Etiology of Childhood Otorrhea in Luanda, Angola, and a Review of Otitis Media in African Children
Conclusions: In Angola, Gram-negative rods emerged as common causative agents of otorrhea in children followed by S. aureus. The magnitude of chronic otorrhea in Africa represents a cause for public health concern. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Respiratory Microbiota Predicts Clinical Disease Course of Acute Otorrhea in Children With Tympanostomy Tubes
Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood infections, generally thought to be caused by ascension of bacteria from the nasopharynx (NP) to the middle ear. Using 16S ribosomal RNA–based sequencing, we evaluated the relationship between the NP and middle ear fluid (MEF) microbiota in children with AOM with tympanostomy tubes (AOMT) as a proxy for AOM and explored whether microbiota profiling predicts natural disease course. Methods: Microbiota profiles of paired NP and MEF samples of 94 children below 5 years of age with uncomplicated AOMT were determined. Results: Local diversity...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Medicine Reports Source Type: research

Anaerobic Bacteriological Profile of Brain Abscess in a Tertiary Care Center in Southern India.
This study was done to determine the anaerobic bacteriological profile of brain abscess, their distribution according to sociodemographic variables, anatomical location, management and the outcome during the subjects' stay in a neurosciences' speciality hospital. We included 190 cases of confirmed anaerobic brain abscess from the year 1998 to 2017. The median age was 22 years with more males (73% of 190 cases) than females. The Bacteroides spp. were the most common (64%) anaerobic organisms isolated followed by Gram positive anaerobic cocci (51%). While 67% of the samples showed purely anaerobic bacteria on culture, remain...
Source: Anaerobe - May 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shruthi U, Prabhu Raj AR, Kumari H B V, Nagarathna C Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Consensus on treatment of obstructive Eustachian tube dysfunction with balloon Eustachian tuboplasty.
CONCLUSIONS: BET is a surgical, minimally invasive treatment that has shown its effectiveness and safety in obstructive Eustachian tube dysfunction in adults and children. It is most effective in barotrauma and serous otitis media. PMID: 31133274 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Otorrinolaringologica Espanola)
Source: Acta Otorrinolaringologica Espanola - May 24, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Plaza G, Navarro JJ, Alfaro J, Sandoval M, Marco J Tags: Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp Source Type: research

Effect of a participatory intervention in women ’s self-help groups for the prevention of chronic suppurative otitis media in their children in Jumla Nepal: a cluster-randomised trial
Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) causes preventable deafness and disproportionately affects children living in poverty. Our hypothesis was that health promotion in women ’s groups would increase their kn... (Source: BMC Pediatrics)
Source: BMC Pediatrics - May 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Susan Clarke, Robyn Richmond, Heather Worth, Rajendra Wagle and Andrew Hayen Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Clinical, Immunological, and Genetic Features in Patients with Activated PI3K δ Syndrome (APDS): a Systematic Review
AbstractActivated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS) is a novel primary immunodeficiency (PID) caused by heterozygous gain of function mutations in PI3K δ catalytic p110δ (PIK3CD) or regulatory p85 α (PIK3R1) subunits leading to APDS1 and APDS2, respectively. Patients with APDS present a spectrum of clinical manifestations, particularly recurrent respiratory infections and lymphoproliferation. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases for APDS patients and screened for eligibility criteria. A total of 243 APDS patients were identified from 55 articles. For all patients, demogra...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - May 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Effect of CT manifestations of cholesteatoma on MMP-2, MMP-9 and IL-6 in the serum of patients.
Authors: Wu Y, Tang X, Shao W, Lu Y Abstract Effect of CT manifestations of cholesteatomatous otitis media on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the serum of patients was investigated. A total of 176 patients with cholesteatomatous otitis media were enrolled as the study group and 181 patients with simple otitis media were enrolled as the control group. Patients were admitted to the Changxing People's Hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. The patients in the study group were classified according to the 64-row spiral CT diagnosis. The expression ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 17, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

