Influenza management with new therapies
We examined both pharmacological and supportive treatment strategies currently available to see how they might be applied in an ICU setting. Recent findings Supportive care in Influenza centres around optimizing respiratory failure, particularly through well established and recognized ventilatory strategies. Noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal oxygen may have a limited role in selected patients under carefully monitored circumstances. Drug therapy exerts only a modest clinical effect and has been poorly studied in the critically ill, though there is some evidence to support the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (N...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Michael S. Niederman and Alimuddin Zumla Source Type: research

Influenza A (H1N1): outbreak management in a dialysis unit and clinical outcomes of infection in chronic hemodialysis patients.
Authors: Ventura CG, Roque FL, Sousa IQ, Lobo RD, Luders C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are considered to be at high risk for infection. Here, we describe the clinical outcomes of chronic HD patients with influenza A (H1N1) infection and the strategies adopted to control an outbreak of influenza A in a dialysis unit. METHODS: Among a total of 62 chronic HD patients, H1N1 infection was identified in 12 (19.4%). Of the 32 staff members, four (12.5%) were found to be infected with the H1N1 virus. Outcomes included symptoms at presentation, comorbidities, occurrence of hypoxemia, hospit...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia - April 1, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: J Bras Nefrol Source Type: research

Identification of entry inhibitors with 4-aminopiperidine scaffold targeting group 1 influenza A virus.
In this study, we report the identification of compound CBS1116 with a 4-aminopiperidine scaffold from a chemical library screen as an entry inhibitor specifically targeting two group 1 influenza A viruses, A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) and recombinant low pathogenic avian H5N1 virus (A/Vietnam/1203/04, VN04Low). Mechanism of action study shows that CBS1116 interferes with the HA-mediated fusion process. Further structure activity relationship study generated a more potent compound CBS1117 which has a 50% inhibitory concentration of 70 nM and a selectivity index of ∼4000 against A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) infection in hum...
Source: Antiviral Research - March 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Hussein AFA, Cheng H, Tundup S, Antanasijevic A, Varhegyi E, Perez J, AbdulRahman EM, Elenany MG, Helal S, Caffrey M, Peet N, Manicassamy B, Rong L Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

The Mysterious, Magical Oseltamivir: April 2020 Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club
Publication date: April 2020Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine, Volume 75, Issue 4Author(s): Ryan P. Radecki, Candace D. McNaughton, Rory J. Spiegel (Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine)
Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine - March 24, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 337: A Quinolinone Compound Inhibiting the Oligomerization of Nucleoprotein of Influenza A Virus Prevents the Selection of Escape Mutants
In this study, we further analyzed the interaction between NUD-1 and NP and found that the compound interferes with the oligomerization of NP, which is required for vRNP formation, leading to the suppression of viral transcription, protein synthesis, and nuclear export of NP. We further assessed the selection of resistant variants by serially passaging a clinical isolate of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus in the presence of NUD-1 or oseltamivir. NUD-1 did not select for resistant variants after nine passages, whereas oseltamivir selected for resistant variants after five passages. Our data demonstrate that NUD-1 int...
Source: Viruses - March 19, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Juliann Nzembi Makau Ken Watanabe Hiroki Otaki Satoshi Mizuta Takeshi Ishikawa Yuji O. Kamatari Noriyuki Nishida Tags: Article Source Type: research

Management of seasonal influenza by family physicians.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed several mismatches with guidelines and suggested potential corrective actions. PMID: 32173166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses)
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - March 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research

