesics prescribed for chronic pain. In particular, we describe how commonly prescribed analgesics act in sleep-wake neural pathways, with potential unintended impact on sleep and/or wake function. Sleep disruption, whether pain- or drug-induced, negatively impacts quality of life, mental and physical health. In the context of chronic pain, poor sleep quality heightens pain sensitivity and may affect analgesic function, potentiall...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: S Iacovides P Kamerman F C Baker D Mitchell Source Type: research

Physiology of Taste Processing in the Tongue, Gut, and Brain
This article gives an overview of the current knowledge about these TB cells' anatomy and physiology and their trigeminal induced sensations. We then discuss how taste is represented across gustatory cortices using an intermingled and spatially distributed population code. Finally, we review postingestion processing (interoception) and central integration of the tongue-gut-brain interaction, ultimately determining our sensations as well as preferences toward the wholesomeness of nutritious foods. © 2021 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 11:1-35, 2021.PMID:34558667 | DOI:10.1002/cphy.c210002 (Source: Comprehensive Physiology)
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Ranier Gutierrez Sidney A Simon Source Type: research

Application of Artificial Intelligence in Cardiovascular Medicine
Compr Physiol. 2021 Sep 23;11(4):1-12. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c200034.ABSTRACTThe advent of advances in machine learning (ML)-based techniques has popularized wide applications of artificial intelligence (AI) in various fields ranging from robotics to medicine. In recent years, there has been a surge in the application of AI to research in cardiovascular medicine, which is largely driven by the availability of large-scale clinical and multi-omics datasets. Such applications are providing a new perspective for a better understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which could be used to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic ...
Source: Comprehensive Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Xi Cheng Ishan Manandhar Sachin Aryal Bina Joe Source Type: research

Validating an Adjustment to the Intermittent Critical Power Model for Elite Cyclists-Modeling W' Balance During World Cup Team Pursuit Performances
CONCLUSIONS: On average, the Bartram adjustment was an improvement to modeling intermittent work capacity in elite cyclists, with the Skiba 2 model underestimating the rate of W' recovery. In the specific context of modeling team pursuit races, all models were too variable for effective use; hence, individual recovery rates should be explored beyond population-specific rates.PMID:34560664 | DOI:10.1123/ijspp.2020-0444 (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)
Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance - September 24, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jason C Bartram Dominic Thewlis David T Martin Kevin I Norton Source Type: research

Comparison of Physiological Responses and Muscle Activity During Incremental and Decremental Cycling Exercise
Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2021 Sep 24:1-8. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2021-0020. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a cycling test based on decremental loads (DEC) could elicit higher maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) values compared with an incremental test (INC).DESIGN: Nineteen well-trained individuals performed an INC and a DEC test on a single day, in randomized order.METHODS: During INC, the load was increased by 20 W·min-1 until task failure. During DEC, the load started at 20 W higher than the peak load achieved during INC (familiarization trial) and was progressively decreased. Gas e...
Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance - September 24, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Fernando G Beltrami Christian Froyd Alexis R Mauger Alan J Metcalfe Timothy D Noakes Source Type: research

Peer Presence Increases Session Ratings of Perceived Exertion
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that contextual psychosocial inputs influence session-RPE and highlights the importance of session-RPE users controlling the measurement environment when collecting votes.PMID:34560668 | DOI:10.1123/ijspp.2021-0080 (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)
Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance - September 24, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Geoffrey M Minett Valentin Fels-Camilleri Joshua J Bon Franco M Impellizzeri David N Borg Source Type: research

Effect of Climbing Speed on Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake and Muscle Oxygen Saturation Dynamics in the Finger Flexors
Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2021 Sep 24:1-9. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2021-0110. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPURPOSE: Although sport climbing is a self-paced whole-body activity, speed varies with climbing style, and the effect of this on systemic and localized oxygen responses is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine muscle and pulmonary oxygen responses during submaximal climbing at differing speeds of ascent.METHODS: Thirty-two intermediate and advanced sport climbers completed three 4-minute-long ascents of the same route at 4, 6, and 9 m·min-1 on a motorized climbing ergome...
Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance - September 24, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jan Gajdo šík Jir ˇí Baláš Dominika Krupkov á Luk áš Psohlavec Nick Draper Source Type: research