[Research Articles] Detecting middle ear fluid using smartphones
We present an accessible solution that uses speakers and microphones within existing smartphones to detect middle ear fluid by assessing eardrum mobility. We conducted a clinical study on 98 patient ears at a pediatric surgical center. Using leave-one-out cross-validation to estimate performance on unseen data, we obtained an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.898 for the smartphone-based machine learning algorithm. In comparison, commercial acoustic reflectometry, which requires custom hardware, achieved an AUC of 0.776. Furthermore, we achieved 85% sensitivity and 82% specificity, comparable to published performance measure...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - May 15, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chan, J., Raju, S., Nandakumar, R., Bly, R., Gollakota, S. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Chemically Assisted Dissection With Sodium 2-Mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA) in the Surgical Management of Pediatric Cholesteatoma
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the chemically assisted dissection with sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA), in the reduction of residual and recurrent cholesteatoma after mastoidectomy in children with chronic cholesteatomatous otitis media (CCOM). Study Design: Retrospective case–control study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Population: One hundred forty mastoidectomies performed in patients under 18 years of age for the treatment of CCOM. Interventions: Chemically assisted dissection (CAD) with MESNA compared with surgical dissection without MESNA. Main Outcome Measures: Recid...
Source: Otology and Neurotology - May 14, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: PEDIATRIC OTOLOGY Source Type: research

Chronic Otitis Media and its Correlation with Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss in a Tertiary Care Centre of North India
In this study, 840 patients of unilateral COM were included. Audiometry was done and data analyzed. Majority of patients showing SNHL had COM for over a period of 5 years. Squamosal disease showed early progression to SNHL than mucosal disease. Higher frequencies were found to be more affect ed and maximum bone gap was seen at 4000 Hz. There was significant difference in mean bone conduction threshold between diseased ear and normal ear at all frequencies (p value  
Source: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery - May 13, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Otitis Externa.
CONCLUSION: With correct assessment of the different types of otitis externa, rapidly effective targeted treatment can be initi- ated, so that complications will be avoided and fewer cases will progress to chronic disease. PMID: 31064650 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Deutsches Arzteblatt International)
Source: Deutsches Arzteblatt International - May 10, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Dtsch Arztebl Int Source Type: research

Management of Acquired Cholesteatoma Associated With Patulous Eustachian Tube and Habitual Sniffing.
Authors: Choi SW, Lee DJ, Lee SH, Oh SJ, Kong SK Abstract Objectives: To investigate the effect of surgical treatment with eustachian tube (ET) catheter insertion in patients with acquired cholesteatoma associated with patulous eustachian tube (PET) and habitual sniffing. Methods: Nine ears of nine patients (two men and seven women; age, 20 to 65 years; average, 37.9±12.0 years) of acquired cholesteatoma associated with PET and habitual sniffing who underwent cholesteatoma surgery with simultaneous additional ET catheter insertion were examined in this study. Successful treatment was defined as stoppage ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology - May 10, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Subversion of host immune responses by otopathogens during otitis media.
The objective of this review article is to discuss our current understanding about the mechanisms through which otopathogens escape host immunity to induce OM. A better knowledge about the molecular mechanisms leading to subversion of host immune responses will provide novel clues to develop effective treatment modalities for OM. PMID: 31075181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology)
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - May 10, 2019 Category: Hematology Authors: Parrish JM, Soni M, Mittal R Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related mRNAs in Chronic Otitis Media
Conclusions: sXBP1 appears to be involved in chronic otitis media-associated inflammation, including otorrhea. ATF6 is associated with the destruction of ossicles. Our results suggest that certain ER stress-related genes are expressed in chronic otitis media-associated inflammation.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 5, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Outpatient antibiotic prescribing patterns in pediatric academic and community practices
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: American Journal of Infection ControlAuthor(s): Mayssa Abuali, Andrea Zivot, Sandra Guerguis, Enrique Valladares, Samia Aleem, Francisco Gonzalez-Salazar, Brittany Rouchou, Nicolas Mottola, Leonard Braitman, Andrew PaolettiLittle is known about antibiotic prescribing differences between academic and community outpatient settings. This retrospective, cross-sectional chart review compares compliance with Infectious Diseases Society of America and American Academy of Pediatrics prescribing guidelines for otitis media, sinusitis, and pharyngitis in academic and affiliated co...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - May 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Otitis Media: Long-Term Effect on Central Auditory Nervous System.
Abstract Objectives: To analyze the central auditory nervous system function through behavioral and electrophysiological tests in children with a history of otitis media and subsequent bilateral tubes placement surgery. Methods: The participants were divided into two groups between eight and 14 years old: control group (CG) consisted of 40 children with no history of otitis media; experimental group (EG) consisted of 50 children with documented history of otitis media and undertook a surgery for bilateral tubes placement. All children completed audiological evaluation (audiometry, speech audiometry, and immit...
Source: Biomed Res - May 1, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Colella-Santos MF, Donadon C, Sanfins MD, Borges LR Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