Chronic exposure to arsenite enhances influenza virus infection in cultured cells
This study suggests that chronic arsenite exposure could result in enhanced influenza infection in epithelial cells, and that this may be mediated through increased sialic acid binding. Finally, the decreased effectiveness of the anti‐influenza drug, oseltamivir, in arsenite‐exposed cells raises substantial public health concerns if this effect translates to arsenic‐exposed, influenza‐infected people. (Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology)
Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology - March 6, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Eva A. Amouzougan, Ricardo Lira, Walter T. Klimecki Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Simulation of the Pharmacokinetics of Oseltamivir and Its Active Metabolite in Normal Populations and Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.
In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and OC were correctly predicted by PBPK modeling. The model further predicted that the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir might be altered in liver cirrhosis, depending on the degree of severity. PMID: 32128656 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AAPS PharmSciTech)
Source: AAPS PharmSciTech - March 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen Y, Ke M, Xu J, Lin C Tags: AAPS PharmSciTech Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of Influenza A pandemic H1N1 viruses circulating in eastern India during 2017-19: Antigenic diversity in comparison to the vaccine strains.
Abstract In the endemic settings of India, high CFR (3.6-7.02%) was observed in the consecutive 2009, 2015 and 2017 A/H1N1pdm09 outbreaks, though in eastern India CFR varied between 0 and 5.5% during same period. Recurrent outbreaks of pandemic Influenza A/H1N1pdm09, fragmented nationwide incidence data, lack of national policy for Influenza vaccination in India underscores the necessity for generating regional level data. Thus, during 2017-19, 4106 referred samples from patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in eastern India were tested for A/H1N1pdm09 infection. Among which 16.5% (n...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - March 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Saha P, Biswas M, Gupta R, Majumdar A, Mitra S, Banerjee A, Mukherjee A, Dutta S, Chawla-Sarkar M Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

[ASAP] Optimization of 4-Aminopiperidines as Inhibitors of Influenza A Viral Entry That Are Synergistic with Oseltamivir
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01900 (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - March 2, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Irina N. Gaisina* †‡, Norton P. Peet*‡, Han Cheng§, Ping Li?, Ruikun Du?, Qinghua Cui?, Kevin Furlong??, Balaji Manicassamy#?, Michael Caffrey?, Gregory R. J. Thatcher†, and Lijun Rong*§ Source Type: research

Association of moderately abnormal behavior and administered neuraminidase inhibitors.
Authors: Sugawara T, Ohkusa Y, Taniguchi K, Miyazaki C, Momoi MY, Okabe N Abstract Our earlier study investigated the incidence of severe abnormal behavior associated with neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs), but some studies have specifically examined the association of oseltamivir use and moderately abnormal behavior. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess associations between moderately abnormal behavior and administered drugs. All cases of patients with influenza who exhibited moderately abnormal behavior were reported to us by physicians of all sentinel clinics and hospitals for influenza throughout Japan. ...
Source: Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics - February 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Discov Ther Source Type: research

Identification of Chebulinic Acid and Chebulagic Acid as Novel Influenza Viral Neuraminidase Inhibitors
In this study, two related compounds, chebulagic acid (CHLA) and chebulinic acid (CHLI), were identified as novel inhibitors against IAV replication. A reporter virus-based infection assay demonstrated that CHLA and CHLI exhibit no inhibitory effect on IAV entry or RNA replication during the virus replication cycle. Results of viral release inhibition assay and neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay indicated that CHLA and CHLI exert their inhibitory effect on the NA-mediated viral release. Moreover, oseltamivir-resistance mutation NA/H274Y of NA is susceptible to CHLA or CHLI, suggesting a different mechanism of action for C...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - February 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Efficacy of anti-influenza immunoglobulin (FLU-IGIV) in ferrets and mice infected with 2009 pandemic influenza virus.
In this study, we have tested the efficacy of a human plasma-derived IgG product (FLU-IGIV) against seasonal influenza in mouse and ferret models of influenza infection. FLU-IGIV successfully protected mice (100% survival) against lethal influenza infection. Also, the survival rate observed with FLU-IGIV treatment was better than the survival rate observed with oseltamivir (60% survival). FLU-IGIV significantly reduced the viral load in the lungs compared to placebo (PBS) in ferrets infected with influenza A/California/July 2009 (H1N1pdm09) virus. Overall, these studies demonstrate the efficacy of human plasma-derived FLU-...
Source: Antiviral Research - February 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Qiu H, Andersen H, Tarbet EB, Muhammad FS, Carnelley T, Pronyk R, Barker D, Kodihalli S Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Favipiravir, an anti-influenza drug against life-threatening RNA virus infections
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Kimiyasu Shiraki, Tohru DaikokuAbstractFavipiravir has been developed as an anti-influenza drug and licensed as an anti-influenza drug in Japan. Additionally, favipiravir is being stockpiled for 2 million people as a countermeasure for novel influenza strains. This drug functions as a chain terminator at the site of incorporation of the viral RNA and reduces the viral load. Favipiravir cures all mice in a lethal influenza infection model, while oseltamivir fails to cure the animals. Thus, favipiravir contributes to curing a...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Prophylaxis of ferrets with nitazoxanide and oseltamivir combinations is more effective at reducing the impact of influenza a virus infection compared to oseltamivir monotherapy
In this study we used oseltamivir (OST), a neuraminidase inhibitor and nitazoxanide (NTZ), a host directed drug, and found in vitro that the combination of these two antivirals have a synergistic relationship. Using the ferret model of (A/Perth/265/2009, (H1N1)pdm09), virus infections, we found that the combination of NTZ and OST was more effective than either NTZ or OST independently in preventing infection and reducing duration of viral shedding. However, these benefits were only seen if treatment was administered prophylactically, as opposed to therapeutically. We also found that if prophylactically treated ferrets that...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - February 22, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prophylaxis of ferrets with nitazoxanide and oseltamivir combinations is more effective at reducing the impact of influenza a virus infection compared to oseltamivir monotherapy.
In this study we used oseltamivir (OST), a neuraminidase inhibitor and nitazoxanide (NTZ), a host directed drug, and found in vitro that the combination of these two antivirals have a synergistic relationship. Using the ferret model of (A/Perth/265/2009, (H1N1)pdm09), virus infections, we found that the combination of NTZ and OST was more effective than either NTZ or OST independently in preventing infection and reducing duration of viral shedding. However, these benefits were only seen if treatment was administered prophylactically, as opposed to therapeutically. We also found that if prophylactically treated ferrets that...
Source: Antiviral Research - February 20, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Mifsud EJ, Tilmanis D, Oh DY, Ming-Kay Tai C, Rossignol JF, Hurt AC Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Feature Selection based Multivariate Time Series Forecasting: An Application to Antibiotic Resistance Outbreaks Prediction
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Artificial Intelligence in MedicineAuthor(s): Fernando Jiménez, José Palma, Gracia Sánchez, David Marín, Francisco Palacios, M.D, Lucía López, M.DAbstractAntimicrobial resistance has become one of the most important health problems and global action plans have been proposed globally. Prevention plays a key role in these actions plan and, in this context, we propose the use of Artificial Intelligence, specifically Time Series Forecasting techniques, for predicting future outbreaks of Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aereu...
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - February 19, 2020 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