Subjective Sleep Patterns and Jet Lag Symptoms of Junior Netball Players Prior to and During an International Tournament: A Case Study
Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2021 Sep 24:1-5. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2021-0093. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPURPOSE: To assess the impact of long-haul transmeridian travel on subjective sleep patterns and jet lag symptoms in youth athletes around an international tournament.METHODS: An observational descriptive design was used. Subjective sleep diaries and perceived responses to jet lag were collected and analyzed for a national junior netball team competing in an international tournament. Sleep diaries and questionnaires were completed daily prior to and during travel, and throughout the tournament. Results were categorize...
Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance - September 24, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Jonathon R Lever Dina C Janse van Rensburg Audrey Jansen van Rensburg Peter Fowler Hugh H K Fullagar Source Type: research

Power Profile of Top 5 Results in World Tour Cycling Races
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the relative importance of certain points on the power-duration spectrum varies with different race types and provides insight into benchmarks for achieving a result in a World Tour cycling race.PMID:34560671 | DOI:10.1123/ijspp.2021-0081 (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)
Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance - September 24, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Teun van Erp Robert P Lamberts Dajo Sanders Source Type: research

Can only one physiological trait determinate the adverse effect of green fluorescent protein (GFP) incorporation on Vibrio virulence?
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1007/s00253-021-11556-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGreen fluorescent protein (GFP) has been used extensively for in situ animal studies that follow up bacterial infection under epifluorescence microscopy. It is assumed that GFP is acting as a "neutral" protein with no influence on the bacterial physiology. To verify this hypothesis, the virulence of Vibrio splendidus ME9, Vibrio anguillarum NB10, and their respective GFP-tagged strains ME9-GFP and NB10-GFP (transconjugants) was compared in vitro and tested in vivo towards blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) larvae. Res...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - September 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dongdong Wang Gilbert Van Stappen Alfredo Loor Nelia Mbewe Peter Bossier Nancy Nevejan Source Type: research

Transverse tubule remodelling in the atrophied left ventricle in right ‑sided heart failure
We examined remodelling across tissue anatomical regions of both ventricles: trabeculae, papillary muscles, and free walls. Our analyses demonstrated in MCT hearts significant loss of t-tubule periodicity, disruption of the normal sarcomere striated pattern with JPH2 labelling, and also a disorganised striated pattern of RyR2 - a feature not previously reported in heart failure. Remodelling of JPH2 and RyR2 in the MCT heart was more pronounced in papillary muscles and trabeculae - particularly in the left ventricle, indicating that these anatomical structures, used as ex vivo isolated muscle preparations, are more sensitiv...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kevin Howe Jacqueline M Ross Denis S Loiselle June-Chiew Han David J Crossman Source Type: research

Autophagy, TERT, and mitochondrial dysfunction in hyperoxia
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00166.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTVentilation with gases containing enhanced fractions of oxygen is the cornerstone of therapy for patients with hypoxia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Yet, hyperoxia treatment increases free reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lung injury, which is reported to disrupt autophagy/mitophagy. Altered extranuclear activity of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, TERT, plays a protective role in ROS injury and autophagy in the systemic and coronary endothelium. We investigated interactions between autophagy/mi...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Andreas M Beyer Laura E Norwood Toro William E Hughes Micaela Young Anne V Clough Feng Gao Meetha Medhora Said H Audi Elizabeth R Jacobs Source Type: research

Resistance but not endurance exercise training induces changes in cerebrovascular function in healthy young subjects
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00230.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAIM: It is generally considered that regular exercise maintains brain health and reduces the risk of cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke and dementia. Since the benefits of different 'types' of exercise are unclear, we sought to compare the impacts of endurance and resistance training on cerebrovascular function.METHODS: In a randomized and cross-over design, 68 young healthy adults were recruited to participate in 3-months of resistance and endurance training. Cerebral hemodynamics through the internal carotid...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Hannah J Thomas Channa E Marsh Louise H Naylor Philip N Ainslie Kurt J Smith Howard H Carter Daniel J Green Source Type: research

