Kommentar der Schriftleitung
Laryngo-Rhino-Otol 2017; 96: 345-345 DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-104080Liebe Leserinnen und Leser,in Referiert + Diskutiert starten wir mit einer wegweisenden Arbeit aus dem New England Journal of Medicine, dass es bei einer Antibiotikatherapie der kindlichen Otitis media acuta wichtig ist auch konsequent über 10 Tage zu behandeln 1; eine Kurzzeittherapie ist dem eindeutig unterlegen. Dann geht es um die Effektivität von Dehnungsimplantaten bei Septorhinoplastiken und dann um radiologische Befundung von Fazialisanomalien bei Innenohranomalien, was auch für CI Implantationen relevant ist, siehe weiter unten 2. [...] ...
Source: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie - July 11, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Guntinas-Lichius, O. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Akute Otitis Media: wie lange Antibiotika einsetzen?
Laryngo-Rhino-Otol 2017; 96: 347-348 DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-105201 Hoberman A et al. Shortened Antimicrobial Treatment for Acute Otitis Media in Young Children. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375: 2446–2456 Führt bei Kindern mit akuter Otitis media die Begrenzung der antimikrobiellen Behandlung auf 5 Tage im Vergleich zur Standardtherapie über 10 Tage zum gleichen Ergebnis? Kann durch die gleiche Strategie in darauffolgenden Episoden der Gesamtantibiotikaverbrauch und damit das Auftreten von Resistenzen reduziert werden? Diese Fragen wollten amerikanische Kinderärzte in einer Vergleichsuntersuchung klä...
Source: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie - July 11, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Referat Kommentar Source Type: research

Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on otitis media: A review of measurement and interpretation challenges
Acute otitis media (AOM) is among the most frequent childhood diseases and is caused by various bacterial and viral etiological agents. In this article, we provide an overview of published studies assessing the impact of higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) on AOM. In some instances, reports of PCV impact on complications of AOM have been included. While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) allow for the most precise assessment of vaccine efficacy against AOM, observational studies provide answers to questions regarding the public health value of these vaccines in real-life settings. (Source: International J...
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - July 11, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ivo Vojtek, Marcus Nordgren, Bernard Hoet Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

First reported case of multidrug-resistant Candida auris in Canada.
Abstract Candida auris is a fungal pathogen that has recently emerged as a global threat to public health. It was first described in Japan in 2009 and has since been reported in 17 countries on five continents. This case report describes the first reported case of multidrug-resistant C. auris in Canada. In May 2017, a 64-year-old individual was evaluated for chronic otitis externa. Past medical history included a recent hospitalization in India for elective oral surgery that was complicated by an odontogenic brain abscess. Upon return to Canada, the individual was admitted to a hospital for neurosurgical drainage ...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - July 6, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Schwartz IS, Hammond GW Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research

Gradenigo's syndrome: A case of a common infection with uncommon consequences
We report a case of an 8-year-old that developed Gradenigo's syndrome, a condition characterized by the triad of otitis media, facial pain in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy (Yeung and Lustig, 2016; Janjua et al., 2016; Kantas et al., 2010; Motamed and Kalan, n.d.; Vita Fooken Jensen et al., 2016 [2-6]). (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - July 5, 2017 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Matthew Vitale, Misra Amrit, Rajan Arora, Julie Lata Source Type: research

Gradenigo's syndrome: A common infection with uncommon consequences
We report a case of an 8-year-old that developed Gradenigo's syndrome, a condition characterized by the triad of otitis media, facial pain in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy (Yeung and Lustig, 2016; Janjua et al., 2016; Kantas et al., 2010; Motamed and Kalan, n.d.; Vita Fooken Jensen et al., 2016 [2-6]). (Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine - July 5, 2017 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Matthew Vitale, Misra Amrit, Rajan Arora, Julie Lata Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

The effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on incidence and microbiology associated with complicated acute otitis media
The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence of complicated acute otitis media (cAOM) as well as the associated microbiology before and after introduction of the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV-7 and -13), respectively. CAOM comprises “heavy” AOM (AOM demanding hospitalization), mastodismus (M) and acute mastoiditis (AM). (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - July 4, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: B.B. Laursen, C.S. Danstrup, S. Hoffmann, N. N ørskov-Lauritsen, A.L.B. Christensen, T. Ovesen Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor regarding: Rat model of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: Ventilation tube with mitomycin C and dexamethasone
We would like to address the manuscript titled “Rat model of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: Ventilation tube with mitomycin C and dexamethasone” by Wang et al.1 This is an interesting study. The creation of an ideal animal model of chronic tympanic membrane perforation (TMP) will be of great importance in the development of biologica l graft materials for myringoplasty. However, we believe that the technique used by Wang et al. is not reliable, and it is also different from human chronic TMP with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - July 4, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Zheng-Cai Lou Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Localized nasopharyngeal amyloidosis mimicking malignancy: A case report
We report a rare case of localized nasopharyngeal amyloidosis. Diagnoses: The initial chief complaint of this patient was frequent epistaxis and right aural fullness. The initial diagnosis was nasopharyngeal tumor. Interventions: There is no universally effective medical treatment for nasopharyngeal amyloidosis but surgery can be an option. We performed careful observation with regular follow-up by nasopharyngoscopy and radiologic study. Outcomes: The patient reported no further complaints at 1-year follow-up and the lesion from nasopharyngeal amyloidosis was still present. Lessons: Although it is rare, nasopharyngeal ...
Source: Medicine - July 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Endoscopic versus microscopic type 1 tympanoplasty in the same patients: a prospective randomized controlled trial
AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare the audiologic outcomes of the patients who underwent endoscopy on one ear and microscopic tympanoplasty on the other, and to investigate the operative time, graft success, postoperative pain and health status. This prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in Ege University ENT Department between February 2015 and September 2016. The patients who had bilateral chronic otitis media, normal middle ear mucosa and a hearing loss difference of 10  dB or less between the two ears randomly underwent microscopic tympanoplasty in one ear and endoscopic tympanoplasty i...
Source: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - July 1, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Intracranial complications of CSOM in pediatric patients: A persisting problem in developing countries
Intracranial complications (ICC) of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) occur even in the antibiotic area. These complications are commonly seen in pediatric patients due to poor hygiene and low immunity. They are more prevalent in developing countries due to illiteracy, low socioeconomic status and lack of access to health care facilities. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - July 1, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Avani Jain, Nikhil Arora, Ravi Meher, J.C. Passey, Ramanuj Bansal Source Type: research

Chronic PM2.5 exposure and risk of infant bronchiolitis and otitis media clinical encounters.
We examined associations between residential distance to roadways, traffic density, and infant bronchiolitis and OM risk. PM2.5 was not associated with infant bronchiolitis (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.00, 1.04) and inversely associated with OM (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.95, 0.99). There was no evidence of effect modification. Compared to infants living near low traffic density, infants residing in high traffic density had elevated risk of bronchiolitis (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.14, 1.31) but not OM (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.93, 1.02) clinical encounter. We did not find strong evidence to support an association between early-life long-term PM2.5 exposure...
Source: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental health - July 1, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Girguis MS, Strickland MJ, Hu X, Liu Y, Chang HH, Belanoff C, Bartell SM, Vieira VM Tags: Int J Hyg Environ Health Source Type: research

Brainstem auditory evoked responses in 37 dogs with otitis media before and after topical therapy
The objective of this study was to determine whether intra‐aural administration of aqueous solutions of marbofloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin and ticarcillin (used off‐licence) was associated with changes in hearing as measured by brainstem auditory evoked responses. Materials and MethodsDogs diagnosed with otitis media (n=37) underwent brainstem auditory evoked response testing and then were treated for their ear disease. First, the external ear canal and middle ear were flushed with sterile saline followed by EDTA tris with 0·15% chlorhexidine. Then, a combination of aqueous antibiotic mixed with an aqueous so...
Source: The Journal of Small Animal Practice - July 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: S. Paterson Tags: PAPER Source Type: research