Assessment of efficacy of oseltamivir-azithromycin combination therapy in prevention of influenza-a (H1N1) infection complications and rapidity of symptom relief.
This study aimed to assess the efficacy of Oseltamivir-Azithromycin combination therapy for prevention of Influenza-A(H1)pdm09 infection associated complications and early relief of influenza symptoms.Methods: In a retrospective observational cohort study, Influenza-A(H1)pdm09 infection hospitalized patients were identified and divided into two groups based on the initial therapy. Group-AV patients were initiated on Oseltamivir without any antibiotic in treatment regimen while Group-AV+AZ patients were initiated on Oseltamivir and Azithromycin combination therapy for at least 3-5 days. Patients were evaluated for different...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - February 15, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research

Oseltamivir for All: Should It Become an Over ‐the‐Counter Medication for Influenza Treatment?
Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, EarlyView. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - February 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Megan A. Rech Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Influenza and antiviral resistance: an overview
AbstractInfluenza affects approximately 1 billion individuals each year resulting in between 290,000 and 650,000 deaths. Young children and immunocompromised individuals are at a particularly high risk of severe illness attributable to influenza and these are also the groups of individuals in which reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors is most frequently seen. High levels of resistance emerged with previous adamantane therapy for influenza A and despite no longer being used to treat influenza and therefore lack of selection pressure, high levels of adamantane resistance continue to persist in currently circula...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - February 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Critical care management of adults with community-acquired severe respiratory viral infection
AbstractWith the expanding use of molecular assays, viral pathogens are increasingly recognized among critically ill adult patients with community-acquired severe respiratory illness; studies have detected respiratory viral infections (RVIs) in 17 –53% of such patients. In addition, novel pathogens including zoonotic coronaviruses like the agents causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019 nCoV) are still being identified. Patients with severe RVIs requiring ICU care present typically with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Oseltamivir is ...
Source: Intensive Care Medicine - February 10, 2020 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Impact of long-term parental exposure to Tamiflu metabolites on the development medaka offspring (Oryzias latipes).
This study integrated epidemiological and ecotoxicological methods to determine environmentally relevant concentrations of Tamiflu. A model based on the species medaka (Oryzias latipes) was then used to determine the health status and reproductivity of adults exposed to the drug as well as the embryonic development of offspring. The proposed ecotoxicological model was also used to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the toxicodynamic parameters related to egg production, hatchability, and development. Our results revealed that at an environmentally relevant exposure, Tamiflu and its metabolites had no adverse effects...
Source: Environmental Pollution - February 10, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Chen WY, Wu YT, Lin HC, Ieong MI, Lee BH Tags: Environ Pollut Source Type: research