External ear cytological results and resident flora of clinically normal alpacas (Vicugna pacos).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This information may be useful when evaluating alpaca external ear canal samples, which subsequently may help dictate empirical therapy. PMID: 31038257 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Veterinary Dermatology)
Source: Veterinary Dermatology - April 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mazulis CA, Erb HN, Thachil A, Miller WH Tags: Vet Dermatol Source Type: research

Effect of mastoid bone pneumatization on the conformation and depth of the sinus tympani, a high-resolution computed tomography study
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the relationship between mastoid pneumatization and the conformation and depth of the sinus tympani (ST) in patients with chronic otitis media (COM), based on the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans.MethodsTwo hundred and two patients affected by COM were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups according to the extent of mastoid pneumatization on HRCT scans; pneumatized (group 1), diploic (group 2) or sclerotic (group 3). The variation in the ST area (types A, B, C) was assessed using a radiomorphological classification based on the relationship between ...
Source: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy - April 29, 2019 Category: Anatomy Source Type: research

Costs of acute otitis media in children in a city of the Colombian Caribbean coast.
CONCLUSION: The estimated costs of acute otitis media in this study were lower than the costs estimated in a review of high-income countries and similar to those of low-income countries such as Nigeria. Information on total costs (direct and indirect) of acute otitis media is necessary for public health decision-making and for full cost-effectiveness assessments. PMID: 31021549 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud)
Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud - April 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Biomedica Source Type: research

Functional Antibody Responses Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for TP53 Mutant pre-B-ALL in a Patient With X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia
Discussion This case demonstrates successful cure of pre-B-ALL complicating XLA by alloSCT with restoration of B-cell development and functional antibody response. We are aware of only one previous case of pre-B-ALL in an XLA patient (21), which suggests that human BTK deficiency in itself does not predispose to pre-B-ALL. However, there are data to suggest that BTK may act as a tumor suppressor, and BTK deficiency may predispose to tumor development following a “second hit.” Mice with a genetic deficiency in Slp65, a gene encoding an adaptor protein that functions together with BTK, have a block in progenito...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 26, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hurler –Scheie syndrome in Niger: a case series
ConclusionsEven in countries with limited access to diagnostic means, a good knowledge of the clinical manifestations of the disease can help to guide the diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. (Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports)
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - April 25, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Role of ectodysplasin signalling in middle ear and nasal pathology in rat and mouse models of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
We report that prenatal correction of EDAR signalling in EdaTa mice with the agonist anti-EDAR antibody rescues the auditory-tube submucosal glands and prevents otitis media, rhinitis and nasopharyngitis. The sparse- and wavy-haired (swh) rat strain carries a mutation in the Edaradd gene and has similar cutaneous HED phenotypes to mouse models. We report that auditory-tube submucosal glands are smaller in the homozygous mutant Edaraddswh/swh than those in unaffected heterozygous Edaraddswh/+ rats, and that this predisposes them to otitis media. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of otitis media in the rat HED model differs from...
Source: DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms - April 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: del-Pozo, J., MacIntyre, N., Azar, A., Headon, D., Schneider, P., Cheeseman, M. Tags: Rat as a Disease Model RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Central auditory processing in teenagers with non-cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media
ConclusionsNon-cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media affects the central auditory processing in teenagers suffering from the disorder, and monaural low-redundancy hearing is the most affected auditory mechanism. Unilateral conductive changes cause more damage than bilateral ones, and lower family income seems to lead to more changes to the central auditory processing of subjects with non-cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media.ResumoObjetivoInvestigar e analisar o impacto da otite média crônica não colesteatomatosa no processamento auditivo central em adolescentes.MétodoTrata-se de um estudo para...
Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology - April 24, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Intracranial Complications of Chronic Otitis Media: Why Does It Still Occur?
In conclusion, public awareness and a timely specialty referral can reduce the incidence of intracranial complications of COM. PMID: 31018687 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal)
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - April 24, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Gendeh HS, Abdullah AB, Goh BS, Hashim ND Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research