Community triage of otology patients using a store-and-forward telemedicine device: A feasibility study.
Abstract Chronic otitis media is a major contributor to acquired hearing loss in developing countries. Developing countries such as India, with huge populations and poor health infrastructures, have always felt the shortage of trained specialists who can provide quality care to meet the enormous demand for treatment of this disease. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of empowering trained health workers equipped with ENTraview, a store-and-forward telemedicine device that integrates a camera- enabled smart phone with an otoscope. This device allows the screening of otology patients within the community. Thr...
Source: Ear, Nose and Throat Journal - July 1, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Gupta N, Chawla N, Gupta D, Dhawan N, Janaki VR Tags: Ear Nose Throat J Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae, particularly serotype19A/ST320, that emerged in Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common human pathogen, colonizes the nasopharynx and causes diseases including acute otitis media (AOM). We herein report pneumococcal serotype distributions in children before and after PCV7 vaccination and in patients with pneumococcal disease in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk). Analyses included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ST typing, a pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis analysis, virulence‐related surface protein gene (VSG) typing with novel primers, and a structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy. A major pneumococcal genotype was drug‐susceptible serotype23F/S...
Source: Microbiology and Immunology - July 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Irina N. Protasova, Tsai ‐Wen Wan, Natalya V. Bakhareva, Wei‐Chun Hung, Wataru Higuchi, Yasuhisa Iwao, Tatyana A. Yelistratova, Natalya A. Ilyenkova, Yelena S. Sokolovskaya, Galina P. Martynova, Ivan V. Reva, Galina V. Reva, Sergey V. Sidorenko, Lee Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Centre ‐level variation in outcomes and treatment for otitis media with effusion and hearing loss and the association of hearing loss with developmental outcomes at ages 5 and 7 years in children with non‐syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate: The Cleft Care UK study. Part 2
ConclusionsHearing loss is an important determinant of poor speech and treatment variation across centres suggest management of OME and hearing loss could be improved. (Source: Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research)
Source: Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research - June 29, 2017 Category: Dentistry Authors: A. Hall, A. K. Wills, O. Mahmoud, D. Sell, A. Waylen, S. Grewal, J. R. Sandy, A. R. Ness Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Cost-Utility Analysis of 5 Strategies for the Management of Acute Otitis Media in Children
To assess whether antimicrobial therapy in young children with acute otitis media reduces time to resolution of symptoms, overall symptom burden, and persistence of otoscopic evidence of infection. We used a cost-utility model to evaluate whether immediate antimicrobial treatment seems to be worthwhile, and if so, which antimicrobial agent is most cost effective. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics - June 29, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nader Shaikh, Emily E. Dando, Mark L. Dunleavy, Dorothy L. Curran, Judith M. Martin, Alejandro Hoberman, Kenneth J. Smith Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Cation-binding Surface Protein as a Vaccine Antigen to Prevent Moraxella catarrhalis Otitis Media and Infections in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Abstract Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human respiratory tract pathogen that is a common cause of otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent these infections would have a major impact in reducing the substantial global morbidity and mortality in these populations. Through a genome mining approach, we identified AfeA, an ∼32 kDa substrate binding protein of an ABC transport system as an excellent candidate vaccine antigen. Recombinant AfeA was expressed and purified and binds ferric, ferrous, manganese and zinc i...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - June 28, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Murphy TF, Brauer AL, Johnson A, Wilding GE, Koszelak-Rosenblum M, Malkowski MG Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research

Quantitative Pneumatic Otoscopy Using a Light-Based Ranging Technique
AbstractOtitis media is the leading cause of hearing loss in children. It is commonly associated with fluid in the ear, which can result in up to 45  dB of hearing loss for extended periods of time during a child’s most important developmental years. Accurate assessment of middle ear effusions is an important part of understanding otitis media. Current technologies used to diagnose otitis media with effusion are pneumatic otoscopy, tympanomet ry, and acoustic reflectometry. While all of these techniques can reasonably diagnose the presence of an effusion, they provide limited information about the infection pres...
Source: JARO - Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology - June 26, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms and epidemiology of resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Middle East region.
CONCLUSION: In order to better survey, control and prevent the emergence of multidrug- and extremely drug-resistant S. pneumoniae strains, antimicrobial stewardship, national surveillance and public awareness programmes should be developed urgently in Middle Eastern countries. PMID: 28650313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - June 26, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: El Moujaber G, Osman M, Rafei R, Dabboussi F, Hamze M Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Consumption of antibiotics in the community by children in Greece: A cross-sectional study
Conclusions Antibiotic consumption of children in Greece is mainly driven by pediatricians. Continuing medical education is expected to further improve antibiotic prescription practices by pediatricians. (Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine - June 24, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of The Temporal Bone in 30 Patients: Difference in presentation and treatment of post ‐irradiation and de‐novo disease
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Otolaryngology)
Source: Clinical Otolaryngology - June 21, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ho Yee Sun, Raymond K. Tsang Tags: Our Experience Source Type: research