Influenza Vaccination and Migration at the US Southern Border.
Abstract In the past year, at least three children who migrated across the US southern border in the custody of Customs and Border Protection (CBP) died with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection as a contributing factor.1 The first was Felipe, an eight-year-old boy from Guatemala who died in December 2018 upon arrival to the hospital after being diagnosed with influenza B earlier in the day. The second was Wilmer, a two-year-old boy who died in May 2019 after an eight-day admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, where he had tested positive for influenza A. The third was Carlos, a 16-year-old boy who wa...
Source: American Journal of Public Health - February 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sunderji A, Mena KN, Winickoff J, Melinek J, Sharfstein J Tags: Am J Public Health Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Peramivir with Other Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Influenza Treatment.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the efficacy of peramivir might be higher than that of other NAIs, and this agent is tolerated as well as other NAIs. PMID: 32033501 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medicina (Kaunas))
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - February 5, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Chen JY, Wei SK, Lai CC, Weng TS, Wang HH Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research

Association study of genetic polymorphisms in proteins involved in oseltamivir transport, metabolism, and interactions with adverse reactions in Mexican patients with acute respiratory diseases
The Pharmacogenomics Journal, Published online: 04 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41397-020-0151-8Association study of genetic polymorphisms in proteins involved in oseltamivir transport, metabolism, and interactions with adverse reactions in Mexican patients with acute respiratory diseases (Source: The Pharmacogenomics Journal)
Source: The Pharmacogenomics Journal - February 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mario Berm údez de León Rafael B. R. Le ón-Cachón Beatriz Silva-Ram írez Rosa Nelly Gonz ález-Ríos Brenda Escobedo-Guajardo Roberto Leyva-Parra Benjam ín Tovar-Cisneros Everardo Gonz ález-González Abdiel Alvarado-D íaz Ofelia V ázquez-Monsivá Source Type: research

Global update on the susceptibilities of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors and the cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir, 2017–2018
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Emi Takashita, Rod S. Daniels, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Vicki Gregory, Larisa V. Gubareva, Weiijuan Huang, Aeron C. Hurt, Angie Lackenby, Ha T. Nguyen, Dmitriy Pereyaslov, Merryn Roe, Magdi Samaan, Kanta Subbarao, Herman Tse, Dayan Wang, Hui-Ling Yen, Wenqing Zhang, Adam MeijerAbstractThe global analysis of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) susceptibility of influenza viruses has been conducted since the 2012–13 period. In 2018 a novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor, baloxavir, that targets polymerase acidic subunit (PA) was approved ...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - January 30, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Global update on the susceptibilities of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors and the cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir, 2017-2018.
Abstract The global analysis of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) susceptibility of influenza viruses has been conducted since the 2012-13 period. In 2018 a novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor, baloxavir, that targets polymerase acidic subunit (PA) was approved for the treatment of influenza virus infection in Japan and the United States. For this annual report, the susceptibilities of influenza viruses to NAIs and baloxavir were analyzed. A total of 15409 viruses, collected by World Health Organization (WHO) recognized National Influenza Centers and other laboratories between May 2017 and May 2018, were assess...
Source: Antiviral Research - January 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Takashita E, Daniels RS, Fujisaki S, Gregory V, Gubareva LV, Huang W, Hurt AC, Lackenby A, Nguyen HT, Pereyaslov D, Roe M, Samaan M, Subbarao K, Tse H, Wang D, Yen HL, Zhang W, Meijer A Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Cochrane reviewer sues Roche for claiming Tamiflu could slow flu pandemic
(Source: BMJ News)
Source: BMJ News - January 27, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Pulmonary infection due to Acrophialophora fusispora in a patient with underlying mixed connective tissue disease and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: a case report and review of literature
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Journal de Mycologie MédicaleAuthor(s): Arghadip Samaddar, Anuradha Sharma, Twishi ShrimaliAbstractAcrophialophora fusispora is a soil-borne fungus rarely implicated in human infections. Here, we report a case of pulmonary infection due to A. fusispora in a 59-year-old male who presented with productive cough and gradually progressive dyspnoea for 20 days. He had a past history of pulmonary tuberculosis and was a known case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for past five years. He was diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease and had been receivin...
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - January 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Mechanistic Population Pharmacokinetic Model of Oseltamivir and Oseltamivir Carboxylate Accounting for Physiological Changes to Predict Exposures in Neonates and Infants.
Abstract A mechanistic population-pharmacokinetic model was developed to predict oseltamivir exposures in neonates and infants accounting for physiological changes during the first 2 years of life. The model included data from 13 studies, comprising 436 subjects with normal renal function (317 pediatric subjects [≥ 38 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), ≥ 13 days old] and 119 adult subjects
Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gibiansky L, Ravva P, Parrott NJ, Bhardwaj R, Zwanziger E, Grimsey P, Clinch B, Sturm S Tags: Clin Pharmacol Ther Source Type: research