Parents' contingent responses in communication with 10-month-old children in a clinical group with typical or late babbling.
Abstract Parental responsive behaviour in communication has a positive effect on child speech and language development. Absence of canonical babbling (CB) in 10-month-old infants is considered a risk factor for developmental difficulties, yet little is known about parental responsiveness in this group of children. The purpose of the current study was to examine proportion and type of parental responsive utterances after CB and vocalization utterances respectively in a clinical group of children with otitis media with effusion, with or without cleft palate. Audio-video recordings of interactions in free play situat...
Source: Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics - April 22, 2019 Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Lieberman M, Lohmander A, Gustavsson L Tags: Clin Linguist Phon Source Type: research

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a child with chronic granulomatous disease: A rare complication of a rare disorder
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces IndiaAuthor(s): Gitanjali Jain, Suprita Kalra, Saurabh Sharma, Gautam Kumar Vasnik, Rakesh GuptaAbstractChronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) of phagocytic cells resulting in failure to eradicate catalase positive microorganisms like Staphylococci and fungal infections; due to deficiency or malfunction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase subunits in phagocytic leucocytes. We illustrate here one such case; a six year old girl who was admitted in our hospital with history ...
Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces India - April 17, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Prevalence of hearing impairment amongst school going children in the rural field practice area of the institution
AbstractWorldwide, over 275 million people are estimated to have moderate to profound hearing loss in both ears. Children with hearing impairment often experience delayed development of speech and cognitive skills, which may result in slower learning and difficulty in progressing at school. Adequate hearing is one of the main factors for good psychosocial development, by which individuals may express their thoughts, feelings, and wishes, and acquire life experience and knowledge. Therefore, hearing impairment needs to be diagnosed early for prompt therapy. Primary objectives of this study was to know prevalence of hearing ...
Source: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery - April 15, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Evaluation of Type III Tympanoplasty Using Cartilage Ossiculoplasty in Cholesteatoma Ear Surgery.
Abstract This prospective observational study evaluates the role of tympanoplasty type III in cholesteatoma ear disease during same sitting with mastoid surgery using cartilage ossiculoplasty. Forty patients of chronic suppurative otitis media-cholesteatoma disease were recruited in the study. All the patients had extensive cholesteatoma and underwent canal wall down mastoid surgery. Tympanoplasty type III, that is, stapes columella, minor columella, or major columella, was done in each case along with mastoid surgery depending upon the remnant ossicular status. Conchal cartilage graft was used for ossiculoplasty ...
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - April 11, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Singh GB, Solo M, Rana N, Kumar S Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research

NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 axis and serine protease activity are involved in neutrophil IL-1 β processing during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.
In this study, mouse peritoneal neutrophils from C57BL/6 WT and inflammasome components knockout mice were infected by S. pneumoniae in vitro. The results showed that NLRP3 inflammasome is critically involved in neutrophil IL-1β secretion, while the AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes were dispensable. Moreover, the upstream kinase, JNK, modulates ASC oligomerization and consequent caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. Additionally, neutrophil serine proteases also participate in IL-1β secretion by mediating ASC oligomerization and caspase-1 activation. Taken together, these findings indicated that bo...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - April 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhang T, Du H, Feng S, Wu R, Chen T, Jiang J, Peng Y, Ye C, Fang R Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Blue Light Inactivation of Polymicrobial Biofilms
Raquel Ferrer-Espada1,2, Xiaojing Liu1,2, Xueping Sharon Goh1,2 and Tianhong Dai1,2* 1Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States 2Vaccine & Immunotherapy Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States Polymicrobial biofilms, in which mixed microbial species are present, play a significant role in persistent infections. Furthermore, polymicrobial biofilms promote antibiotic resistance by allowing interspecies transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. In the present study, we investigated the effe...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Association Between ENT Diseases and Obesity in Pediatric Population: A Systemic Review of Current Knowledge.
Abstract Obesity in pediatric population is an important global problem. The prevalence of obesity in children is dramatically rising. According to World Health Organization, about 41 million children under the age of 5 years are obese or overweight worldwide. Overweight and obesity are well-known risk factors for a number of health disorders. Diseases commonly observed in this group of patients are metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, musculoskeletal problems, and many others. The main aim of this study was to present the current knowledge of the association...
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - April 9, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Krajewska Wojciechowska J, Krajewski W, Zatoński T Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research

Recurrent Facial Nerve Paresis in a Child With Chronic Otitis Media With Effusion.
PMID: 30955376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal)
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - April 7, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tampio AJF, Chorney SR, Nicholas BD Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research

Reversible conductive hearing impediments among patients with severe brain injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with severe brain injury have reversible and treatable impairments that cause potential conductive hearing loss. Routine otoscopic examination and treatment if required, that is, removal of impacted cerumen or middle ear drainage, have rehabilitating and general health benefits. Implications for rehabilitation Auditory stimulation was suggested for rehabilitation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Many patients have cerumen and/or otitis media with effusion causing conductive hearing impairment as well as general health issues. Both aural impediments are diagnosed by routine otoscopy...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - April 5, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Cinamon U, Albukrek D, Dvir D, Marom T Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

Middle ear abnormalities at age 5 years in relation with early onset otitis media and number of episodes, in the Inuit population of Nunavik, Quebec, Canada.
Authors: De Wals P, Lemeur JB, Ayukawa H, Proulx JF Abstract Otitis media (OM) and their sequelae are a major health issue in the Inuit population of Nunavik, Quebec. Hypotheses of the study were: (i) early onset OM leads to repeated OM; (ii) repeated OM episodes leads to middle ear abnormalities (MEA) at age 5 years, (iii) pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may reduce multiple OM and MEA. Immunisation cards, medical records and audiology screening tests at age 5 years in a sample of 610 children born in 1994-2010 in 3 communities were reviewed. Children were classified into three categories using a s...
Source: International Journal of Circumpolar Health - March 31, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Int J Circumpolar Health Source Type: research

Analysis of factors associated with multiple ventilation tube insertions in children with otitis media with effusion.
CONCLUSION: Tympanic membrane retraction, serous middle-ear discharge, and early recurrence of otitis media with effusion after the first tube extrusion are associated with multiple ventilation tube insertions. PMID: 30924440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology)
Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology - March 31, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: J Laryngol Otol Source Type: research