The actin depolymerizing factor, Destrin, serves as a negative feedback inhibitor of smooth muscle cell differentiation
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00142.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe have previously shown that several components of the RhoA signaling pathway control SMC phenotype by altering SRF-dependent gene expression. Because our genome wide analyses of chromatin structure and transcription factor binding suggested that the actin depolymerizing factor, DSTN, was regulated in a SMC-selective fashion, the goals of the current study were to identify the transcription mechanisms that control DSTN expression in SMC and to test whether it regulates SMC function. Immunohistochemical analyses re...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Kuo An Liao Krsna V Rangarajan Xue Bai Joan M Taylor Christopher P Mack Source Type: research

Ubiquitin Ligase Wwp1 Gene Deletion Attenuates Diastolic Dysfunction in Pressure Overload Hypertrophy
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00032.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Heart failure with a preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFpEF) often arises from a prolonged LV pressure overload (LVPO) and accompanied by abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1 is a fundamental determinant ECM turnover. We tested the hypothesis that genetic ablation of Wwp1 would alter the progression of LVPO induced HFpEF.METHODS/RESULTS: LV echocardiography in mice with global Wwp1 deletion (n=41; Wwp1-/-) was performed at 12 weeks of age (Base...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Authors: Laura B Snyder Yimu Lai Heather Doviak Lisa A Freeburg Valerie K Laney Amber Moore Kia N Zellars Lydia E Matesic Francis G Spinale Source Type: research

Risk of delirium and impaired neurological outcome associated with delay in neurorehabilitation after acquired brain injury
CONCLUSIONS In this study, mortality and neurological outcome were comparable with those reported in similar studies. Waiting for transfer to another facility due to capacity significantly impairs neurological outcome and increases delirium. FUNDING none. TRIAL REGISTRATION not relevant.PMID:34558409 (Source: Danish Medical Journal)
Source: Danish Medical Journal - September 24, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Peter Martin Hansen J ørgen Trankjær Lauridsen Nicole Sb Frandsen Source Type: research

Controversial roles of cold ‑inducible RNA‑binding protein in human cancer (Review)
Int J Oncol. 2021 Nov;59(5):91. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2021.5271. Epub 2021 Sep 24.ABSTRACTCold‑inducible RNA‑binding protein (CIRBP) is a cold‑shock protein comprised of an RNA‑binding motif that is induced by several stressors, such as cold shock, UV radiation, nutrient deprivation, reactive oxygen species and hypoxia. CIRBP can modulate post‑transcriptional regulation of target mRNA, which is required to control DNA repair, circadian rhythms, cell growth, telomere integrity and cardiac physiology. In addition, the crucial function of CIRBP in various human diseases, including cancers and inflammatory disease, has be...
Source: International Journal of Oncology - September 24, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Young-Mi Kim Suntaek Hong Source Type: research

A Fibre ‐ vs. cereal grain‐based diet: Which is better for horse welfare? Effects on intestinal permeability, muscle characteristics and oxidative status in horses reared for meat production
AbstractHorses reared for meat production are fed high amounts of cereal grains in comparison with horses raised for other purposes. Such feeding practice may lead to risk of poor welfare consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two feeding practices on selected metabolic parameters and production aspects. Nineteen Bardigiano horses, 14.3  ± 0.7 months of age, were randomly assigned to two groups—one fed with high amounts of cereal grains (HCG;n = 9; 43% hay plus 57% cereal grain-based pelleted feed) vs. one fed with high amounts of fibre (HFG;n = ...
Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition - September 24, 2021 Category: Zoology Authors: Federica Raspa, Francesca Rita Dinardo, Ingrid Vervuert, Domenico Bergero, Maria Teresa Bottero, Daniele Pattono, Alessandra Dalmasso, Marica Vinassa, Ermenegildo Valvassori, Elena Bruno, Pasquale De Palo, Emanuela Valle Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Hypoxia-dependent signaling in perioperative and critical care medicine
AbstractA critical goal of patient management for anesthesiologists and intensivists is to maintain oxygen homeostasis in patients admitted to operation theaters and intensive care units. For this purpose, it is imperative to understand the strategies of the body against oxygen imbalance —especially oxygen deficiency (hypoxia). Adaptation to hypoxia and maintenance of oxygen homeostasis involve a wide range of responses that occur at different organizational levels in the body. These responses are greatly influenced by perioperative patient management including factors such as per ioperative drugs. Herein, the influe...
Source: Journal of Anesthesia - September 24, 2021 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Endurance Exercise Training reduces Blood Pressure according to the Wilder ’s Principle
Int J Sports Med DOI: 10.1055/a-1548-6985The effect of antihypertensive medicine (AHM) is larger the higher the pre-treatment blood pressure level. It is unknown whether this Wilder’s principle, also applies for the exercise-training blood pressure (BP) lowering effect. One hundred seventy-eight (n=178) middle-aged individuals (55±8 y) with metabolic syndrome (MetS), underwent high intensity interval training (3 days·week–1) for 16 weeks. Participants were divided into medicated (Med; n=103) or not medicated (No Med; n=75) with AHM. Office BP was evaluated...
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine - September 24, 2021 Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo Ortega, Juan Fernando Morales-Palomo, Felix Ramirez, Miguel Moreno-Caba ñas, Alfonso Alvarez-Jimenez, Laura Tags: Physiology & Biochemistry Source Type: research