Chronic exposure to arsenite enhances influenza virus infection in cultured cells
This study suggests that chronic arsenite exposure could result in enhanced influenza infection in epithelial cells, and that this may be mediated through increased sialic acid binding. Finally, the decreased effectiveness of the anti‐influenza drug, oseltamivir, in arsenite‐exposed cells raises substantial public health concerns if this effect translates to arsenic‐exposed, influenza‐infected people. (Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology)
Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology - January 20, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Eva A. Amouzougan, Ricardo Lira, Walter T. Klimecki Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluating the effects of oseltamivir phosphate on platelet counts: a retrospective review.
Authors: Shaim H, McCaffrey P, Trieu JA, DeAnda A, Yates SG Abstract Desialylation of platelets results in platelet clearance by the Ashwell-Morrell Receptors (AMR) found on hepatocytes. Studies suggest that oseltamivir phosphate inhibits human sialidases, enzymes responsible for desialylation, extending the lifespan of circulating platelets. We thus evaluated, the effects of oseltamivir on platelet count (PC) following treatment. Of the 385 patients evaluated for influenza, 283 (73.5%) were influenza-infected. Of the 283 infected patients, 241 (85.2%) received oseltamivir (I + O+) while 42 patients did n...
Source: Platelets - January 16, 2020 Category: Hematology Tags: Platelets Source Type: research

Early Administration of Oseltamivir Within 48 Hours After Onset of Flulike Symptoms Can Reduce the Risk of Influenza B Virus-Associated Pneumonia in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients with Influenza B Virus Infection
We conducted a retrospective study to identify the risk factors for pneumonia in hospitalized pediatric patients with influenza B infection. Receiving oseltamivir within the first 48 hours of onset and frequent cough was respectively considered as a protective factor and a risk factor for the influenza B virus-associated pneumonia in hospitalized pediatric patients. Early administration of oseltamivir can reduce the risk of influenza B virus-associated pneumonia. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - January 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Expanded Table: Antiviral Drugs for Influenza (online only)
Date: January 13, 2020 Issue #:  1589Summary:  View the Expanded Table: Antiviral Drugs for Influenza (Source: The Medical Letter)
Source: The Medical Letter - January 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: baloxavir marboxil influenza Oseltamivir Peramivir Rapivab Relenza Tamiflu Xofluza Zanamivir Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir phosphate and oseltamivir carboxylate in non-pregnant and pregnant rhesus monkeys
In this study, we investigated the suitability of rhesus macaques as an animal model for studying oseltamivir pharmacokinetics during all trimesters of pregnancy in comparison to pre-pregnant conditions. Specifically, we compared the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and its pharmacologically active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate in rhesus monkeys after intravenous and nasogastric administration of 2.5 mg oseltamivir phosphate/kg body weight given prior to and during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Pregnancy had only a modest effect upon the pharmacokinetic parameters of oseltamivir and oseltamivi...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 11, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Influenza in solid-organ transplant recipients: epidemiology, presentation, and outcomes.
Authors: Mombelli M, Kampouri E, Manuel O Abstract Introduction: In solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, influenza is associated with significant morbidity, including high hospital admission and mortality rates. Influenza may also impair allograft outcomes, in particular in lung transplant recipients. Early treatment with antivirals and seasonal vaccination contribute to reduce influenza-associated morbidity in this population.Areas covered: We selected a number of publications by searching into Pubmed to review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and outcomes of influenza in SOT recipients. We discuss cur...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - January 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir phosphate and oseltamivir carboxylate in non-pregnant and pregnant rhesus monkeys.
In this study, we investigated the suitability of rhesus macaques as an animal model for studying oseltamivir pharmacokinetics during all trimesters of pregnancy in comparison to pre-pregnant conditions. Specifically, we compared the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and its pharmacologically active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate in rhesus monkeys after intravenous and nasogastric administration of 2.5 mg oseltamivir phosphate/kg body weight given prior to and during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Pregnancy had only a modest effect upon the pharmacokinetic parameters of oseltamivir and oseltamivi...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP - January 9, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Loukotková L, Basavarajappa M, Lumen A, Roberts R, Mattison D, Morris SM, Fisher J, Beland FA, Gamboa da Costa G Tags: Regul Toxicol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Impact of prophylactic oseltamivir on INR in patients on stable warfarin therapy
This study evaluates the impact of prophylactic oseltamivir on international normalized ratio (INR) in patients taking warfarin. This retrospective cohort study conducted within the Veterans Health Administration included patients on warfarin who received oseltamivir for influenza prophylaxis. The primary endpoint was change in INR from baseline to day 10 of oseltamivir treatment. Secondary endpoints included change in INR based on renal function and duration of oseltamivir prophylaxis, trend in INR, and frequency of bleeding and thrombosis events. A total of 1041 patients were included and received oseltamivir for a mean ...
Source: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis - January 2, 2020 Category: Hematology Source Type: research