Cranial indicators identified for peak incidence of otitis media
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology)
Source: The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology - June 20, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Anthony Pagano, Eugene Wang, Derek Yuan, Daniel Fischer, Charles Bluestone, Samuel Marquez, Jeffrey Laitman Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Bacteriotherapy with Streptococcus salivarius 24SMB and Streptococcus oralis 89a nasal spray for preventing recurrent acute otitis media in children: a real-life clinical experience
(Source: International Journal of General Medicine)
Source: International Journal of General Medicine - June 19, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: International Journal of General Medicine Source Type: research

Cranial indicators identified for peak incidence of otitis media.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 28628951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anatomical Record)
Source: Anatomical Record - June 19, 2017 Category: Anatomy Authors: Pagano A, Wang E, Yuan D, Fischer D, Bluestone C, Marquez S, Laitman J Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research

Health-related quality of life measurement in individuals with chronic suppurative otitis media: a South Indian perspective
. (Source: Hearing, Balance and Communication)
Source: Hearing, Balance and Communication - June 15, 2017 Category: Audiology Authors: Prashanth Prabhu Aishwarya Ganeshan Anusha C Anita Jose Lavanya Kiruthika Source Type: research

Relationship of the Middle Ear Effusion Microbiome to Secretory Mucin Production in Pediatric Patients With Chronic Otitis Media
Conclusions: The microbiome of MEEs from children with chronic otitis media differs according to specific clinical features, such as mucin content, age and presence of hearing loss. These associations provide novel pathophysiologic insights across the spectrum of otitis media progression. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - June 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

Analysis of Eustachian Tube Dysfunction by Dynamic Slow Motion Video Endoscopy and Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire in Chronic Otitis Media.
Conclusion: DSVE and ETDQ-7 can provide information regarding preoperative status of eustachian tube dysfunction by measuring dynamic structural changes of the eustachian tube in combination with other diagnostic tests. PMID: 28602066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology - June 13, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol Source Type: research

Extended-Release Guaifenesin/Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride for Symptom Relief in Support of a Wait-and-See Approach for the Treatment of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Conclusions The study found that a wait and see approach was associated with decreased antibiotic use. In addition, the use of a guaifenesin pseudoephedrine combination product provided an effective symptom control compared to a placebo and a well-tolerated first-line strategy for the management of URTIs. This study was not designed to assess the effects of guaifenesin or pseudoephedrine individually. Other limitations include the need for better clinical methods to assess the effectiveness of treatments for acute symptoms of patients with URTIs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01202279. (Source: Current Therapeutic Research)
Source: Current Therapeutic Research - June 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Decrease in Pneumococcal Otitis Media Cultures With Concomitant Increased Antibiotic Susceptibility in the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Era
Conclusion: The introduction of PCVs significantly decreased the incidence rate of pneumococcal OM, and increased Spn susceptibility to common antibiotics. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)
Source: Otology and Neurotology - June 9, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Middle Ear and Mastoid Disease Source Type: research

Paget's Disease of the Temporal Bone: A Single-Institution Contemporary Review of 27 Patients
Conclusion: This is the largest single-institution clinical series examining patients with PDTB in the English literature. Variable patterns of temporal bone involvement by Paget's disease are observed leading to a diverse set of clinical symptoms, including slowly progressive hearing loss, tinnitus, compressive cranial neuropathies, and benign or malignant tumorigenesis. Involvement typically begins in the petrous apex and progresses laterally. Otic capsule bone demineralization occurs late in the disease process. Cochlear implantation appears to be an effective management strategy for patients with severe-to-profound hea...
Source: Otology and Neurotology - June 9, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Medical Neurotology Source Type: research

Clinical failure is more common in young children with acute otitis media who receive a short course of antibiotics compared with standard duration
Commentary on: Hoberman AParadise JLRockette HE. Shortened antimicrobial treatment for acute otitis media in young children. N Engl J Med 2016;375:2446–56. Context Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of doctor consultations and antibiotic prescriptions in young children.1 Strategies to reduce antibiotic prescribing for AOM and thereby the emerging spread of antimicrobial resistance have focused on watchful waiting and delayed prescription, in particular in children over 2 years.2 An alternative strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance is to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment. So far, the evid...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - June 9, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Venekamp, R. P., Schilder, A. G. M. Tags: Therapeutics/Prevention Source Type: research