Commentary: Quizzes, midterms, and finals: considerations in aortic root replacement
In this issue of Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, the aortic surgery group from the University of Pittsburgh presents comparative results of aortic root replacement (ARR) using either stentless or stented bioprostheses.1 Briefly summarized, the authors found that larger stentless aortic root prostheses were able to be implanted, and that across all sizes implanted (not just with smaller sizes), statistically significant superior prosthetic valve physiology (as assessed non-invasively) was observed. (Source: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Source: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - September 24, 2021 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Faisal H. Cheema, Shuab Omer, Keshava Rajagopal Tags: ADULT – Commentary Source Type: research

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 4793: Anus-Preserving Surgery in Advanced Low-Lying Rectal Cancer: A Perspective on Oncological Safety of Intersphincteric Resection
Seon Hahn Kim The surgical management of low-lying rectal cancer, within 5 cm from the anal verge (AV), is challenging due to the possibility, or not, to preserve the anus with its sphincter muscles maintaining oncological safety. The standardization of total mesorectal excision, the adoption of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, the implementation of rectal magnetic resonance imaging, and the evolution of mechanical staplers have increased the rate of anus-preserving surgeries. Moreover, extensive anatomy and physiology studies have increased the understanding of the complexity of the deep pelvis. Intersphincteric resect...
Source: Cancers - September 24, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Guglielmo Niccol ò Piozzi Se-Jin Baek Jung-Myun Kwak Jin Kim Seon Hahn Kim Tags: Review Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 26, Pages 5784: The Relationship of Glutathione-S-Transferase and Multi-Drug Resistance-Related Protein 1 in Nitric Oxide (NO) Transport and Storage
rdson Nitric oxide is a diatomic gas that has traditionally been viewed, particularly in the context of chemical fields, as a toxic, pungent gas that is the product of ammonia oxidation. However, nitric oxide has been associated with many biological roles including cell signaling, macrophage cytotoxicity, and vasodilation. More recently, a model for nitric oxide trafficking has been proposed where nitric oxide is regulated in the form of dinitrosyl-dithiol-iron-complexes, which are much less toxic and have a significantly greater half-life than free nitric oxide. Our laboratory has previously examined this hypothesis i...
Source: Molecules - September 24, 2021 Category: Chemistry Authors: Tiffany M. Russell Mahan Gholam Azad Des R. Richardson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Long-Lasting Desynchronization Effects of Coordinated Reset Stimulation Improved by Random Jitters
Abnormally strong synchronized activity is related to several neurological disorders, including essential tremor, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease. Chronic high-frequency deep brain stimulation (HF DBS) is an established treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. To reduce the delivered integral electrical current, novel theory-based stimulation techniques such as coordinated reset (CR) stimulation directly counteract the abnormal synchronous firing by delivering phase-shifted stimuli through multiple stimulation sites. In computational studies in neuronal networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), it was sh...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research