Necrotizing tracheobronchitis causing airway obstruction complicated by pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza: A case report
Rationale: Influenza is an infection caused by the influenza virus, and its symptoms are mostly mild and self-limiting. However, influenza can cause severe or fatal complications in high-risk patients. Although tracheobronchitis is one of the common complications of influenza, necrotizing tracheobronchitis is very rare. Herein, we describe a case of necrotizing tracheobronchitis causing airway obstruction complicated by pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza. Patient concerns: A 60-year-old man presented with fever and dyspnea. On arrival at the emergency room (ER), the patient received oxygen 4 L/minute via a nasal prolong o...
Source: Medicine - January 1, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Acquired Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Associated with Platelet Desialylation.
CONCLUSIONS: We report the first case of a patient with acquired GT due to ITP with FcγRIIa mediated platelet desialylation, independent of platelet activation. Treatment with neuraminidase inhibitor may prevent platelet clearance by anti-αIIb β3 antibodies. PMID: 31869497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Thrombosis and Haemostasis)
Source: Thrombosis and Haemostasis - December 23, 2019 Category: Hematology Authors: Zheng SS, Perdomo JS, Leung HHL, Yan F, Chong BH Tags: J Thromb Haemost Source Type: research

Agathisflavone, a biflavonoid from Anacardium occidentale L., inhibits influenza virus' neuraminidase.
CONCLUSION: Altogether our data suggest that agathisflavone has a promising chemical structure for the development of anti-influenza drugs. PMID: 31854280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - December 19, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: de Freitas CS, Rocha MEN, Sacramento CQ, Marttorelli A, Ferreira AC, Rocha N, de Oliveira AC, de Oliveira Gomes AM, Dos Santos PS, da Silva EO, da Costa JP, de Lima Moreira D, Bozza PT, da Silva JL, Barroso SPC, Souza TML Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research

QSAR study of N-substituted Oseltamivir derivatives as potent avian influenza virus H5N1 inhibitors using quantum chemical descriptors and statistical methods
New J. Chem., 2020, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9NJ04909F, PaperSamir Chtita, Adnane Aouidate, Assia Belhassan, Abdellah Ousaa, Abdelali Idrissi Taourati, Bouhya Elidrissi, Mounir Ghamali, Mohammed Bouachrine, Tahar Lakhlifi Abstract: Insilico modelling studies were executed on thirty two N-substituted Oseltamivir derivatives as inhibitors of influenza virus H5N1. Robust validated quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches have been investigated to explore... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles)
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - December 17, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Samir Chtita Source Type: research

Baloxavir Reduces Symptom Duration Similar to Oseltamivir, Primarily Within 24 Hours of Symptom Onset.
PMID: 31845780 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Family Physician)
Source: American Family Physician - December 15, 2019 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ebell MH Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