A gain-of-function mutation of STAT1: A novel genetic factor contributing to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.
Abstract Heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) have increasingly been identified as a genetic cause of autosomal-dominant (AD) chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In this article, we describe a 33-year-old man who experienced chronic refractory candidiasis, recurrent otitis media, and pneumonia resulting in bronchiectasis, severe oral and esophageal candidiases with strictures associated with hypothyroidism and immune hemolytic anemia. His son also suffered from persistent candidiasis, chronic diarrhea, poor weight gain, and pneumonia t...
Source: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica - June 9, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eslami N, Tavakol M, Mesdaghi M, Gharegozlou M, Casanova JL, Puel A, Okada S, Arshi S, Bemanian MH, Fallahpour M, Molatefi R, Seif F, Zoghi S, Rezaei N, Nabavi M Tags: Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung Source Type: research

Otitis media-outside of coughs and colds-is the most common.
Authors: PMID: 28586859 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association)
Source: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association - June 8, 2017 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: J Am Osteopath Assoc Source Type: research

Gel-Forming Mucins and Aquaporin Gene Expression in Hearing Problems
This case-control study investigates the association of gel-forming mucins and aquaporin 5 gene expression with inflammation, effusion viscosity, and hearing loss in pediatric otitis media with effusion. (Source: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery)
Source: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery - June 8, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Effect of Breastfeeding on Childhood Otitis Media
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize the literature regarding the association between breastfeeding and childhood otitis media (OM), with focus on the literature published within the past 5  years. The review comprises original articles and recent reviews.Recent FindingsThe effect of a protective effect of breastfeeding on the risk of OM is still being discussed. Within the past 5  years, 6 reviews and 15 original articles have been published. No randomized controlled trials have been published, and the diversity of exposure and outcome measures in the studies was significant. Also,...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - June 6, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Polyamine transporter potABCD is required for virulence of encapsulated but not nonencapsulated < i > Streptococcus pneumoniae < /i >
by Haley R. Pipkins, Jessica L. Bradshaw, Lance E. Keller, Edwin Swiatlo, Larry S. McDanielStreptococcus pneumoniae is commonly found in the human nasopharynx and is the causative agent of multiple diseases. Since invasive pneumococcal infections are associated with encapsulated pneumococci, the capsular polysaccharide is the target of licensed pneumococcal vaccines. However, there is an increasing distribution of non-vaccine serotypes, as well as nonencapsulatedS.pneumoniae (NESp). Both encapsulated and nonencapsulated pneumococci possess the polyamine oligo-transport operon (potABCD). Previous research has shown inactiva...
Source: PLoS One - June 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Haley R. Pipkins Source Type: research

Hearing aids for otitis media with effusion: Do children use them?
ENT surgeons may refer children with otitis media with effusion (OME) to audiology for consideration of hearing aids. They are an option for the treatment of OME, but are only effective if the child actually wears them. Our study investigated what proportion of children referred for hearing aids actually receive them, and whether children use them. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - June 5, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Richard Wei Chern Gan, Parisa Overton, Claire Benton, Matija Daniel Source Type: research

Development and Administration of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media Questionnaire-12 (COMQ-12) and Chronic Otitis Media Outcome Test-15 (COMOT-15) in Kannada
Conclusions The impairments were more related to ear symptoms and psychological issues. However, test-retest reliability of the developed questionnaire and its further validation are essential. Thus, these questionnaires attempt to understand the problems of the individuals with CSOM from the patients' perspective and help clinicians provide the appropriate management. [...] Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, BrazilArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text (Source: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology - June 5, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Prabhu, Prashanth Chandrashekar, Anusha Jose, Anita Ganeshan, Aishwarya Kiruthika, Lavanya Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

High-mobility group box protein 1 expression in inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
Authors: Bellussi LM, Vindigni C, Cocca S, Butorano MAGM, Livi W, Corallo G, Passali D Abstract High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear non-histone protein, playing a critical role as a mediator between innate and acquired immunity; when released extracellularly, it coordinates the cellular stress response (under necrosis, bacterial lipopolysaccharide stimulation) and acts as an inflammatory marker and cytokine. The aim of the study was to demonstrate whether HMGB1 is over-expressed in chronic middle-ear pathologies and whether the entity of expression and the localization are correlated with the degree of t...
Source: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology - June 1, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Endoscopy-Assisted Ear Surgery for Treatment of Chronic Otitis Media With Cholesteatoma, Adhesion, or Retraction Pockets
The objective of this study was to analyze the results of endoscopy-assisted ear surgery for the treatment of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, adhesion, or retraction pockets. Fifty-one patients who underwent oto-endoscopy-assisted canal wall up tympanomastoid surgery and/or limited anterior atticotomy with tympanoplasty for chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, adhesion, or retraction pocket from 2006 to 2013 have been included in this study. Eradication of the disease from the middle ear and mastoid air cells was achieved by combination of the oto-microscobic and oto-endoscopic approaches. Second look surgery...
Source: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery - June 1, 2017 Category: Surgery Tags: Clinical Studies Source Type: research