An overview on upper respiratory tract infections and bacteriotherapy as innovative therapeutic strategy.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of previous studies on the role of bacteriotherapy in paediatric URTI suggest that the use of bacterial interference phenomena through bacteriotherapy is a feasible, safe approach and deserves proper consideration as a promising therapeutic strategy against URTI. PMID: 30920638 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - March 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Correlation between otitis media with effusion and cranial deformation in children.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicated that a high percentage of children with OME present a skull asymmetry with concomitant dolichocephaly, known to be associated with high arched palate which is also related to a higher incidence of OME. PMID: 30920633 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - March 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The role of bacteriotherapy in the prevention of adenoidectomy.
Authors: La Mantia I, Varricchio A, Di Girolamo S, Minni A, Passali GC, Ciprandi G Abstract OBJECTIVE: Adenoidectomy is a surgical procedure with potential adverse events. Effective nonsurgical therapy could reduce patient risk and harm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of bacteriotherapy to reduce the necessity of adenoid surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This experimental study was conducted as an open study in 44 children (30 males and 14 females, mean age 4.9 years) who were candidates for adenoidectomy and tympanocentesis as treatment for adenoidal hypertrophy and otitis media with effusion. Twe...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - March 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Pneumocephalus and orbital emphysema associated with the use of an autoinflation device: a unique case report and review of the literature.
CONCLUSION: A literature review showed autoinflation-related pneumocephalus in patients with skull base defects relating to cranial surgery or tumours; however, this has not been described previously with the Otovent system or its use in relation to functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Given the theoretical risk of undetected bony abnormalities in post-operative functional endoscopic sinus surgery patients, it is suggested that autoinflation devices are used cautiously in patients with a history of sinus surgery. PMID: 30898187 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology)
Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology - March 24, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: J Laryngol Otol Source Type: research

[H Factor Deficiency: A Case with an Atypical Presentation].
We report a case of an 18-month-old boy with H factor deficiency with atypical presentation: recurrent acute otitis media and several maternal family members with autoimmune disorders (vitiligo, thyroiditis and immune trombocytopenia). Blood tests revealed low C3 and AH50, as well as low properdin and H factor. I factor was normal. CFH gene molecular test confirmed the H factor deficiency diagnosis. This child had none of the typical manifestations of this disorder, namely Neisseria meningitidis infection or renal disease (glomerulonephritis and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome). Autoimmune family history and correct in...
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - March 22, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research

[Antibiotic Prescribing in Ambulatory Care of Pediatric Patients with Respiratory Infections].
The objective was to identify the frequency and pattern of antibacterial prescribing in respiratory diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over a period of two years (divided by the presentation of the clinical guideline standards) data was collected from clinical records of children with respiratory disease. Chi-square tests or Fisher's exact test were used to test associations between variables, statistical significance p
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - March 22, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research

Chronic otitis media is initiated by a bulla cavitation defect in the FBXO11 mouse model [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
We report that bulla mesenchyme is bordered by a single layer of non-ciliated epithelium characterized by interdigitating cells with desmosome cell junctions and a basal lamina, and by Bpifa1 gene expression and laminin staining of the basal lamina. At P11-P12, the mesenchyme shrinks: mesenchyme-associated epithelium shortens, and mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix collagen fibrils condense, culminating in the formation of cochlea promontory mucosa bordered by compact non-ciliated epithelial cells. FBXO11 is a candidate disease gene in human chronic otitis media with effusion and we report that a bulla cavitation d...
Source: DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms - March 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: del-Pozo, J., MacIntyre, N., Azar, A., Glover, J., Milne, E., Cheeseman, M. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Polymeric middle ear prosthesis enriched with silver nanoparticles - first clinical results.
CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm the bactericidal efficacy and hearing improvement of the Otoimplant. PMID: 30884249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Medical Devices)
Source: Expert Review of Medical Devices - March 20, 2019 Category: Medical Devices Tags: Expert Rev Med Devices Source Type: research

Cleaved Cochlin Sequesters Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Activates Innate Immunity in the Inner Ear.
Abstract In the inner ear, endolymph fluid surrounds the organ of Corti, which is important for auditory function; notably, even slight environmental changes mediated by trauma or infection can have significant consequences. However, it is unclear how the immune response is modulated in these tissues. Here, we report the local immune surveillance role of cleaved cochlin LCCL (Limulus factor C, Cochlin, and Lgl1) during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the cochlea. Upon infection, the LCCL domain is cleaved from cochlin and secreted into the perilymph. This cleaved fragment sequesters infiltrating bacteria in th...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jung J, Yoo JE, Choe YH, Park SC, Lee HJ, Lee HJ, Noh B, Kim SH, Kang GY, Lee KM, Yoon SS, Jang DS, Yoon JH, Hyun YM, Choi JY Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Incidence and risk factors of new-onset hypertrophic pachymeningitis in patients with anti-neutrophil antibody-associated vasculitis: using logistic regression and classification tree analysis
AbstractObjectivesHypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is a rare complication in patients with anti-neutrophil antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV); its clinical features, incidence, and risk factors remain unknown. We aimed to clarify the prevalence, clinical features, and factors associated with new-onset HP in patients with AAV.MethodA retrospective cohort study involving 93 patients with AAV was conducted. HP incidence between patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and those with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) was compared to investigate risk factors associated with HP. We performed only univariate analysis ...
Source: Clinical Rheumatology - March 19, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research