Oseltamivir plus usual care versus usual care for influenza-like illness in primary care: an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Christopher C Butler, Alike W van der Velden, Emily Bongard, Benjamin R Saville, Jane Holmes, Samuel Coenen, Johanna Cook, Nick A Francis, Roger J Lewis, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Carl Llor, Sławomir Chlabicz, Christos Lionis, Bohumil Seifert, Pär-Daniel Sundvall, Annelies Colliers, Rune Aabenhus, Lars Bjerrum, Nicolay Jonassen Harbin, Morten LindbækSummaryBackgroundAntivirals are infrequently prescribed in European primary care for influenza-like illness, mostly because of perceived ineffectiveness in real world primary care and becau...
Source: The Lancet - December 13, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Antiviral Drugs for Influenza
Date: January 13, 2020 Issue #:  1589Summary:  Influenza is generally a self-limited illness, but pneumonia, respiratory failure, and death can occur. FDA-approved antiviral drugs for influenza are listed in Table 2. The neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir (Tamiflu, and generics), which is taken orally, and zanamivir(Relenza), which is inhaled, are approved for prophylaxis and treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza. The IV neuraminidase inhibitor peramivir(Rapivab) and the oral polymerase acidic (PA) endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir marboxil(Xofluza) are approved only for treatment. All of...
Source: The Medical Letter - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: admin Tags: Antiviral drugs baloxavir marboxil FluMist influenza Influenza vaccine Oseltamivir Peramivir Rapivab Relenza Tamiflu Xofluza Zanamivir Source Type: research

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in H1N1 infection: uncommon complication of a common infection.
We report a case of a young male admitted with H1N1 infection complicated by pneumomediastinum. He was treated successfully with oseltamivir, high-flow oxygen and prompt care in the intensive care unit. PMID: 31808456 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh)
Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh - December 7, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J R Coll Physicians Edinb Source Type: research

Furan Derived Chiral Bicycloaziridino Lactone Synthon: Collective Syntheses of Oseltamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu), (S)-Pipecolic acid and its 3-Hydroxy Derivatives.
Abstract The unified synthetic strategy for oseltamivir phosphate (tamiflu), ( S )-pipecolic acid and its 3-hydroxy derivatives from furan derived common chiral bicycloaziridino lactone synthon is described here. Key features are short (4-steps), enantiopure, and decagram scale synthesis of common chiral synthon from furan and its first-ever application in the total synthesis of biologically active compounds by taking the advantages of high functionalization ability of chiral synthon. PMID: 31794104 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chemistry, an Asian Journal)
Source: Chemistry, an Asian Journal - December 3, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Chavan SP, Kadam AL, Shinde SS, Gonnade RG Tags: Chem Asian J Source Type: research

Influenza B viruses from different genetic backgrounds are variably impaired by neuraminidase inhibitor resistance–associated substitutions
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Philippe Noriel Q. Pascua, Bindumadhav M. Marathe, Shivantika Bisen, Richard J. Webby, Elena A. GovorkovaAbstractIdentifying evolutionary routes to antiviral resistance among influenza viruses informs molecular-based resistance surveillance and clinical decisions. To improve antiviral management and understand whether clinically identified neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor (NAI) resistance–associated markers affect influenza B viruses of the Victoria- or Yamagata-lineages differentially, we generated a panel of NAI-resistant viruses (c...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - November 30, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Influenza B viruses from different genetic backgrounds are variably impaired by neuraminidase inhibitor resistance-associated substitutions.
Abstract Identifying evolutionary routes to antiviral resistance among influenza viruses informs molecular-based resistance surveillance and clinical decisions. To improve antiviral management and understand whether clinically identified neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor (NAI) resistance-associated markers affect influenza B viruses of the Victoria- or Yamagata-lineages differentially, we generated a panel of NAI-resistant viruses (carrying E105K, G145E, R150K, D197N, I221 L/N/T/V, H273Y, N294S, or G407S substitutions; B numbering) in B/Brisbane/60/2008 (BR/08) and B/Phuket/3073/2013 (PH/13). In both backgrounds, I22...
Source: Antiviral Research - November 29, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Pascua PNQ, Marathe BM, Bisen S, Webby RJ, Govorkova EA Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research