Evaluating the ototoxicity of a antiMRSA peptide KR-12-a2
Conclusion In our experiment, topically applied KR-12-a2 solution did not cause hearing loss or cochlear damage in guinea pigs. The KR-12-a2 solution can be used as ototopical drops for treating MRSA otorrhea; however, further evaluations, such as the definition of optimal concentration and combination, are necessary. (Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology - June 1, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Tympanostomy Tubes for Otitis Media: A Meta-analysis
CONCLUSIONS: Tympanostomy tubes improve hearing at 1 to 3 months compared with watchful waiting, with no evidence of benefit by 12 to 24 months. Children with recurrent acute otitis media may have fewer episodes after tympanostomy tube placement, but the evidence base is severely limited. The benefits of tympanostomy tubes must be weighed against a variety of associated adverse events. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - June 1, 2017 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Steele, D. W., Adam, G. P., Di, M., Halladay, C. H., Balk, E. M., Trikalinos, T. A. Tags: Ear, Nose & Throat Disorders, Otitis Media, Evidence-Based Medicine Review Article Source Type: research

Transition Metal Homeostasis in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Abstract Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. S. pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that is c...
Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology - May 24, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Turner AG, Ong CY, Walker MJ, Djoko KY, McEwan AG Tags: Adv Microb Physiol Source Type: research

A prospective observational cohort study to assess the incidence of acute otitis media among children 0 –5 years of age in southern Brazil
Conclusion AOM incidence among unvaccinated children in our study may be useful as baseline data to assess impact of pneumococcal vaccine introduction in the Brazilian National Immunization Program in April 2010. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Increase of cells expressing PD ‐1 and PD‐L1 and enhancement of IFN‐γ production via PD‐1/PD‐L1 blockade in bovine mycoplasmosis
ConclusionsThese results suggest that the PD‐1/PD‐L1 pathway could be involved in immune exhaustion of bovine mycoplasma‐specific T cells. In conclusion, our study opens up a new perspective in the therapeutic strategy for bovine mycoplasmosis by targeting the immunoinhibitory receptor pathways. PD‐1/PD‐L1 pathway could be involved in immune exhaustion of bovine mycoplasma‐specific T cells. In conclusion, our study opens up a new perspective in the therapeutic strategy for bovine mycoplasmosis by targeting the immunoinhibitory receptor pathways. (Source: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease)
Source: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease - May 24, 2017 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shinya Goto, Satoru Konnai, Tomohiro Okagawa, Asami Nishimori, Naoya Maekawa, Satoshi Gondaira, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Masateru Koiwa, Motoshi Tajima, Junko Kohara, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yukinari Kato, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shiro Murata, Kazuhiko Ohashi Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A prospective observational cohort study to assess the incidence of acute otitis media among children 0-5 years of age in southern Brazil.
CONCLUSION: AOM incidence among unvaccinated children in our study may be useful as baseline data to assess impact of pneumococcal vaccine introduction in the Brazilian National Immunization Program in April 2010. PMID: 28549858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - May 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lanzieri TM, Cunha CAD, Cunha RB, Arguello DF, Devadiga R, Sanchez N, Barria EO Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Streptococcus pneumoniae Otitis Media Pathogenesis and How It Informs Our Understanding of Vaccine Strategies
This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines.Recent FindingsRespiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests thatStreptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatically, can sense potentially “threatening” changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by virus infect...
Source: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports - May 20, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Flagellar expression in clinical isolates of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.
CONCLUSION: This study provides, for the first time, information on flagellar expression in H. influenzae, representing an important finding related to its evolution and pathogenic potential. PMID: 28513418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - May 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carabarin-Lima A, Lozano-Zarain P, Castañeda-Lucio M, Martínez de la Peña CF, Martinez-Garcia J, Flores NL, Cruz EC, González-Posos S, Rocha-Gracia RDC Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research