Direction-Changing Positional Nystagmus in Acute Otitis Media Complicated by Serous Labyrinthitis: New Insights into Positional Nystagmus
Conclusions: In AOM complicated by serous labyrinthitis, density of perilymph may increase due to direct penetration of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators from the middle ear into perilymph and breakdown of blood–labyrinth barrier that causes vascular leakage of serum albumin into perilymph. The density difference between perilymph and endolymph makes the semicircular canal gravity sensitive. A buoyant force is also generated by gravity, causing indentation of endolymphatic membrane in the ampulla and cupula displacement. Thus, at the early stage of serous labyrinthitis, a head-roll test may elicit persiste...
Source: Otology and Neurotology - March 19, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: VESTIBULAR DISORDERS Source Type: research

Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the outcome of partial canal wall preserved tympanomastoidectomy.
CONCLUSION: The PCM technique showed a low-recurrence rate and good hearing outcomes. Patients had normal or slightly enlarged postoperative external auditory canal. Therefore, PCM is a useful technique for chronic otitis media. PMID: 30888235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Oto-Laryngologica)
Source: Acta Oto-Laryngologica - March 19, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Xin Y, Song W Tags: Acta Otolaryngol Source Type: research

Respiratory syncytial virus infections in India: Epidemiology and need for vaccine
Shobha Broor, Shama Parveen, Megha MaheshwariIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2018 36(4):458-464Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been identified as a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children and elderly. It is an enveloped negative-sense RNA virus belonging to Genus Orthopneumovirus. The clinical features of RSV infection range from mild upper-respiratory-tract illnesses or otitis media to severe lower-respiratory-tract illnesses. Current estimates show that about 33.1 million episodes of RSV-acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) occurred in young children in 2015, of these majori...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - March 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shobha Broor Shama Parveen Megha Maheshwari Source Type: research

Breast feeding
Breastfeeding confers multiple benefits to both infants and mothers, with evidence linking breastfeeding to a lower risk of many adverse outcomes including gastroenteritis, respiratory disease, necrotising enterocolitis and otitis media in infants, and a lower risk of breast cancer in mothers. Breastfeeding has also been linked to other health, social and cognitive outcomes including childhood obesity and cognitive development. It is the responsibility of all health professionals to support women during the breastfeeding period, and as part of the NHS Long Term Plan the recommendation that Unicef UK Baby Friendly accredita...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - March 16, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Emmeline G. Brock, Lisa Long Tags: Case-based learning Source Type: research

The Efficacy of Aminomethyl Spectinomycins against Complex Upper Respiratory Tract Bacterial Infections.
In this study we sought to ascertain the in vivo efficacy of aminomethyl spectinomycin lead 1950, an effective antibacterial agent both in vitro and in vivo, against Streptococcus pneumoniae, in the context of complex respiratory infections and acute otitis media. A single dose of 1950 significantly reduced bacterial burden in the respiratory tract for all three pathogens, even when species were present in a co-infection model. Additionally, a single dose of 1950 effectively reduced pneumococcal acute otitis media from the middle ear. 1950 also proved efficacious in the context of influenza-pneumococcal super infection. Th...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - March 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Iverson A, Meyer CJ, Vogel P, Waidyarachchi S, Das N, Bruhn DF, Poole A, Butler MM, Bowlin TL, Lee RE, Rosch JW Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research